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Profile updated on 19 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dosidicus gigas

SPECIES NAME(s)

Jumbo flying squid

COMMON NAMES

Humboldt squid, jibia, pota, calamar rojo, calamar gigante

Jumbo flying squid in the Eastern Pacific extends from the waters off Chile to the North American coast. The NE Pacific and SE Pacific represent genetically different stocks with some migration among them, in a genetic structure apparently influenced by oceanic currents (Sandoval-Castellanos et al. 2010).

Three intraspecific groups have been identified for Giant or Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Southeast Pacific, based on size-at-maturity (Nigmatullin et al. 2001), but as no genetic difference has been found between the three proposed sub-unit populations, thus it is still considered to constitute a single stock (Xu et al. 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A Scientific and Technical Committee, composed of scientific and management experts and institutes, is in charge of the discussion about the status of the stock to advise the Minister. A jibia (jumbo squid) management committee was setup in 2015, and continues to meet monthly and produce reports

  • A Fisheries Research Fund is in progress to study the life cycle and population dynamics of the species.

  • Abundance levels for the full stock, including the Chilean EEZ element, are considered to be “high”, however recent IFOP reports, indicate contradictory results and high uncertainty in stock status.

  • There are current efforts to incorporate the species in multispecies assessment models to take into account predation and trophic relations with commercially important fishing resources.

  • The fishery is regulated by catch limits which were set in accordance with Scientific and Technical Committee recommendation and landings are below the limits.

  • Jigs and purse-seines are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem.

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
  • There is no official management objectives or management plan with a harvest control rule established; there is a lack of official target and limit reference points.
  • Stock assessments with 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results, thus the stock status in Chilean waters is undertermined. 
  • Acceptable biological catches estimated in retrospective by IFOP are significantly below Advised TAC by the Scientific and Technical Commitee, set TAC and catches. 
  • Jumbo flying squid is reported to be associated with some practices of Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing but the impact on the stock is not known. 
  • The interaction of the fishery with protected species and seabed ecosystem is not known.
  • Increase of jumbo flying squid is related with the decrease in abundance of South pacific hake and hoki. 
  • Non-target species in the artisanal fishery (jigging and purse-seining) are not identified or quantified (although impacts are anticipated to be minimal).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

2.1

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile/SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines
Ecuador Ecuador/SPRFMO Ecuador Vertical Lines
Peruvian Peru/SPRFMO Peru Handlines hand operated
Pole-lines hand operated
Vertical Lines
SE Pacific High Seas SPRFMO - Industrial China Vertical Lines
Japan Vertical Lines
Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 January 2018

Strengths
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2018

  • A Scientific and Technical Committee, composed of scientific and management experts and institutes, is in charge of the discussion about the status of the stock to advise the Minister. A jibia (jumbo squid) management committee was setup in 2015, and continues to meet monthly and produce reports

  • A Fisheries Research Fund is in progress to study the life cycle and population dynamics of the species.

  • Abundance levels for the full stock, including the Chilean EEZ element, are considered to be “high”, however recent IFOP reports, indicate contradictory results and high uncertainty in stock status.

  • There are current efforts to incorporate the species in multispecies assessment models to take into account predation and trophic relations with commercially important fishing resources.

  • The fishery is regulated by catch limits which were set in accordance with Scientific and Technical Committee recommendation and landings are below the limits.

  • Jigs and purse-seines are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem.

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2018

  • There is no official management objectives or management plan with a harvest control rule established; there is a lack of official target and limit reference points.
  • Stock assessments with 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results, thus the stock status in Chilean waters is undertermined. 
  • Acceptable biological catches estimated in retrospective by IFOP are significantly below Advised TAC by the Scientific and Technical Commitee, set TAC and catches. 
  • Jumbo flying squid is reported to be associated with some practices of Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing but the impact on the stock is not known. 
  • The interaction of the fishery with protected species and seabed ecosystem is not known.
  • Increase of jumbo flying squid is related with the decrease in abundance of South pacific hake and hoki. 
  • Non-target species in the artisanal fishery (jigging and purse-seining) are not identified or quantified (although impacts are anticipated to be minimal).
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 January 2018

In the Eastern Pacific Jumbo flying squid is captured by industrial fleets (i.e., China, Korea, and Japan) off Ecuador, Peru and Chile’s EEZ where they are assessed within each country, (Rosa et al. 2013; Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). However, since Dosidicus gigas have a short life cycle (<2 years), are highly migratory, and their recruitment processes are driven by the environment; its assessment and management off EEZs represent a big challenge (Rodhouse 2001; Rosa et al. 2013)

Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

In Chile, assessments for jumbo flying squid are based hydroacoustic surveys to evaluate both jumbo flying squid and South Pacific hake Merluccius gayi gayi (Tascheri 2012), and are conducted by the Institute of Fisheries Development (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP).   

Last available IFOP report including data from 2015, used survey abundance index (CPUA), Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) estimates from industrial and artisanal fleets, catch-at-size per fleet and size-weight data. Three different models were run: a poor-data model based only on catch-data, a Schaefer surplus production model and a weekly depletion model, for intra-annual variations. The poor-data and weekly depletion model estimated similar biomass estimates, which duplicated the estimates obtained by the surplus model (IFOP 2017).

IFOP reports with details of the model used is usually available only upon request, while summary reports are provided by SUBPESCA and the Scientific and Technicall Committee (CCT-RDZCS). The most recent CCT-RDZCS report presents a summary of IFOP assessment, including data from 2016 (CCT-RDZCS 2017) using the same input data and assessment models.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 August 2019

There are not recommendations and no reference points are set at a whole-stock level.

Chilean

Last updated on 6 April 2018

In 2013 and under the New General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura, LGPA N° 20.657) a Scientific and Technical Committe of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur, CCT-RDZCS) was created, in agreement with the Undersecretariat of Fisheries (Subsecretaría de Pesca, Subpesca) and Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP). Discussions held by scientific experts and government representatives are published.

For 2017, IFOP estimated a wide range of acceptable biological catches - from 134,000 to 171,000 tonnes, and MSY between 154,000 to 208,000 tonnes (IFOP 2017). For 2018, the CCT-RDZCS maintained the recommended range from previous years, between 160,000 and 200,000 tonnes, given the uncertainty of stock status (CCT-RDZCS 2017)

Reference Points

Last updated on 06 Apr 2018

There are not formally adopted target and limit reference points for the stock; but relative MSY reference points have been estimated (IFOP 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

No stock assessment including the whole stock is yet conducted.

 
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The stock status could not be determided. Stock assessments for 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results. In 2016, the Schaefer production model estimates that biomass is 52% of Bmsy, while the poor-data and weekly depletion models indicate that the stock was underexploited (CCT-RDZCS 2017; IFOP 2017). 

In Chile, landings are mostly taken by artisanal puse seine and jigs fisheries. Jumbo flying squid has increased its abundance in fishing grounds of traditional fisheries such as the South pacific hake and Chilean Jack mackerel industrial purse seine and trawl fisheries, becoming an important bycatch species. However, currently it is also targeted by these fleets due to the reductiono of their main target species (IFOP 2017).   

The existing 200,000t TAC is within the MSY estimates range, considering the high uncertainty of the stock assessment (IFOP 2017). However, recent biological acceptable catch estimates are lower than this TAC and than catch levels from the last three years (~180,000 tonnes) (CCT-RDZCS 2017)

Trends

Last updated on 18 Jan 2017

The fishery started in 2001 with the increase of abundance in central-southern area of Chilean waters. In the last years, the availability has been maintained allowing the development of the artisanal fishing especially in regions IV, V and VIII. Artisanal fishing have been contributing to majority of landings but in last years the proportion caught by the industrial sector has been increasing, with purse-seine and trawls capturing jumbo flying squid as a bycatch species, and as a target species more recently, as well (SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)(IFOP 2017). 

High landings’ values in 2004, 2005 and 2006 (around 174,000; 300,000 and 250,000 tonnes, respectively) coincide with maximum levels of abundance of jumbo flying squid found on the hydroacoustic research campaigns during 2001-2011 for South pacific hake (Tascheri 2012). This increase also matches with the decrease of South pacific hake and hoki in Chilean waters (Sepulveda 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012) (IFOP 2017).

Landings have falled to, and fluctuated around, a mean of 200,000 tonnes since 2004; calculated biomass has dropped to half the values estimated during the peak period, 2001-2004, and remains around 300,000 tonnes since then (IFOP 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

No management measures exist at stock level for regulating the Jumbo flying squid fisheries. The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) has developed some general management measures to regulate fisheries in the high seas areas of the South Pacific Ocean, but none of these refer to squid specifically.

A Permanent Commission of the South Pacific (Comisión Permanente del Pacífico del Sur, CPPS) exists to promote coordination of maritime policies within national waters of its members (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and in the context of international and regional fisheries organizations (CPPS 2018).

Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

A quota system was established in 2012 for the jumbo flying squid. IFOP’s scientific reports with assessment results are analyzed by the Scientific and Technical Committe of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (CCT-RDZC), which issues a TAC range recommendation. The Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (MEFT) proceeds to set the official TACs, in accordance with the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law (Nº 18.892).

Quota was initially set at 180,000 tonnes and increased to 200,000 tonnes since 2013  (IFOP 2017; MEFT 2017). In lack of biological indices, catch limits have been based on a precautionary approach, split between artisanal and industrial sectors (80% and 20% of quota, respectively). This is the only regulatory measure to manage the sustainability of the artisanal sector, which is of great economic importance, mainly due to the decrease of South Pacific hake (SUBPESCA 2012)

A jibia (jumbo squid) management committee was setup in 2015, and is currently drafting a management plan (CM-Jibia 2017).

The National Fisheries Service (Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura, Sernapesca) is in charge of monitoring and control of fishing practices.

COMPLIANCE
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Reported catches are below the set TAC. However jumbo flying squid is reported to be associated with some practices of Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing (SERNAPESCA 2017)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is not known. Protection of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaengliae (Least concern; (Reilly, S.B. et al. 2013)) was the goal to create the marine reserve ‘Francisco Coloane’ but no interaction is known to exist with the fishery.

Jigging is known to be a very selective fishing method and subsequently interactions with other species and benthic habitat are anticipated to be minimal.

Other Species
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Non-target species in the artisanal fishery (jigging and purse-seining) are not identified or quantified. In 2008, the National plan to reduce the bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries was approved by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Reconstruction (SUBPESCA 2008).

HABITAT
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2017

Jumbo flying squid life cycle depends on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which is highly related with landing’s fluctuations. Besides, the species plays an important role in the ecosystem, as a prey for tuna-like species, Indo-Pacific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and as a predator of important commercial fishing resources (SUBPESCA 2012)(SUBPESCA 2012)

Jigs and purse-seines are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem but there is no information available about the impact.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 18 Jan 2017

Of the marine reserves established in Chile, only one is within the fishing areas: the coastal area ‘Francisco Coloane’ (Region XII) which was designed to protect Humpback Whale (Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA) 2008). But no special measures are known to exist for the fishery.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 19 August 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

There is no official management objectives or management plan with a harvest control rule established; there is a lack of target and limit reference points (CCT-RDZCS, 2013; 2017). Catch limits are defined since 2012, based on Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) estimates and landings trends (Subpesca, 2012b).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 2.1.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 200 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 134 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 149%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Reported catches are below the set catch limit (for 2016, the last available full year) and have been for 6+ years, however, the jumbo flying squid fishery is reported to be associated with some Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (Sernapesca, 2016).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock assessments with 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results. In 2016, the Schaefer production model estimates that biomass is 52% of Bmsy, while the poor-data and weekly depletion models indicate that the stock was underexploited. Scientists flagged the need to use an intra-annual assessment and management system (CCT-RDZCS, 2017; IFOP, 2017).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock assessments with 2015 and 2016 data showed high uncertainty; different models indicate opposite results. Poor data and production model estimated that F was between 1.29 and 2.2 higher than Fmsy , while the weekly depletion model estimated that the potential biomass escapement was ~70% and 56%, higher than the recommended level (40%), in 2015 and 2016, respectively (CCT-RDZCS, 2017; IFOP, 2017).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
Chilean

Last updated on 18 January 2018

  1. Total Allowable Catches (TAC) are available since 2012 with a defined proportion of 80% for the artisanal sector and 20% for the industrial. Recommendation is made by the Scientific and Technical Committee of Demersal Resources of the Central-South Region (Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur, CCT-RDZCS) based on IFOP stock assessments. For the determination of score 2, the average of the advice (between 160,000 and 200,000 tonnes; at 180,000 tonnes) has been used when IFOP reports are not available at the moment of the profile update, including 2018 (CCT-RDZCS 2017). For 2017, biological acceptable catch estimated by IFOP under the poor data scenario was computed in the datafile (IFOP 2017).   

  2. Score 1 and 3, were determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for further details).

  3. B and F time-series was calculated from kobe plot digitised values and using Bmsy and Fmsy refering to the data-poor scenario from (IFOP 2017). However, score 4 and 5 were determined qualitatively according to the most recent report by the Scientific and Technical Committee (CCT-RDZCS 2017) (please mouse-over for further details). 

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAO, 2014. FIGIS - Global Capture Production 1950-2012 [Accessed 29 May 2014] http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-capture-production/query/en

  2. Icochea, LA., 2008. [Dosidicus gigas and the artisanal fishermen], o.t. (Spanish): La pota y el pescador artesanal. FIUPAP, September, 2006. Consulted on November 10th, 2008, at: http://www.fiupap.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=2

  3. IMARPE, 2008. [Technical report: current status of giant squid and catch perspectives for 2008], o.t., (Spanish): Informe Técnico: Situación del recurso calamar gigante y perspectivas de captura para el 2008. May, 2008. Consulted November 10th, 2008 at: http://190.81.184.108/imarpe/informe_invertebrados/inf_pota_cuota_%20anual2008.pdf

  4. IMARPE, 2010. Anuario Científico Tecnológico Imarpe. Vol. 10, 2010. Instituto del Mar de Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 205 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_anuario_2010.pdf

  5. Nigmatullin, Ch.M., K.N. Nesis, A.I. Arkhipkin, 2001. A review of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research 54:9-19.http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6869.pdf

  6. PRODUCE, 2010a. Modificar los artículos 2o y 9o de la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE, de fecha 30 de junio de 2010. Resolución Ministerial N° 286-2010-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 03 November 2010. Lima. 4 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2010/noviembre/rm286-2010-produce.pdf

  7. PRODUCE, 2011a. Establecer la cuota de Captura rel recurso calamar gigante o pota en 250 mil toneladas para el primer semestre del año 2011. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 02 March 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2011/marzo/rm075-2011-produce.pdf

  8. PRODUCE, 2011b. Prorrogar hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2011, la vigencia del Régimen Provisional para la extracción comercial del calamar gigante o pota, establecido por la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 28 June 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/junio/rm197-2011-produce.pdf

  9. PRODUCE, 2011c. Aprobar el Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Calamar Gigante o Pota (Dosidicus gigas). Decreto Supremo N°014 -2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 04 October 2011. Lima. 7 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/octubre/ds014-2011-produce.pdf

  10. PRODUCE, 2012a. Establecer una cuota de captura del recurso calamar gigante o pota, de 500 mil toneladas para el año 2012. Resolución Ministerial N° 036-2012-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 20 January 2012. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/enero/rm036-2012-produce.pdf

  11. Alarcón-Muñoz, R., Cubillos, L., Gatica, C. 2008. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) biomass off central Chile: effects on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). CalCOFI Rep. 49, 157-166 "http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v49/Vol_49_Alarcon-Munoz_web.pdf"

  12. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2014. Adjunta informes técnicos sesiones 1 y 2 Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur. Valparaiso, 20 enero 2014, 29 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82593_documento.pdf"

  13. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2013. Adjunta Acta sesión 02/2013 del Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS). Valparaiso, 20 diciembre 2013, 6 pp. "http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/Acta_02-2013CT-RDZCS_CART-2013_MERLUZA_COMU.pdf"  

  14. Fondo de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura (FIPA), 2013. Memoria Año 2013, 87 pp. "http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Documentacion/Noticias/Memoria%202013.pdf"

  15. Ibáñez, C.M. 2013. El impacto ecológico del calamar Dosidicus gigas sobre poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico, Sociedad Malacológica de Chile (SMACH), Amici Molluscarum 21(1): 7-16 "http://www.amicimolluscarum.com/app/download/8559517969/Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez.pdf?t=1381976766"

  16. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), 2008. Biodiversidad de Chile. Patrimonio y Desafíos, Capítulo II: Nuestra Diversidad Biológica, Gobierno de Chile, 320 pp.  "http://www.mma.gob.cl/librobiodiversidad/1308/biodiversid_parte_2a.pdf"

  17. Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014. Decreto Exento 22/2014 Establece cuota anual de captura para el recurso jibia XV-XII regiones, año 2014, 2pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82297_documento.pdf"

  18. Mundo Acuicola, 2014. Gremio pesquero descarta colapso de la jibia y llama al Gobierno a no dejarse presionar "http://www.mundoacuicola.cl/comun/index.php?modulo=2&cat=6&view=1&idnews=59167"

  19. Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J., Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13006/0"

  20. Sepulveda, A. 2012. Seguimiento e impacto de la jibia en las pesquerías de la zona centro-sur y sur-austral de Chile, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 41 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_2.pdf"

  21. Servicio Nacional de Pescay Acuicultura (Sernapesca), undated. Nuestra Institución, Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo "http://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=126"

  22. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca), 2013. Informe Actividades de Fiscalización efectuadas en materia de pesca y acuicultura en el año 2012, Ministerio  de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, 55 pp. "http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf

  23. Subpesca, 2008. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaría de Pesca aprueba el Plan de Acción Nacional para reducir capturas incidentales de aves en pesquerías de palangre "http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2008/02/24777"

  24. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012a. Suspensión temporal del cierre de la inscripción en el registro pesquero artesanal para la pesquería de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) IV-VIII Regiones. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 155-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 10 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-79049_documento.doc"

  25. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012b. Cuota global anual de captura de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) XV-XII Regiones, año 2013. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 239-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 11 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ-239-2012_Cuota_captura_anual_2013_jibia.pdf

  26. Tascheri, R. 2012. Incorporación de la predación por jibia en el modelo de evaluación del stock de merluza común, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 44pp.  "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_4.pdf"

References

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