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Profile updated on 19 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dosidicus gigas

SPECIES NAME(s)

Jumbo flying squid

COMMON NAMES

Humboldt squid, jibia, pota, calamar rojo, calamar gigante

Jumbo flying squid in the Eastern Pacific extends from the waters off Chile to the North American coast. The NE Pacific and SE Pacific represent genetically different stocks with some migration among them, in a genetic structure apparently influenced by oceanic currents (Sandoval-Castellanos et al. 2010).

Three intraspecific groups have been identified for Giant or Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Southeast Pacific, based on size-at-maturity (Nigmatullin et al. 2001), but as no genetic difference has been found between the three proposed sub-unit populations, thus it is still considered to constitute a single stock (Xu et al. 2017).


ANALYSIS

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Fishers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

DATA DEFICIENT

Future Health:

DATA DEFICIENT


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile/SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines
Ecuador Ecuador/SPRFMO Ecuador Vertical Lines
Peruvian Peru/SPRFMO Peru Handlines hand operated
Pole-lines hand operated
Vertical Lines
SE Pacific High Seas SPRFMO - Industrial China Vertical Lines
Japan Vertical Lines
Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 January 2018

Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 January 2018

In the Eastern Pacific Jumbo flying squid is captured by industrial fleets (i.e., China, Korea, and Japan) off Ecuador, Peru and Chile’s EEZ where they are assessed within each country, (Rosa et al. 2013; Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). However, since Dosidicus gigas have a short life cycle (<2 years), are highly migratory, and their recruitment processes are driven by the environment; its assessment and management off EEZs represent a big challenge (Rodhouse 2001; Rosa et al. 2013)

Ecuador
Ecuador/SPRFMO

In 2014, the Ministry of Fisheries (MAGAP, now MAP Ministerio de Acuacultura y Pesca), decided to start the Jumbo flying squid fishery in Ecuador as a new commercial activity destined for direct human consumption, delegating the responsibility for monitoring this fishery to the National Fisheries Institute - INP (MAGAP 2014). However, this fishery has started with limited biological and fisheries information (necessary for stock assessment), resulting up to this date in a fishery based on passive management (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016).

Although some basic information regarding population dynamics of the Jumbo flying squid is unknown (e.g., number of cohorts in the population), there is a hypothesis that can help assessing the stock while new information collected by INP is processed. For example, the seasonal presence of Jumbo flying squid in Ecuadorian waters can be explained by the incursion of cold waters from the Humboldt Current System (HCS) in the coastal zones of Ecuador, explaining the seasonal changes in spatial and temporal distribution of D. gigas (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). The use of several stock assessment methods is necessary while taking into account the uncertainty in abundance estimates, different methodological approaches and data collected (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 August 2019

There are not recommendations and no reference points are set at a whole-stock level.

Ecuador
Ecuador/SPRFMO

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The regulation signed in 2014 provides the framework for assessing this new fishery. In this document is stated that the information obtained by industrial onboard observers will be sent to the INP so they can set up TACs and MSYs for Dosidicus gigas in Ecuador (MAGAP 2014).

According to scientists, the fishery in Ecuador must be managed considering two different geographic locations: (1) the coast of the Ecuadorian Pacific, and (b) Galapagos Islands (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016)

CURRENT STATUS

No stock assessment including the whole stock is yet conducted.

 
Ecuador

Changes in biomass and vulnerability are unknown for Jumbo flying squid in Ecuadorian waters even when this fishery has been partially monitored (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). Rough estimates from the INP suggested that total biomass was 641,915 tonnes and 1,866,857 tonnes in 2013 and 2014, respectively (INP 2018). Estimates from 2015 and forward are not available.

Small-scale driftnet fisheries also capture Jumbo flying squid as bycatch (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016), however, the amount of the jumbo flying squid bycatch has not been quantified. In 2018, during the Scientific Prospecting Cruise for Small Pelagic Fishes using purse-seine nets, 21% of the captures (in weight) corresponded to Dosidicus gigas. Additionally, the average mantle length (ML) was lower that the length at first maturity observed for D. gigas captured by jiggers, which may result in a major threaten for small individuals (ML<30 cm) (Pacheco Bedoya 2018).

Landings in Ecuador have been reported since 2012; these have been highly variable probably due to environmental factors. Landings peaked in 2014 at 18,146 tonnes. Critical decreases have been observed after that year with only 1,279 tonnes and 485 tonnes reported in 2015 and 2016, respectively (FAO 2018). This drop could be explained by the intense warm event that occurred between these years due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) because it is know that Jumbo flying squid abundance seems to be strongly affected by high intensity of El Niño events (Rosa et al. 2013).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

No management measures exist at stock level for regulating the Jumbo flying squid fisheries. The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) has developed some general management measures to regulate fisheries in the high seas areas of the South Pacific Ocean, but none of these refer to squid specifically.

A Permanent Commission of the South Pacific (Comisión Permanente del Pacífico del Sur, CPPS) exists to promote coordination of maritime policies within national waters of its members (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and in the context of international and regional fisheries organizations (CPPS 2018).

Ecuador
Ecuador/SPRFMO

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The Ecuadorian Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAP) is responsible for managing the marine resources in Ecuadorian waters (Decreto Presidencial Nro. 06 2017) based on the guidance provided by the National Institute of Fisheries (INP).

As the Jumbo flying squid fishery is a new activity in Ecuador, there has not been any TAC set by MAP up to date. However, the MAP is conducting courses, conferences, workshops, and international reunions to promote the sustainable management of the Jumbo flying squid fishery (INP 2018).

Scientists have recommended that management strategy in coastal zones could be based on proportional escapement similar to other countries, meanwhile, in the Galapagos Islands, the management strategy could be based on quotas (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016)

COMPLIANCE
Ecuador
Ecuador/SPRFMO

Landings have shown high variability in recent years (FAO 2018). Since this fishery is currently under development, no TACs are currently available to compare with.

No reports indicating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities have been found for this fishery.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 19 August 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

In 2014, the jumbo flying squid fishery started in Ecuador driven by the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAP) as a new commercial activity destined for direct human consumption. However, this fishery started with limited biological and fisheries information resulting up to this date in a fishery based on passive management (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya, 2016a). Currently, the management objective for the stock is to collect information by industrial onboard observers to allow definition of future TACs and MSYs for Dosidicus gigas in Ecuador (MAGAP, 2014).

As determined for 2018.

The fishery started in 2014 with limited biological and fisheries information (Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya, 2016a). From that year onwards, the National Fisheries Institute (INP) is conducting biological and fisheries studies; however, it has not yet issued quantitative advice on jumbo flying squid catch to the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAP).

As determined for 2018.

Data is being collected but the stock is not managed through TACs yet. As a result, no comparisons are applicable.

STOCK HEALTH:

As determined for 2019.

No stock assessment has been conducted at stock level.

As determined for 2019.

No stock assessment has been conducted at stock level.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAO, 2014. FIGIS - Global Capture Production 1950-2012 [Accessed 29 May 2014] http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-capture-production/query/en

  2. Icochea, LA., 2008. [Dosidicus gigas and the artisanal fishermen], o.t. (Spanish): La pota y el pescador artesanal. FIUPAP, September, 2006. Consulted on November 10th, 2008, at: http://www.fiupap.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=2

  3. IMARPE, 2008. [Technical report: current status of giant squid and catch perspectives for 2008], o.t., (Spanish): Informe Técnico: Situación del recurso calamar gigante y perspectivas de captura para el 2008. May, 2008. Consulted November 10th, 2008 at: http://190.81.184.108/imarpe/informe_invertebrados/inf_pota_cuota_%20anual2008.pdf

  4. IMARPE, 2010. Anuario Científico Tecnológico Imarpe. Vol. 10, 2010. Instituto del Mar de Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 205 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_anuario_2010.pdf

  5. Nigmatullin, Ch.M., K.N. Nesis, A.I. Arkhipkin, 2001. A review of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research 54:9-19.http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6869.pdf

  6. PRODUCE, 2010a. Modificar los artículos 2o y 9o de la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE, de fecha 30 de junio de 2010. Resolución Ministerial N° 286-2010-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 03 November 2010. Lima. 4 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2010/noviembre/rm286-2010-produce.pdf

  7. PRODUCE, 2011a. Establecer la cuota de Captura rel recurso calamar gigante o pota en 250 mil toneladas para el primer semestre del año 2011. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 02 March 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2011/marzo/rm075-2011-produce.pdf

  8. PRODUCE, 2011b. Prorrogar hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2011, la vigencia del Régimen Provisional para la extracción comercial del calamar gigante o pota, establecido por la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 28 June 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/junio/rm197-2011-produce.pdf

  9. PRODUCE, 2011c. Aprobar el Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Calamar Gigante o Pota (Dosidicus gigas). Decreto Supremo N°014 -2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 04 October 2011. Lima. 7 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/octubre/ds014-2011-produce.pdf

  10. PRODUCE, 2012a. Establecer una cuota de captura del recurso calamar gigante o pota, de 500 mil toneladas para el año 2012. Resolución Ministerial N° 036-2012-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 20 January 2012. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/enero/rm036-2012-produce.pdf

  11. Alarcón-Muñoz, R., Cubillos, L., Gatica, C. 2008. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) biomass off central Chile: effects on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). CalCOFI Rep. 49, 157-166 "http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v49/Vol_49_Alarcon-Munoz_web.pdf"

  12. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2014. Adjunta informes técnicos sesiones 1 y 2 Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur. Valparaiso, 20 enero 2014, 29 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82593_documento.pdf"

  13. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2013. Adjunta Acta sesión 02/2013 del Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS). Valparaiso, 20 diciembre 2013, 6 pp. "http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/Acta_02-2013CT-RDZCS_CART-2013_MERLUZA_COMU.pdf"  

  14. Fondo de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura (FIPA), 2013. Memoria Año 2013, 87 pp. "http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Documentacion/Noticias/Memoria%202013.pdf"

  15. Ibáñez, C.M. 2013. El impacto ecológico del calamar Dosidicus gigas sobre poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico, Sociedad Malacológica de Chile (SMACH), Amici Molluscarum 21(1): 7-16 "http://www.amicimolluscarum.com/app/download/8559517969/Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez.pdf?t=1381976766"

  16. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), 2008. Biodiversidad de Chile. Patrimonio y Desafíos, Capítulo II: Nuestra Diversidad Biológica, Gobierno de Chile, 320 pp.  "http://www.mma.gob.cl/librobiodiversidad/1308/biodiversid_parte_2a.pdf"

  17. Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014. Decreto Exento 22/2014 Establece cuota anual de captura para el recurso jibia XV-XII regiones, año 2014, 2pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82297_documento.pdf"

  18. Mundo Acuicola, 2014. Gremio pesquero descarta colapso de la jibia y llama al Gobierno a no dejarse presionar "http://www.mundoacuicola.cl/comun/index.php?modulo=2&cat=6&view=1&idnews=59167"

  19. Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J., Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13006/0"

  20. Sepulveda, A. 2012. Seguimiento e impacto de la jibia en las pesquerías de la zona centro-sur y sur-austral de Chile, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 41 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_2.pdf"

  21. Servicio Nacional de Pescay Acuicultura (Sernapesca), undated. Nuestra Institución, Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo "http://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=126"

  22. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca), 2013. Informe Actividades de Fiscalización efectuadas en materia de pesca y acuicultura en el año 2012, Ministerio  de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, 55 pp. "http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf

  23. Subpesca, 2008. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaría de Pesca aprueba el Plan de Acción Nacional para reducir capturas incidentales de aves en pesquerías de palangre "http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2008/02/24777"

  24. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012a. Suspensión temporal del cierre de la inscripción en el registro pesquero artesanal para la pesquería de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) IV-VIII Regiones. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 155-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 10 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-79049_documento.doc"

  25. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012b. Cuota global anual de captura de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) XV-XII Regiones, año 2013. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 239-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 11 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ-239-2012_Cuota_captura_anual_2013_jibia.pdf

  26. Tascheri, R. 2012. Incorporación de la predación por jibia en el modelo de evaluación del stock de merluza común, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 44pp.  "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_4.pdf"

References

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