Last updated on 1 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Illex argentinus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Argentine shortfin squid

COMMON NAMES

Calamar (Spanish)

The Argentine shortfin squid distributes along the Argentinean coast, Uruguai and Brazil (Abril et al. 2008Perez et al. 2009). A unique population is considered to exist by Crespi-Abril and Barón (2012) and Crespi-Abril et al. (2013) in Argentine waters, while four disctint sub-units for assessment purposes are identified: South Patagonian (SPS), Bonaerensis/North Patagonian (BNPS), Summer Spawning (SSS) and Spring Spawning (SpSS). Only the two first units are targeted and are assessed as separate units (Abril et al. 2008; INIDEP 2013INIDEP 2014INIDEP 2015). The management is focused on the unit South of 44ºS: including the South Patagonian Stock (SPS) inhabiting the outer shelf and slope south of 44ºS and the Summer Spawning stock; unit North of 44ºS: including the Bonaerensis-North Patagonian Stock (BNPS), distributed north of 43ºS up to the Malvinas (Falkland)/Brazil currents convergence and the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ) north of 39ºS. Foreign fleets from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and Spain legaly operate in the High Seas, outside the Argentine EEZ. The map shown refers to the full geographic distribution of Illex argentinus (Abril and Barón, 2012).

Assessment and management within Falkland Islands' waters are considered separately (Falkland Islands Government 2018).  


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The management measures in place, including spatial and seasonal restrictions, are considering the resource biology conditions and are in accordance to other squid fisheries management.
  • The scientific body has a pre-defined surveys’ program to assess the stock, and onboard observers allowing a real-time monitoring of the resource.
  • The resolutions of the management body (CFP) directly follow the recommendations made by the scientific body (INIDEP).
  • A mandatory administrative mechanism is in place to prove the legality of catches and certify that these have been legally captured within the Argentinean EEZ.
  • The jigger fishery is considered as selective and the impacts on ETP species or the ecosystem are not expected to exist.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is subject to fishing exploitation outside the Argentine EEZ, added to the lack of a functioning regional fisheries management body to discuss the management of the resources in the common areas (around Malvinas/Falkland Islands) and coordinated conservation measures, generating some uncertainty about the stock status and its sustainability.
  • A high level of IUU fishing is known to exist by the foreign fleet in the Argentinean EEZ reaching 40% of the total catches in last years (2012-2015). 2016 estimates are highly uncertain. 
  • The condition of Illex argentinus as a transboundary resource and the IUU fishing in the Argentinean EEZ, results in a high fishing pressure on the resource.
  • There is not yet a specific management plan in place. There are no viable contingency plans to restrict fishing in the event of an environmental emergency.
  • In the latest years the pre-recruit survey (that determines the initial abundance estimation) was not conducted in several opportunities affecting the estimations of spawners and biomass of both management units.
  • The escapement estimations of the latest years has been below the threshold set as the management objective (40%).
  • The impact of the fishery and the interaction with protected or endangered species is unknown and no interaction, bycatch data or discards are recorded.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with scientists and regulators to implement annual pre-recruit surveys for all stock units.
  • Work with managers to create and implement a management plan including a harvest control rule to restrict fishing during years of poor recruitment (as indicated by the pre-recruit surveys) in a timely manner. This management plan should be sensitive to the transboundary nature of these stocks and ideally would be implemented in a coordinated way with other jurisdictions or by a regional fishery management body which would coordinate conservation measures amongst all harvesting nations.
  • Work with managers to institute monitoring, control, and surveillance (MSC) measures to resolve IUU fishing in and around the Argentine EEZ.
  • Expand the existing observer onboard program to include data collection on bycatch and discards, and specially on  interactions with seabirds and protected and endangered species.
  • Ensure your supply chain is represented in SFP’s Global Squid Supply Chain Roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Bonaerense/North (BNPS) Argentina North of 44°S (Argentinean EEZ) Argentina Single boat bottom otter trawls
Vertical Lines
China High Seas China Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines
Japan High Seas Japan Vertical Lines
Republic of Korea High Seas Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Spain High Seas Spain Vertical Lines
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (malvinas) Single boat bottom otter trawls
Vertical Lines
South Patagonian (SPS) Argentina South of 44°S (Argentinean EEZ) Argentina Single boat bottom otter trawls
Vertical Lines
China High Seas China Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines
Japan High Seas Japan Vertical Lines
Republic of Korea High Seas Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Spain High Seas Spain Vertical Lines
Spring spawning (SpSS) Argentina North of 44°S/CTMFM Argentina Single boat bottom otter trawls
Vertical Lines
Uruguay Midwater trawls
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Vertical Lines
China High Seas China Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 September 2017

Strengths
  • The management measures in place, including spatial and seasonal restrictions, are considering the resource biology conditions and are in accordance to other squid fisheries management.
  • The scientific body has a pre-defined surveys’ program to assess the stock, and onboard observers allowing a real-time monitoring of the resource.
  • The resolutions of the management body (CFP) directly follow the recommendations made by the scientific body (INIDEP).
  • A mandatory administrative mechanism is in place to prove the legality of catches and certify that these have been legally captured within the Argentinean EEZ.
  • The jigger fishery is considered as selective and the impacts on ETP species or the ecosystem are not expected to exist.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is subject to fishing exploitation outside the Argentine EEZ, added to the lack of a functioning regional fisheries management body to discuss the management of the resources in the common areas (around Malvinas/Falkland Islands) and coordinated conservation measures, generating some uncertainty about the stock status and its sustainability.
  • A high level of IUU fishing is known to exist by the foreign fleet in the Argentinean EEZ reaching 40% of the total catches in last years (2012-2015). 2016 estimates are highly uncertain. 
  • The condition of Illex argentinus as a transboundary resource and the IUU fishing in the Argentinean EEZ, results in a high fishing pressure on the resource.
  • There is not yet a specific management plan in place. There are no viable contingency plans to restrict fishing in the event of an environmental emergency.
  • In the latest years the pre-recruit survey (that determines the initial abundance estimation) was not conducted in several opportunities affecting the estimations of spawners and biomass of both management units.
  • The escapement estimations of the latest years has been below the threshold set as the management objective (40%).
  • The impact of the fishery and the interaction with protected or endangered species is unknown and no interaction, bycatch data or discards are recorded.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 15 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with scientists and regulators to implement annual pre-recruit surveys for all stock units.
  • Work with managers to create and implement a management plan including a harvest control rule to restrict fishing during years of poor recruitment (as indicated by the pre-recruit surveys) in a timely manner. This management plan should be sensitive to the transboundary nature of these stocks and ideally would be implemented in a coordinated way with other jurisdictions or by a regional fishery management body which would coordinate conservation measures amongst all harvesting nations.
  • Work with managers to institute monitoring, control, and surveillance (MSC) measures to resolve IUU fishing in and around the Argentine EEZ.
  • Expand the existing observer onboard program to include data collection on bycatch and discards, and specially on  interactions with seabirds and protected and endangered species.
  • Ensure your supply chain is represented in SFP’s Global Squid Supply Chain Roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 2 September 2017

The Argentinean short-finned squid, Illex argentinus, is distributed along the shelf and slope in the Western South Atlantic from 22° to 54°S (Haimovici et al. 1998). Several population units from a single year-class, with particular spawning seasons and areas, have been recognized on the Argentinean shelf and slope. These include:

  • the South Patagonian Stock (SPS) inhabiting the outer shelf and slope south of 44ºS and spawning on the slope between 45ºS to 48ºS in the winter months;
  • the Bonaerensis-North Patagonian Stock (BNPS) distributed north of 43ºS up to the Malvinas (Falkland)/Brazil currents convergence, presumably spawning in late winter on the western side of the convergence;
  • the Summer Spawning Stock (SSS) living and spawning on the mid and outer shelf between 42ºS and 46ºS from December to February;
  • and the Spring Spawning Stock (SpSS) found in mid-inner shelf between 38ºS  and 41ºS (Brunetti 1988Haimovici et al. 1998Abril et al. 2008). 

The National Institute of Fisheries Research and Development (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y DesarrolloPesquero, INIDEP) is the public body responsible of the assessment of the fishery resources in the Argentinean Sea. INIDEP gives advice to the Federal Fishing Council (Consejo Federal Pesquero, CFP) and Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura, SSPyA) in the sustainable use of the resources, with the aim to preserve the marine ecosystem. The assessment of the resource comprises two units (BNPS and SPS) to evaluate the reproductive biomass and the pre-recruit abundance through the following research surveys, using a swept area method:

  1. South Squid Pre-Recruit Survey: this cruise is carried out in February in the SPS unit. This demographic group is located in its feeding area on the intermediate platform (100-200m) prior to its spawning migration to deeper areas of the continental slope. The main concentrations of individuals are located south of 47º S. It has a stratified design with 8 strata and 98 fishing hauls. The total area of research is between the parallels 45ºS and 51ºS.
  2. Northern Squid Pre-Recruit Survey: this cruise is carried out in April in the BNPS unit. It has a stratified design with 14 strata and 89 fishing hauls. The total research area is between the parallels 34ºS and 48ºS and the isobaths of 50 and 400m. The Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone it is included in this unit (AUCFZ, north of 39ºS). 
  3. It is also included in the assessment the results of the research surveys conducted for the  Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi fishery and the Bycatch Fisheries Program where Illex argentinus is caught incidentally. The area covered by this campaign extends between 43ºS and 47ºS and the isobaths of 50m and 400m.

The INIDEP Observers Program conducts a biological sampling onboard of commercial vessels (jiggers and trawlers) recording the individual mantle length (LM), sex, total weight, and maturity stage. They also record the catch, production and effort data of each fishing trip and a sample of the individual distribution size classified in the different categories used by the commercial fleet to preserve the catch (Ivanovic et al. 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 2 September 2017

The INIDEP Cephalopod Fishery Laboratory is who annually advises to the Fisheries Administration about the state of exploitation of the Argentine squid and the possible alternatives for its management.

To monitoring the evolution of the stocks across the fishing seasons catches of commercial vessels (jiggers and trawlers) are updated weekly using the information provided by INIDEP. An Onboard Observers Program is in place and a weekly catches report is mandatory for each vessel (Res. SAGPyA 89/95). At the end of the season each vessel must submit an annual catches report to cross with the weekly information provided and to use in the annual fishery evaluation (mandatory by Res. SAGPyA 357/98).

This fishery is one of the most affected by inter-annual variations in environmental conditions. Its assessment and management takes into account this variability. To cope with the year-to-year variation in biomass, the stock is monitored during the fishing seasons and when the stock biomass approaches the escapement level, the fishery is closed. Increased water temperature seems to have consequences in the development of the shortfin squid species, shortening their vital cycle and affecting their spatial distribution. 

The Remote Sensing Subprogram of INIDEP estimates the number and distribution of foreign jigger vessels during the fishing season analyzing the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS) nocturnal satellite imagery. The results are used by the Cephalopods Fisheries Laboratory for evaluation of the fishery performed in waters outside of the Argentine EEZ. This information allows reconstructing the weekly captures of the species carried out by the foreign fleet compared to the captures of Argentine ships fishing outside the EEZ (Lasta et al. 2012Cozzolino and Lasta 2016).

Reference Points

Last updated on 02 Sep 2017

The assessment is based in a real-time monitoring that consists on the weekly evolution of the fishery which starting point is the Pre-recruits estimated in the research surveys. The management objective is to allow the escape of a sufficient number of spawners to ensure a good recruitment next year. The level of fishing mortality was adjusted to insure 40% proportional escapement (this was defined as the ratio of the final stock size after fishing to the final stock size that would have been present in the absence of fishing) (Agnew et al. 2005). The indicators used in the evaluations are:

  • Weekly distribution of daily catches per unit effort (CPUE). The estimation is based in the information reported weekly, and verified with the annual catches report. These reports collect the information about the number of fishing trips, fishing days, total catches (in tons) and average daily yield (tons/day).
  • Population structure: based on the weekly data of the biological sampling obtained in the commercial fleet by the INIDEP Onboard Observers’ Program.
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 2 September 2017

The estimation of spawners’ escapement is carried out based on the pre-recruits survey for each management unit, and the weekly evaluation of commercial catches throughout thefishing season. Therefore, in the last ten years these surveys were cancelled in many times by trade union strikes or budget constrictions affecting both abundance and escapement estimations made only with the commercial fleet data throughout the fishing season.

In 2016 the pre-recruit survey was not conducted for none of the two assessment units.

Moreover, another important point to note is the magnitude of fishing in the High Seas and in the Argentine EEZ by the foreign fleet. While there is uncertainty in the estimations, the catches levels are in the latest years the same as or higher than the catches by the Argentinean jiggers fleet. In 2016 the Argentinean jiggers caugth 53,869 t and trawlers 2,976 t. Estimated catches by the foreign fleet were at 2,373 t within the Argentinean EEZ and around 40,000 t in the high seas. 

Trends

Last updated on 02 Sep 2017

Squid fishing has developed in Argentina since 1946. The species was first taken by Argentina and Uruguay as bycatch of the hake trawl fishery and total annual catches were initially low (less than 5900 t in 1977). Since 1978, the external demand and consequently the magnitude of catches were intensified. The good yields obtained in those years encouraged the arrival of foreign overseas fleets, especially from Poland and Japan, which began operating outside the EEZ, on pre-reproductive squid concentrations between February and June. Catches of all squid species by trawlers and jiggers of several countries increased from 75,000 t in 1978 to more than 760,000 t in 1987. Landings reached a peak close to 500,000 t in the 1987/88 season, but only 10% of them came from Argentina. Since then squid catches have shown some variability with a slight decreasing trend, although total catches have always been well above 500,000 t per year ((Brunetti et al. 2000Prenski and Morales-Yokobori 2011).

In 1992 the fishery in Argentinean waters as a target species was restricted to jigger’s vessels (Resolution SAGPyA No. 959), which led to a notable expansion of the fishery. In 1992 the bareboat charter scheme was established to allow the entry of foreign fleets to the Argentine EEZ (Decree 1493/92). Argentina regained its leadership position as a squid-producing country since 1993, a condition held until 2007, but with declining yields since 1997, year for which maximum catch declarations reported were close to 400,000 t. 

There has been a gradual decline in the accumulated catches of all fleets participating in the fishery in recent years, which are basically reduced by an order of magnitude, from almost one million tonnes in 1997 to less than one hundred thousand tonnes in 2004 and 2005 to the south of 45º S. In 2008, catches on the high seas were estimated by private sources (Chamber of Shipowners and Freezers' Fishers from Argentina, CAPeCA) at 450,000 t (Prenski and Morales-Yokobori 2011).

Oscillations in catches are probably reflecting changes on abundance in the fishing grounds (Nigmatullin 1989; Basson et al. 1996; Waluda et al. 2001). Although it is difficult to quantify the effects of exploitation, environmental regulation (i.e., failure in recruitment because of suboptimal temperatures, hydro-dynamic conditions or low food availability) and the combination of both on the changing abundance of this resource, it is broadly accepted that the species has been under high fishing pressure (Abril et al. 2008).

South Patagonian (SPS)

Last updated on 1 September 2017

For the SPS unit it was not possible to evaluate the spawners’ escapement based on the commercial fleet data because the Argentinean jigger fleet has only operated during six fishing weeks with low yields. The information provided was scarce and hindered the estimation of back calculation model usually used (Ivanovic et al. 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 2 September 2017

The Federal Fisheries Regime established by Law No.24, 922 promulgated in 1997 recognizes the CFP as the body that sets the national fisheries policy, the fisheries research policy and the national fisheries development plans. The Follow-up Commission for the Squid Fishery is formed by one representative of the Administration, one representative of INIDEP, one representative of each of the chambers that nucleates the companies that have vessels authorized to catch this species, and two representatives of the owners of the independent vessels. The Commission shall serve as an advisory body and shall meet at least two times per year. Through the Follow-up Commission for the monitoring of the squid fishery, and based on the scientific body recommendations, the CFP establishes the regulations for the fishery management.

The fishery of Illex argentinus in Argentine waters as a target species is restricted to jiggers vessels (Resolution SAGPyA No. 959, October 5 1992) and a set limit of 20% of the species is established as bycatch for the rest of the vessels, mostly hake trawlers, that catch squid (CFP, 2005).

The fishing seasons are defined for Argentine jiggers' vessels in each management unit:

  • North of 44ºS management unit (BNPS):
    • In Argentina EEZ waters: annually, between 1st May and 31st August.
    • The Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ): annually between 1st April and 31st August, according to the Joint Technical Commission of the Maritime Front (CTMFM) regulations.
  • South of 44º S management unit (SPS):
    • In Argentina EEZ waters: annually between 1st February and 30th June.
    • Outside Argentinean waters (East of Argentinean EEZ between 45ºS to 48ºS): between 15th December and 31st August of the following year.

In 1992 the Argentine government created the legal framework allowing  operations of foreign fleets in the Argentine EEZ (Decree 1493/92) through a charter scheme that allowed Argentine shipowners to lease foreign vessels (bareboat charter) to catch squid species. The objective was to define elements to avoid the presence of the foreign fleet in the Argentine EEZ. At the end of 1993 the UK lifted the ban on the FOCZ (Falkland Exterior Conservation Area), a 50 nautical mile neutral ring established in accordance with Argentina in 1990. So the charter scheme was also working as an instrument to compete with the licenses granted by the government in Malvinas/Falkland Islands (Barton et al. 2004).

Since 2000 the CFP has established and maintained a fishing policy regarding Illex argentinus, whose primary objectives are the integral use of the resource and the nationalization of the fleet and catches. To achieve these objectives has being promoting fishing operations within the Argentine EEZ and in the High Seas adjacent to the Argentine EEZ with fishing licenses issued by the Argentine Republic, to ensure a greater presence of the national flag vessels in the area.

During the 1990s the Argentinean and British governments also created the South Atlantic Fisheries Commission (SAFC) to promote conservation and determine allocation quotas of straddling stocks of fish and squids. The management of the fish resources in the region has been subject to various international and bilateral political complexities and sensitivities: a) the United Nations registered dispute over sovereignty of the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands between Argentina and the UK; b) there are areas of the continental platform that extend beyond the 200 nautical miles of the EEZ into the international high seas; c) fleets from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and Spain, fish in these waters and some of them also cross into the EEZ to fish illegally.

The SAFC activities included the exchange of fisheries data between the Falklands and Argentina, joint research cruises, joint scientific workshops, and coordinated conservation measures which were applied to shared fish stocks. Around 2005 Argentina disengaged from their relationship with the SAFC. As a result, nowadays there is not a functioning regional fisheries management body to discuss the management of fish stocks in the shared areas (Kalikoski et al. 2006).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 02 Sep 2017

There is an in-season monitoring of the resource with the underlying goal of allowing a percentage of the stock to escape from exploitation to ensure the next year’s recruitment. This monitoring strategy can be considered as a mechanism in place to account for emergency situations caused by environmental conditions and over fishing. For instance, in the region south of 44ºS the 2002 and 2003 seasons were closed earlier to protect the resource. The system, however, cannot be considered to have rapid-acting triggers. In general, there are no viable contingency plans to restrict fishing in the event of an environmental emergency (Kalikoski et al. 2006)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 1 September 2017

To evaluate  catches’ trends weekly and annual catches reports are mandatory for each vessel of the jiggers’ fleet  (Res. SAGPyA 89/95 and Res. SAGPyA 357/98) and the trawlers fleet (Res. SAGPyA 167/09). 

Recently was established a certification and control system. This system is a mandatory administrative mechanism to prove the legality of catches, to provide sustainability to the fishery resources and certify that these species have been legally captured within the Argentine EEZ waters (Disposition 78 - E/2016, 05/09/2016).  

Since 2003 it is mandatory for the industrial fishing vessels to have a GPS and a satellite communication system (INMARSAT Std.C) to be all time monitored by the SSPyA. The information of this satellite-based vessel monitoring system (VMS) is also shared with INIDEP for being part of a comprehensive database in which oceanographic and fishing information is integrated under the Integrated Information System for Fisheries Oceanography (Sistema Integrado de Información Oceanográfica Pesquera, SIOP). The SSPyA also has a team of inspectors on board for at-sea controls with the help of the Maritime Police (Prefectura Nacional Argentina).

There are areas of the continental platform that extend beyond the 200 nautical miles of the EEZ into the international high seas where fleets from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and Spain do operate; some of these fleets cross into the Argentinean EEZ to fish illegally (Kalikoski et al. 2006). The number and distribution of foreign jigger vessels during the fishing season is estimated by INIDEP (Lasta et al. 2012; Cozzolino and Lasta 2016) and used for evaluation of the fishery performed in waters outside of the Argentine EEZ (Ivanovic et al. 2016). Therefore, catches’ estimates by the foreign fleets are made in an uncertainty scenario due to insufficient yields data (Ivanovic et al. 2016). Between 2012 and 2015 illegal catches range from 36% to 44%.In 2016 the illegal catches made by the foreign fleet within the Argentine EEZ was 4.2% of the total estimates for jiggers vessels in the fishing season, therefore the number of identified foreign ships was higher than the number of ships that composed the Argentine fleet. However 2016 estimates are highly uncertain because rely on data of 12 weeks. 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 1 September 2017

Squid is mostly caught with jiggers, considered one of the most selective fishing methods (Arkhipkin et al. 2015). The information and research of interaction between ETP species is mostly related to trawler fisheries. Copello and Quintana 2009 have shown the overlap of the different fleets operating in the Argentine shelf and the Southern giant petrel Macronectes giganteus (Least Concern, 2016 IUCN Redlist) ranging areas for breading seasons. This study shows that petrels spendt 75% of their time at sea within areas with “medium” trawlers' catch levels and “low” jiggers' catch levels, and did not overlap with the longline fishing grounds.

The INIDEP on board observers focus on recording the information related to the squid biology and catches, CPUE, and fishery production. Other information related with bycatch or other species interactions is not recorded.

HABITAT

Last updated on 1 September 2017

The Patagonian Shelf is the widest in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the few areas in the world where the continental shelf extends beyond the 200 nautical miles limit; the continental shelf until 200 m depth has an area of 300,300 nautical square miles even in its majority is less than 100 m depth; the continental slope (200-1000 m) has an approximate surface of 58,000 nautical square miles. In the northern part, the platform is narrow increasing its width further to the south, reaching the maximum breadth (869 km) around parallel 51º S. In the northern part, the slope until 50 fathoms is smooth (0.5 m/km) being steeper between 50 and 100 fathoms; in the south, the slope is higher from 0 to 50 fathoms (1m/km) and smoother between 50 and 100 fathoms (0.3 m/km) at the latitude of Puerto Deseado (47º 45’ S – 65º 55’ W).

The Patagonian Shelf is greatly influenced by the Subtropical Convergence formed by the Brazil and Falkland/Malvinas currents. The Falkland/Malvinas current is actually an offshoot of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, a branch that veers northward along the South American continental shelf (Garzoli and Bianchi 1987). The boundary between the cold Malvinas Current water and warmer inshore water parallels the coast until about the latitude of Buenos Aires, where the Malvinas encounters the Brazil Current (Deacon 1937; Gordon 1981; Legeckis and Gordon 1982). In this interaction, the flow of the Falkland/Malvinas Current is turned into the South Atlantic Ocean, while the warm Brazil Current waters are pushed toward the coast. Illex argentinus is highly influenced by the oceanographic conditions including inter- and intra-annual variability, performing yearly large migratory movements from the South of Brazil to Falklands, maybe related to its life cycle.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 01 Sep 2017

Based on the UNEP-WCMC (2002) database, the total area of no-take zones (coastal protected areas under categories I and II of IUCN) in the Patagonian Shelf LME is about 852 km2. That represents less than 1% of the EEZ, considering the large overlap between the LME and the Argentinean EEZ. There are 39 coastal-marine protected areas in Argentina. The closed marine area is very small, and for this reason it has no effect on fisheries management. On the other hand, there are a few closed areas (no-take zones) designed to protect: (i) hake spawners and juveniles, (ii) shrimp juveniles, (iii) multi-specific coastal assemblage reproductive areas, and (iv) juveniles of Patagonian tooth fish and, to some extent there are closed times (areas) to protect squid. Some of these areas are permanent; some of them open and close seasonally. The effectiveness of the fisheries closed areas is variable (Kalikoski et al. 2006).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 21 February 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Both management and evaluation of Illex argentinus are based on the knowledge of the population size recruited annually and its evolution throughout the fishing season. In the latest years the pre-recruit survey was not conducted in several opportunities affecting the estimation of both management units (Ivanovic et al, 2015).

As calculated for 2008 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no fishing mortality reference points set for the stock. Early management was based around an approach of constant fishing mortality throughout the season. The level of fishing mortality was adjusted to ensure 40% proportional escapement (this was defined as the ratio of the final stock size after fishing to the final stock size that would have been present in the absence of fishing) (Agnew et al., 2005). The escape estimation depends on the recruits’ surveys and the in the latest years these results are showing that the escape estimation has a high degree of uncertainty and is often below the threshold set as the management objective. Also, it is broadly accepted that the species has been under high fishing pressure (Nigmatullin et al. 2004, Abril et al. 2008).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
South Patagonian (SPS)

Last updated on 19 February 2018

  1. Argentine shortfin squid is monitored weekly and an initial abundance is estimated as well as weekly proportional escapement levels. The values provided in the INIDEP stock assessment reports for each of the assessment units were not included in the datasheet because they could not be validated in the last 10 years due to cancelled surveys by trade union strikes or budget constrictions affecting both abundance and escapement estimations made only with the commercial fleet data throughout the fishing season. Therefore, qualitative scores about the Current health and Future health of the stock were determined for each of the assessment units (please mouse-over for further details).
  2. Reported catches correspond to the jigger fleet operating inside the Argentinean EEZ North of 44ºS (Ivanovic et al. 2016).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
The following authors developed the majority of the content of this profile:

Fernández, Cynthia (cynsf@yahoo.com): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Macho, Gonzalo (gmacho@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

References

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