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Profile updated on 19 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dosidicus gigas

SPECIES NAME(s)

Jumbo flying squid

COMMON NAMES

Humboldt squid, jibia, pota, calamar rojo, calamar gigante

Jumbo flying squid in the Eastern Pacific extends from the waters off Chile to the North American coast. The NE Pacific and SE Pacific represent genetically different stocks with some migration among them, in a genetic structure apparently influenced by oceanic currents (Sandoval-Castellanos et al. 2010).

Three intraspecific groups have been identified for Giant or Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Southeast Pacific, based on size-at-maturity (Nigmatullin et al. 2001), but as no genetic difference has been found between the three proposed sub-unit populations, thus it is still considered to constitute a single stock (Xu et al. 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Abundance is considered high in the high seas. 
Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile/SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines
Ecuador Ecuador/SPRFMO Ecuador Vertical Lines
Peruvian Peru/SPRFMO Peru Handlines hand operated
Pole-lines hand operated
Vertical Lines
SE Pacific High Seas SPRFMO - Industrial China Vertical Lines
Japan Vertical Lines
Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 August 2019

Strengths
SE Pacific High Seas

Last updated on 19 August 2019

  • Abundance is considered high in the high seas. 
Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 January 2018

In the Eastern Pacific Jumbo flying squid is captured by industrial fleets (i.e., China, Korea, and Japan) off Ecuador, Peru and Chile’s EEZ where they are assessed within each country, (Rosa et al. 2013; Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). However, since Dosidicus gigas have a short life cycle (<2 years), are highly migratory, and their recruitment processes are driven by the environment; its assessment and management off EEZs represent a big challenge (Rodhouse 2001; Rosa et al. 2013)

SE Pacific High Seas

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The assessment of Jumbo flying squid in the SPRFMO area is based on fishery-dependent data such as FAO catches and CPUE from fleets operating in the high seas (Xu et al. 2017). Then, the information has been analyzed with a surplus production stock assessment model (Xu et al. 2017).

As key data from fleets operating in coastal countries have not been included in the assessment, it cannot be considered a whole-stock level assessment.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 August 2019

There are not recommendations and no reference points are set at a whole-stock level.

SE Pacific High Seas

Last updated on 19 August 2019

Although there are no recommendations by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to establish annual TACs for the high seas of the Southeast Pacific, the last meeting of the squid working group made several recommendations to the SPRFMO Scientific Committee in order to improve the assessment of the Jumbo flying squid in the area of SPRFMO (SPRFMO 2017): i) evaluate working hypotheses on stock structure using data combined from all fishing countries, ii) research on the distribution, migration routes and intermixing patterns, iii) promote research on the reproductive process and the effect of environmental factors in determining the timing and the location and extension of spawning areas, iv) determine the most suitable stock assessment models and management alternatives, including research on methods for recruitment and escapement estimation, v) refine and develop data templates to address data gaps for informing a full stock assessment, as not all required information is contained within the templates, vi) encourage all fishing countries to share data and information necessary for stock assessment, vii) recover historical data and report the historical information to the extent possible. 

The exploratory assessment in the high seas provided an initial description of the dynamics and estimated biological reference points Bmsy, MSY, and Fmsy at 5.2 million tonnes, 3.37 million tonnes and 0.651, respectively (Xu et al. 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

No stock assessment including the whole stock is yet conducted.

 
SE Pacific High Seas

A 2017 stock assessment on the high seas portion of the stock estimated biomass  around 8 million tonnes, well above the proposed Bmsy = 5.2 million tonnes. Also, current catch levels are much lower than the estimated MSY (3 million tonnes). However, this stock assessment still requires improvements, such as taking account different population structure hypotheses, which is intented in the near future work (Xu et al. 2017)

Total catches of jumbo flying squid in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific have been reported by Asiatic vessels, especially from China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. From 2006 to 2015, total catches have increased gradually from 100 to 300 thousand tonnes, indicating an increasing fishing effort from industrial vessels within the area, mainly from 2009 to 2011 when China and Taiwan increased their catches (Xu et al. 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

No management measures exist at stock level for regulating the Jumbo flying squid fisheries. The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) has developed some general management measures to regulate fisheries in the high seas areas of the South Pacific Ocean, but none of these refer to squid specifically.

A Permanent Commission of the South Pacific (Comisión Permanente del Pacífico del Sur, CPPS) exists to promote coordination of maritime policies within national waters of its members (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and in the context of international and regional fisheries organizations (CPPS 2018).

SE Pacific High Seas

The SPRFMO has been supporting the squid working group to improve knowledge on the resource and management alternatives to be applied for jumbo flying squid for use in the Convention area (SPRFMO 2017)

COMPLIANCE
SE Pacific High Seas

Few management measures are in place in the convention area and none of these refer to the jumbo flying squid fisheries (SPRFMO 2017)

The SPRFMO publishes the lists of authorized vessels and list of vessels that are presumed to have carried out IUU fishing activities (SPRFMO 2019), and only a few vessels have been reported in the IUU list. However, a recent study estimated catches by illegal vessels targeting jumbo flying squid fishing in the Convention Area close to the Peruvian EEZ, which accounted for 27% of total official catches reported for the period of 2013-2016 to the RFMO (Aroni Sulca 2018).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 19 August 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

No management objectives are defined or a management plan is established for the entire stock; there is a lack of target and limit reference points set by any management entity. A recent formal assessment, published by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO), provides an initial description of the dynamics of the stock ( Xu et al., 2017).

As determined for 2018.

No scientific advice is available for fisheries operating at the high seas.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

SPRFMO list of vessels that are presumed to have carried out IUU fishing activities only report a few vessels (SPRFMO 2019). However, a recent study estimated that catches by vessels operating illegally in the Convention Area accounted for 27% of total official catches of jumbo flying squid fishing for the period of 2013-2016 (Sulca 2018).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the TB as a percentage of the TBmsy.

The TB is 829 ('000 t). The TBmsy is 519 ('000 t) .

The underlying TB/TBmsy for this index is 160%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F=Fmsy.

The F is 0.262 . The F=Fmsy is 0.651 .

The underlying F/F=Fmsy for this index is 40.2%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
SE Pacific High Seas

B and F estimates were calculated using the base scenario mean values for Bmsy and Fmsy (Xu et al. 2017).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAO, 2014. FIGIS - Global Capture Production 1950-2012 [Accessed 29 May 2014] http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-capture-production/query/en

  2. Icochea, LA., 2008. [Dosidicus gigas and the artisanal fishermen], o.t. (Spanish): La pota y el pescador artesanal. FIUPAP, September, 2006. Consulted on November 10th, 2008, at: http://www.fiupap.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=2

  3. IMARPE, 2008. [Technical report: current status of giant squid and catch perspectives for 2008], o.t., (Spanish): Informe Técnico: Situación del recurso calamar gigante y perspectivas de captura para el 2008. May, 2008. Consulted November 10th, 2008 at: http://190.81.184.108/imarpe/informe_invertebrados/inf_pota_cuota_%20anual2008.pdf

  4. IMARPE, 2010. Anuario Científico Tecnológico Imarpe. Vol. 10, 2010. Instituto del Mar de Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 205 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_anuario_2010.pdf

  5. Nigmatullin, Ch.M., K.N. Nesis, A.I. Arkhipkin, 2001. A review of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research 54:9-19.http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6869.pdf

  6. PRODUCE, 2010a. Modificar los artículos 2o y 9o de la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE, de fecha 30 de junio de 2010. Resolución Ministerial N° 286-2010-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 03 November 2010. Lima. 4 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2010/noviembre/rm286-2010-produce.pdf

  7. PRODUCE, 2011a. Establecer la cuota de Captura rel recurso calamar gigante o pota en 250 mil toneladas para el primer semestre del año 2011. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 02 March 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2011/marzo/rm075-2011-produce.pdf

  8. PRODUCE, 2011b. Prorrogar hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2011, la vigencia del Régimen Provisional para la extracción comercial del calamar gigante o pota, establecido por la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 28 June 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/junio/rm197-2011-produce.pdf

  9. PRODUCE, 2011c. Aprobar el Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Calamar Gigante o Pota (Dosidicus gigas). Decreto Supremo N°014 -2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 04 October 2011. Lima. 7 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/octubre/ds014-2011-produce.pdf

  10. PRODUCE, 2012a. Establecer una cuota de captura del recurso calamar gigante o pota, de 500 mil toneladas para el año 2012. Resolución Ministerial N° 036-2012-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 20 January 2012. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/enero/rm036-2012-produce.pdf

  11. Alarcón-Muñoz, R., Cubillos, L., Gatica, C. 2008. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) biomass off central Chile: effects on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). CalCOFI Rep. 49, 157-166 "http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v49/Vol_49_Alarcon-Munoz_web.pdf"

  12. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2014. Adjunta informes técnicos sesiones 1 y 2 Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur. Valparaiso, 20 enero 2014, 29 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82593_documento.pdf"

  13. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2013. Adjunta Acta sesión 02/2013 del Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS). Valparaiso, 20 diciembre 2013, 6 pp. "http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/Acta_02-2013CT-RDZCS_CART-2013_MERLUZA_COMU.pdf"  

  14. Fondo de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura (FIPA), 2013. Memoria Año 2013, 87 pp. "http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Documentacion/Noticias/Memoria%202013.pdf"

  15. Ibáñez, C.M. 2013. El impacto ecológico del calamar Dosidicus gigas sobre poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico, Sociedad Malacológica de Chile (SMACH), Amici Molluscarum 21(1): 7-16 "http://www.amicimolluscarum.com/app/download/8559517969/Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez.pdf?t=1381976766"

  16. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), 2008. Biodiversidad de Chile. Patrimonio y Desafíos, Capítulo II: Nuestra Diversidad Biológica, Gobierno de Chile, 320 pp.  "http://www.mma.gob.cl/librobiodiversidad/1308/biodiversid_parte_2a.pdf"

  17. Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014. Decreto Exento 22/2014 Establece cuota anual de captura para el recurso jibia XV-XII regiones, año 2014, 2pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82297_documento.pdf"

  18. Mundo Acuicola, 2014. Gremio pesquero descarta colapso de la jibia y llama al Gobierno a no dejarse presionar "http://www.mundoacuicola.cl/comun/index.php?modulo=2&cat=6&view=1&idnews=59167"

  19. Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J., Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13006/0"

  20. Sepulveda, A. 2012. Seguimiento e impacto de la jibia en las pesquerías de la zona centro-sur y sur-austral de Chile, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 41 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_2.pdf"

  21. Servicio Nacional de Pescay Acuicultura (Sernapesca), undated. Nuestra Institución, Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo "http://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=126"

  22. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca), 2013. Informe Actividades de Fiscalización efectuadas en materia de pesca y acuicultura en el año 2012, Ministerio  de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, 55 pp. "http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf

  23. Subpesca, 2008. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaría de Pesca aprueba el Plan de Acción Nacional para reducir capturas incidentales de aves en pesquerías de palangre "http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2008/02/24777"

  24. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012a. Suspensión temporal del cierre de la inscripción en el registro pesquero artesanal para la pesquería de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) IV-VIII Regiones. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 155-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 10 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-79049_documento.doc"

  25. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012b. Cuota global anual de captura de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) XV-XII Regiones, año 2013. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 239-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 11 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ-239-2012_Cuota_captura_anual_2013_jibia.pdf

  26. Tascheri, R. 2012. Incorporación de la predación por jibia en el modelo de evaluación del stock de merluza común, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 44pp.  "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_4.pdf"

References

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