Profile updated on 19 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dosidicus gigas

SPECIES NAME(s)

Jumbo flying squid

COMMON NAMES

Humboldt squid, jibia, pota, calamar rojo, calamar gigante

Jumbo flying squid in the Eastern Pacific extends from the waters off Chile to the North American coast. The NE Pacific and SE Pacific represent genetically different stocks with some migration among them, in a genetic structure apparently influenced by oceanic currents (Sandoval-Castellanos et al. 2010).

Three intraspecific groups have been identified for Giant or Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Southeast Pacific, based on size-at-maturity (Nigmatullin et al. 2001), but as no genetic difference has been found between the three proposed sub-unit populations, thus it is still considered to constitute a single stock (Xu et al. 2017).


ANALYSIS

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6 to ≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

2.1 to 10

Fishers Compliance:

< 6 to ≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6 to 10

Future Health:

≥ 6 to 10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 


FIPS

  • Peruvian Jumbo flying squid - Jig:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile/SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines
Ecuador Ecuador/SPRFMO Ecuador Vertical Lines
Peruvian Peru/SPRFMO Peru Handlines hand operated
Pole-lines hand operated
Vertical Lines
SE Pacific High Seas SPRFMO - Industrial China Vertical Lines
Japan Vertical Lines
Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 January 2018

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 January 2018

In the Eastern Pacific Jumbo flying squid is captured by industrial fleets (i.e., China, Korea, and Japan) off Ecuador, Peru and Chile’s EEZ where they are assessed within each country, (Rosa et al. 2013; Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). However, since Dosidicus gigas have a short life cycle (<2 years), are highly migratory, and their recruitment processes are driven by the environment; its assessment and management off EEZs represent a big challenge (Rodhouse 2001; Rosa et al. 2013)

Last updated on 18 January 2017

In Chile, assessments for jumbo flying squid are based hydroacoustic surveys to evaluate both jumbo flying squid and South Pacific hake Merluccius gayi gayi (Tascheri 2012), and are conducted by the Institute of Fisheries Development (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP).   

Last available IFOP report including data from 2015, used survey abundance index (CPUA), Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) estimates from industrial and artisanal fleets, catch-at-size per fleet and size-weight data. Three different models were run: a poor-data model based only on catch-data, a Schaefer surplus production model and a weekly depletion model, for intra-annual variations. The poor-data and weekly depletion model estimated similar biomass estimates, which duplicated the estimates obtained by the surplus model (IFOP 2017).

IFOP reports with details of the model used is usually available only upon request, while summary reports are provided by SUBPESCA and the Scientific and Technicall Committee (CCT-RDZCS). The most recent CCT-RDZCS report presents a summary of IFOP assessment, including data from 2016 (CCT-RDZCS 2017) using the same input data and assessment models.

Ecuador/SPRFMO

In 2014, the Ministry of Fisheries (MAGAP, now MAP Ministerio de Acuacultura y Pesca), decided to start the Jumbo flying squid fishery in Ecuador as a new commercial activity destined for direct human consumption, delegating the responsibility for monitoring this fishery to the National Fisheries Institute - INP (MAGAP 2014). However, this fishery has started with limited biological and fisheries information (necessary for stock assessment), resulting up to this date in a fishery based on passive management (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016).

Although some basic information regarding population dynamics of the Jumbo flying squid is unknown (e.g., number of cohorts in the population), there is a hypothesis that can help assessing the stock while new information collected by INP is processed. For example, the seasonal presence of Jumbo flying squid in Ecuadorian waters can be explained by the incursion of cold waters from the Humboldt Current System (HCS) in the coastal zones of Ecuador, explaining the seasonal changes in spatial and temporal distribution of D. gigas (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). The use of several stock assessment methods is necessary while taking into account the uncertainty in abundance estimates, different methodological approaches and data collected (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016).

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The assessment of Jumbo flying squid in Peru is conducted by the Instituto del Mar del Perú (National Marine Institute, IMARPE) as a request of the Ministerio de la Producción (Ministry of Production, PRODUCE) following the jumbo flying squid Fishery Management Regulation (PRODUCE 2011)

The assessment of the Jumbo flying squid in Peru has been based principally on biomass estimates obtained by IMARPE through acoustic methods and fishing trials, conducted on a regular basis (late spring or early summer) since 1999 (Flores et al. 2016)(IMARPE 2015)(IMARPE 2018). In addition, to obtain an index of abundance of recruits, this information is completed with industrial and artisanal data of size frequency distribution and CPUE (Arkhipkin et al. 2015)(Csirke et al. 2015). Since 2010, the Schaefer Biomass Dynamic Model was used to estimate the Jumbo flying squid population’s parameters (Arkhipkin et al. 2015). However, more recently, the Jumbo flying squid assessment has also included the application of a surplus production model in which industrial and artisanal catch and effort data are considered (IMARPE 2015).

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The assessment of Jumbo flying squid in the SPRFMO area is based on fishery-dependent data such as FAO catches and CPUE from fleets operating in the high seas (Xu et al. 2017). Then, the information has been analyzed with a surplus production stock assessment model (Xu et al. 2017).

As key data from fleets operating in coastal countries have not been included in the assessment, it cannot be considered a whole-stock level assessment.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 August 2019

There are not recommendations and no reference points are set at a whole-stock level.

Last updated on 6 April 2018

In 2013 and under the New General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura, LGPA N° 20.657) a Scientific and Technical Committe of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur, CCT-RDZCS) was created, in agreement with the Undersecretariat of Fisheries (Subsecretaría de Pesca, Subpesca) and Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP). Discussions held by scientific experts and government representatives are published.

For 2017, IFOP estimated a wide range of acceptable biological catches - from 134,000 to 171,000 tonnes, and MSY between 154,000 to 208,000 tonnes (IFOP 2017). For 2018, the CCT-RDZCS maintained the recommended range from previous years, between 160,000 and 200,000 tonnes, given the uncertainty of stock status (CCT-RDZCS 2017)

Reference Points

Last updated on 06 Apr 2018

There are not formally adopted target and limit reference points for the stock; but relative MSY reference points have been estimated (IFOP 2017).

Ecuador/SPRFMO

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The regulation signed in 2014 provides the framework for assessing this new fishery. In this document is stated that the information obtained by industrial onboard observers will be sent to the INP so they can set up TACs and MSYs for Dosidicus gigas in Ecuador (MAGAP 2014).

According to scientists, the fishery in Ecuador must be managed considering two different geographic locations: (1) the coast of the Ecuadorian Pacific, and (b) Galapagos Islands (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016)

Last updated on 19 August 2019

In late 2017, IMARPE assessed the jumbo flying squid population (IMARPE 2018)(IMARPE 2018). A short-term risk assessment was performed to estimate the probability of the population to be under the predecessor’s population level and 50 percent risk was used as recommended by (Haddon 2011). As Peruvian Jumbo flying squid fishery is managed through annual catch quotas, which are based on the information from the fishery and research cruises, the reference points (e.g., TAC, MSY) are upgraded every year. For 2018, the reference points Bmsy, MSY, and Fmsy were 203.8 million of individuals, 135.4 million of individuals, and 0.664, respectively (IMARPE 2018).

To calculate a recommendation for the Total Allowance Capture (TAC) for 2018, IMARPE considered two scenarios: (a) predominance of large individuals with average total weight of 13.9 kg, and (b) predominance of smaller individuals with average total weigh of 6.9 kg. Under these assumptions, and taking into consideration that the MSY is 96.7 million of individuals, they calculated that: (1) in the first scenario TAC should not exceed 1.344 million tonnes, and (2) in the second scenario TAC should not exceed 609 thousand of tonnes. In addition, they pointed out that although D. gigas has a rapid growth rate, larger individuals would not be present in the short-term, conversely it is expected that individuals with similar sizes (short and medium size) from 2016 and 2017 would be presented in 2018 (IMARPE 2018).

Last updated on 19 August 2019

Although there are no recommendations by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to establish annual TACs for the high seas of the Southeast Pacific, the last meeting of the squid working group made several recommendations to the SPRFMO Scientific Committee in order to improve the assessment of the Jumbo flying squid in the area of SPRFMO (SPRFMO 2017): i) evaluate working hypotheses on stock structure using data combined from all fishing countries, ii) research on the distribution, migration routes and intermixing patterns, iii) promote research on the reproductive process and the effect of environmental factors in determining the timing and the location and extension of spawning areas, iv) determine the most suitable stock assessment models and management alternatives, including research on methods for recruitment and escapement estimation, v) refine and develop data templates to address data gaps for informing a full stock assessment, as not all required information is contained within the templates, vi) encourage all fishing countries to share data and information necessary for stock assessment, vii) recover historical data and report the historical information to the extent possible. 

The exploratory assessment in the high seas provided an initial description of the dynamics and estimated biological reference points Bmsy, MSY, and Fmsy at 5.2 million tonnes, 3.37 million tonnes and 0.651, respectively (Xu et al. 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

No stock assessment including the whole stock is yet conducted.

 

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The stock status could not be determided. Stock assessments for 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results. In 2016, the Schaefer production model estimates that biomass is 52% of Bmsy, while the poor-data and weekly depletion models indicate that the stock was underexploited (CCT-RDZCS 2017; IFOP 2017). 

In Chile, landings are mostly taken by artisanal puse seine and jigs fisheries. Jumbo flying squid has increased its abundance in fishing grounds of traditional fisheries such as the South pacific hake and Chilean Jack mackerel industrial purse seine and trawl fisheries, becoming an important bycatch species. However, currently it is also targeted by these fleets due to the reductiono of their main target species (IFOP 2017).   

The existing 200,000t TAC is within the MSY estimates range, considering the high uncertainty of the stock assessment (IFOP 2017). However, recent biological acceptable catch estimates are lower than this TAC and than catch levels from the last three years (~180,000 tonnes) (CCT-RDZCS 2017)

Trends

Last updated on 18 Jan 2017

The fishery started in 2001 with the increase of abundance in central-southern area of Chilean waters. In the last years, the availability has been maintained allowing the development of the artisanal fishing especially in regions IV, V and VIII. Artisanal fishing have been contributing to majority of landings but in last years the proportion caught by the industrial sector has been increasing, with purse-seine and trawls capturing jumbo flying squid as a bycatch species, and as a target species more recently, as well (SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)(IFOP 2017). 

High landings’ values in 2004, 2005 and 2006 (around 174,000; 300,000 and 250,000 tonnes, respectively) coincide with maximum levels of abundance of jumbo flying squid found on the hydroacoustic research campaigns during 2001-2011 for South pacific hake (Tascheri 2012). This increase also matches with the decrease of South pacific hake and hoki in Chilean waters (Sepulveda 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012) (IFOP 2017).

Landings have falled to, and fluctuated around, a mean of 200,000 tonnes since 2004; calculated biomass has dropped to half the values estimated during the peak period, 2001-2004, and remains around 300,000 tonnes since then (IFOP 2017).

Changes in biomass and vulnerability are unknown for Jumbo flying squid in Ecuadorian waters even when this fishery has been partially monitored (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). Rough estimates from the INP suggested that total biomass was 641,915 tonnes and 1,866,857 tonnes in 2013 and 2014, respectively (INP 2018). Estimates from 2015 and forward are not available.

Small-scale driftnet fisheries also capture Jumbo flying squid as bycatch (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016), however, the amount of the jumbo flying squid bycatch has not been quantified. In 2018, during the Scientific Prospecting Cruise for Small Pelagic Fishes using purse-seine nets, 21% of the captures (in weight) corresponded to Dosidicus gigas. Additionally, the average mantle length (ML) was lower that the length at first maturity observed for D. gigas captured by jiggers, which may result in a major threaten for small individuals (ML<30 cm) (Pacheco Bedoya 2018).

Landings in Ecuador have been reported since 2012; these have been highly variable probably due to environmental factors. Landings peaked in 2014 at 18,146 tonnes. Critical decreases have been observed after that year with only 1,279 tonnes and 485 tonnes reported in 2015 and 2016, respectively (FAO 2018). This drop could be explained by the intense warm event that occurred between these years due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) because it is know that Jumbo flying squid abundance seems to be strongly affected by high intensity of El Niño events (Rosa et al. 2013).

Last updated on 19 August 2019

In the last years it has been estimated that the biomass of jumbo flying squid in Peruvian waters was around 2 million tonnes with a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) at around 800,000 tonnes (IMARPE 2015)(Yamashiro et al. 2016). Fishing mortality (F) has grown steadily since 1999, however, without exceeding the reference value (FMSY) (Arkhipkin et al. 2015).

In a more recent stock assessment, the abundance at MSY (Nmsy) was estimated at 203 millions individuals, and the current abundance was 318 millions of individuals, suggesting that the stock is in good condition (IMARPE 2018)​. There is some bycatch of jumbo flying squid during the purse seine operations, targeting Peruvian anchoveta. The bycatch is not quantified, but it is not flagged as a danger for the population (IMARPE 2018)​.

Landings have averaged 450,000 tonnes between 2007 and 2016 (PRODUCE 2018). However, in 2016 and 2017, landings have decreased significantly in comparison with 2015 (IMARPE 2018)(PRODUCE 2018). This particularity is meant to be a response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which, according to the intensity, duration, and coverage, has been proved to have impacts in the availability and abundance of jumbo flying squid in Peru (Yamashiro et al. 2016).

A 2017 stock assessment on the high seas portion of the stock estimated biomass  around 8 million tonnes, well above the proposed Bmsy = 5.2 million tonnes. Also, current catch levels are much lower than the estimated MSY (3 million tonnes). However, this stock assessment still requires improvements, such as taking account different population structure hypotheses, which is intented in the near future work (Xu et al. 2017)

Total catches of jumbo flying squid in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific have been reported by Asiatic vessels, especially from China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. From 2006 to 2015, total catches have increased gradually from 100 to 300 thousand tonnes, indicating an increasing fishing effort from industrial vessels within the area, mainly from 2009 to 2011 when China and Taiwan increased their catches (Xu et al. 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

No management measures exist at stock level for regulating the Jumbo flying squid fisheries. The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) has developed some general management measures to regulate fisheries in the high seas areas of the South Pacific Ocean, but none of these refer to squid specifically.

A Permanent Commission of the South Pacific (Comisión Permanente del Pacífico del Sur, CPPS) exists to promote coordination of maritime policies within national waters of its members (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and in the context of international and regional fisheries organizations (CPPS 2018).

Last updated on 18 January 2017

A quota system was established in 2012 for the jumbo flying squid. IFOP’s scientific reports with assessment results are analyzed by the Scientific and Technical Committe of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (CCT-RDZC), which issues a TAC range recommendation. The Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (MEFT) proceeds to set the official TACs, in accordance with the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law (Nº 18.892).

Quota was initially set at 180,000 tonnes and increased to 200,000 tonnes since 2013  (IFOP 2017; MEFT 2017). In lack of biological indices, catch limits have been based on a precautionary approach, split between artisanal and industrial sectors (80% and 20% of quota, respectively). This is the only regulatory measure to manage the sustainability of the artisanal sector, which is of great economic importance, mainly due to the decrease of South Pacific hake (SUBPESCA 2012)

A jibia (jumbo squid) management committee was setup in 2015, and is currently drafting a management plan (CM-Jibia 2017).

The National Fisheries Service (Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura, Sernapesca) is in charge of monitoring and control of fishing practices.

Ecuador/SPRFMO

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The Ecuadorian Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAP) is responsible for managing the marine resources in Ecuadorian waters (Decreto Presidencial Nro. 06 2017) based on the guidance provided by the National Institute of Fisheries (INP).

As the Jumbo flying squid fishery is a new activity in Ecuador, there has not been any TAC set by MAP up to date. However, the MAP is conducting courses, conferences, workshops, and international reunions to promote the sustainable management of the Jumbo flying squid fishery (INP 2018).

Scientists have recommended that management strategy in coastal zones could be based on proportional escapement similar to other countries, meanwhile, in the Galapagos Islands, the management strategy could be based on quotas (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016)

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The fishery is managed by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) following the Fishing Ordinance Regulation for jumbo flying squid since 2011 (PRODUCE 2011). However, this regulation does not take into account the artisanal nature of the fleet (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).  

Even though this regulation requires the establishment of annual quotas for jumbo flying squid, a TAC for 2012 was set at 500,000 tonnes (PRODUCE 2012a), but no TACs were defined between 2013 and 2017. For 2018, PRODUCE set a TAC of 609,000 tonnes, in line with the advice provided by IMARPE (PRODUCE 2018).

The SPRFMO has been supporting the squid working group to improve knowledge on the resource and management alternatives to be applied for jumbo flying squid for use in the Convention area (SPRFMO 2017)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Reported catches are below the set TAC. However jumbo flying squid is reported to be associated with some practices of Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing (SERNAPESCA 2017)

Ecuador/SPRFMO

Landings have shown high variability in recent years (FAO 2018). Since this fishery is currently under development, no TACs are currently available to compare with.

No reports indicating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities have been found for this fishery.

Last updated on 19 August 2019

TACs were only set in 2012 and 2018 for Jumbo flying squid in Peruvian waters. Total national landings did not surpass the TAC set (PRODUCE 2018).

However, compliance issues have been raised, namely: no reliable data on landings, as these are only estimated from exports and no regular record system is in place, and ii) lack of effective monitoring and control, given the increasing number of illegal fishing vessels operating over the resource which compete with the legal fleet (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).

Few management measures are in place in the convention area and none of these refer to the jumbo flying squid fisheries (SPRFMO 2017)

The SPRFMO publishes the lists of authorized vessels and list of vessels that are presumed to have carried out IUU fishing activities (SPRFMO 2019), and only a few vessels have been reported in the IUU list. However, a recent study estimated catches by illegal vessels targeting jumbo flying squid fishing in the Convention Area close to the Peruvian EEZ, which accounted for 27% of total official catches reported for the period of 2013-2016 to the RFMO (Aroni Sulca 2018).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is not known. Protection of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaengliae (Least concern; (Reilly, S.B. et al. 2013)) was the goal to create the marine reserve ‘Francisco Coloane’ but no interaction is known to exist with the fishery.

Jigging is known to be a very selective fishing method and subsequently interactions with other species and benthic habitat are anticipated to be minimal.

Last updated on 13 July 2016

There are no records on impacts over Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species.

Other Species

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Non-target species in the artisanal fishery (jigging and purse-seining) are not identified or quantified. In 2008, the National plan to reduce the bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries was approved by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Reconstruction (SUBPESCA 2008).

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The fishery is driven by jiggers so bycatch in this fishery is null.

It used to be thought that the abundance of jumbo flying squid was affecting hake’s numbers in both Peru and Chile. But, using an ecosystem approach, it was demonstrated (Arancibia et al. 2005) that growing numbers of jumbo flying squid is not the immediate cause to diminishing numbers of hake. Furthermore, even though hake is indeed one of the giant squid’s preys, it is not the main one.

Jumbo flying squid’s surge in numbers may be related to top predators’ declination, particularly cachalot’s depletion (Clarke et al. 1988, quoted by Icochea 2006). It was estimated that in the late 1950’s the cachalot population consumed between 6 and 14 million tones each year.

HABITAT

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Jumbo flying squid life cycle depends on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which is highly related with landing’s fluctuations. Besides, the species plays an important role in the ecosystem, as a prey for tuna-like species, Indo-Pacific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and as a predator of important commercial fishing resources (SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)

Jigs and purse-seines are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem but there is no information available about the impact.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 18 Jan 2017

Of the marine reserves established in Chile, only one is within the fishing areas: the coastal area ‘Francisco Coloane’ (Region XII) which was designed to protect Humpback Whale (Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA) 2008). But no special measures are known to exist for the fishery.

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The impact of this fishery on the habitat is regarded as practically null.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Paracas Marine Reserve is the only marine reserve in Peru. It is located in the province of Pisco, department of Ica and it extends over 335,000 hectares (217,594 of which correspond to sea waters). Paracas Marine Reserve was created in 1975 to protect wildlife, especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 19 August 2019

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is < 6.

No management objectives are defined or a management plan is established for the entire stock; there is a lack of target and limit reference points set by any management entity.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As determined for 2019.

No stock assessment has been conducted at stock level.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As determined for 2019.

No stock assessment has been conducted at stock level.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 18 January 2018

  1. Total Allowable Catches (TAC) are available since 2012 with a defined proportion of 80% for the artisanal sector and 20% for the industrial. Recommendation is made by the Scientific and Technical Committee of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur, CCT-RDZCS) based on IFOP stock assessments. For the determination of score 2, the average of the advice (between 160,000 and 200,000 tonnes; at 180,000 tonnes) has been used when IFOP reports are not available at the moment of the profile update, including 2018 (CCT-RDZCS 2017). For 2017, biological acceptable catch estimated by IFOP under the poor data scenario was computed in the datafile (IFOP 2017).   

  2. Score 1 and 3, were determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for further details).

  3. B and F time-series was calculated from kobe plot digitised values and using Bmsy and Fmsy refering to the data-poor scenario from (IFOP 2017). However, score 4 and 5 were determined qualitatively according to the most recent report by the Scientific and Technical Committee (CCT-RDZCS 2017) (please mouse-over for further details). 

B and F estimates were calculated using the base scenario mean values for Bmsy and Fmsy (Xu et al. 2017).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 15 Feb 2018
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP has transitioned from basic to comprehensive but no stage 4 results reported to date. Stage 3 activities underway - FIP remains C rated 

1.
FIP Development
Feb 18
2.
FIP Launch
Dec 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Jun 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAO, 2014. FIGIS - Global Capture Production 1950-2012 [Accessed 29 May 2014] http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-capture-production/query/en

  2. Icochea, LA., 2008. [Dosidicus gigas and the artisanal fishermen], o.t. (Spanish): La pota y el pescador artesanal. FIUPAP, September, 2006. Consulted on November 10th, 2008, at: http://www.fiupap.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=2

  3. IMARPE, 2008. [Technical report: current status of giant squid and catch perspectives for 2008], o.t., (Spanish): Informe Técnico: Situación del recurso calamar gigante y perspectivas de captura para el 2008. May, 2008. Consulted November 10th, 2008 at: http://190.81.184.108/imarpe/informe_invertebrados/inf_pota_cuota_%20anual2008.pdf

  4. IMARPE, 2010. Anuario Científico Tecnológico Imarpe. Vol. 10, 2010. Instituto del Mar de Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 205 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_anuario_2010.pdf

  5. Nigmatullin, Ch.M., K.N. Nesis, A.I. Arkhipkin, 2001. A review of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research 54:9-19.http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6869.pdf

  6. PRODUCE, 2010a. Modificar los artículos 2o y 9o de la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE, de fecha 30 de junio de 2010. Resolución Ministerial N° 286-2010-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 03 November 2010. Lima. 4 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2010/noviembre/rm286-2010-produce.pdf

  7. PRODUCE, 2011a. Establecer la cuota de Captura rel recurso calamar gigante o pota en 250 mil toneladas para el primer semestre del año 2011. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 02 March 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2011/marzo/rm075-2011-produce.pdf

  8. PRODUCE, 2011b. Prorrogar hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2011, la vigencia del Régimen Provisional para la extracción comercial del calamar gigante o pota, establecido por la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 28 June 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/junio/rm197-2011-produce.pdf

  9. PRODUCE, 2011c. Aprobar el Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Calamar Gigante o Pota (Dosidicus gigas). Decreto Supremo N°014 -2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 04 October 2011. Lima. 7 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/octubre/ds014-2011-produce.pdf

  10. PRODUCE, 2012a. Establecer una cuota de captura del recurso calamar gigante o pota, de 500 mil toneladas para el año 2012. Resolución Ministerial N° 036-2012-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 20 January 2012. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/enero/rm036-2012-produce.pdf

  11. Alarcón-Muñoz, R., Cubillos, L., Gatica, C. 2008. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) biomass off central Chile: effects on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). CalCOFI Rep. 49, 157-166 "http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v49/Vol_49_Alarcon-Munoz_web.pdf"

  12. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2014. Adjunta informes técnicos sesiones 1 y 2 Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur. Valparaiso, 20 enero 2014, 29 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82593_documento.pdf"

  13. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2013. Adjunta Acta sesión 02/2013 del Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS). Valparaiso, 20 diciembre 2013, 6 pp. "http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/Acta_02-2013CT-RDZCS_CART-2013_MERLUZA_COMU.pdf"  

  14. Fondo de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura (FIPA), 2013. Memoria Año 2013, 87 pp. "http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Documentacion/Noticias/Memoria%202013.pdf"

  15. Ibáñez, C.M. 2013. El impacto ecológico del calamar Dosidicus gigas sobre poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico, Sociedad Malacológica de Chile (SMACH), Amici Molluscarum 21(1): 7-16 "http://www.amicimolluscarum.com/app/download/8559517969/Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez.pdf?t=1381976766"

  16. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), 2008. Biodiversidad de Chile. Patrimonio y Desafíos, Capítulo II: Nuestra Diversidad Biológica, Gobierno de Chile, 320 pp.  "http://www.mma.gob.cl/librobiodiversidad/1308/biodiversid_parte_2a.pdf"

  17. Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014. Decreto Exento 22/2014 Establece cuota anual de captura para el recurso jibia XV-XII regiones, año 2014, 2pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82297_documento.pdf"

  18. Mundo Acuicola, 2014. Gremio pesquero descarta colapso de la jibia y llama al Gobierno a no dejarse presionar "http://www.mundoacuicola.cl/comun/index.php?modulo=2&cat=6&view=1&idnews=59167"

  19. Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J., Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13006/0"

  20. Sepulveda, A. 2012. Seguimiento e impacto de la jibia en las pesquerías de la zona centro-sur y sur-austral de Chile, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 41 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_2.pdf"

  21. Servicio Nacional de Pescay Acuicultura (Sernapesca), undated. Nuestra Institución, Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo "http://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=126"

  22. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca), 2013. Informe Actividades de Fiscalización efectuadas en materia de pesca y acuicultura en el año 2012, Ministerio  de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, 55 pp. "http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf

  23. Subpesca, 2008. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaría de Pesca aprueba el Plan de Acción Nacional para reducir capturas incidentales de aves en pesquerías de palangre "http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2008/02/24777"

  24. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012a. Suspensión temporal del cierre de la inscripción en el registro pesquero artesanal para la pesquería de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) IV-VIII Regiones. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 155-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 10 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-79049_documento.doc"

  25. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012b. Cuota global anual de captura de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) XV-XII Regiones, año 2013. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 239-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 11 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ-239-2012_Cuota_captura_anual_2013_jibia.pdf

  26. Tascheri, R. 2012. Incorporación de la predación por jibia en el modelo de evaluación del stock de merluza común, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 44pp.  "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_4.pdf"

References

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