Last updated on 24 September 2018
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
- Work with managers and scientists to implement an independent review of the quality of the key input data that drive the stock assessment, and in particular whether the catch-per-unit-effort time series is an adequate index of the stock.
- Support managers and INIDEP to reinstate the periodic fishery-independent biomass surveys for Patagonian grenadier, to better inform the assessment model.
- Ensure that the work to address the harvest control rule (HCR) and reference point-related MSC certification condition fully explores and justifies the choice of the HCR and the reference points in a rigorous and transparent manner.
- Ask fishery managers to further explore the need to share information and coordinate stock assessments with Chile.
- Work with the fishery to reduce catches of Patagonian toothfish to ensure that catch limits are complied with.
- Work with scientists and managers to determine the stock status of Patagonian cod, establish catch limits, and ensure catch compliance.
- Ask managers for increased implementation and monitoring and compliance with recently tested mitigation measures for seabirds.
- Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Last updated on 22 August 2019
In Argentina, the National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development (INIDEP) is in charge of assessing the status of marine resources. Hoki's assessment is carried out annually, using an AD Model Builder age-structured analysis since 2012. This model was peer-reviewed by external scientists, in 2014 and 2016 (GIUSSI et al. 2016), and improvements were applied in 2016, following peer reviewers recommendations: i) estimation of the virginal reproductive biomass; ii) use of a stock-recruitment relationship and iii) use of the variability of the reproductive biomass, as an index to set biological reference points. These led to drastic changes in the assessment model and estimated reference points; resulting in a completely different understanding of stock status. However, a detailed background of the new methodology is not included in the stock assessment report (GIUSSI et al. 2016)(GIUSSI et al. 2017) (see more details under the Currents status section below).
In 2018, an update of this assessment was undertaken based on data from 1985 -2017 (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018). Input data integrates abundance estimates from research surveys from 1992-2009 and an abundance index developed with catch per unit effort (CPUE) data from 2003-2017 (due to lack of research surveys), onboard observer data in commercial vessels, total commercial catches (national and foreign vessels data; for Argentinean catches, estimates include corrections due to misreporting and discarding). As well, input data included catch-at-age data (1985-2017) updated with a recently estimated age-structure and length frequency distribution of commercial catches from data gathered onboard (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018)(Giussi and Zavatteri 2018). Research surveys to obtain independent relative abundance indexes were re-established in March 2019 (INIDEP 2019) but the results of this survey are not available yet.
Uncertainties refer to the knowledge about the stock structure and biological processes of the species, recruitment estimates in recent years, biomass indices and CPUE (GIUSSI et al. 2016)(Giussi and Zavatteri 2018). Studies suggested a high mixture between Pacific and Atlantic populations (Schuchert et al., 2010; Niklitschek et al., 2013), therefore, cooperative assessments between both countries may be needed to cover the entire stock distribution area. Recently, several research studies have been undertaken to help clarify the stock structure of Patagonian grenadier but none of the studies allowed the identification of separate groups (e.g. Gorini et al., 2019 in (Morsan et al. 2019).
Stock assessment reports are available upon request through the INIDEP website.
Last updated on 22 August 2019
To estimate the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) levels, the population’s evolution is simulated under different assumptions regarding future recruitment and exploitation levels, and the risk of overfishing is measured for each scenario. Recruitment scenarios used were E1 = long-term average from 1985 to 2015; E2 = same time series, but excluding estimates higher than that average, and E3 = last ten years estimates (2006-2015). Last two available years were excluded from all scenarios due to high uncertainties. Fishing mortality (F) reference levels considered in the scenario analysis were: F from last stock assessment (F2017), F associated to the biomass reference point (Ftarget =F40% SSB0) and F from applying the harvest control rule (FHCR). ABC values ranged from 41,642 to 185,050 tonnes. The final recommendation for 2019 was to maintain the catch limit at 80,000 tonnes, set catch value for 2017 and an intermediate value of ABC range estimates (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018).
INIDEP scientists noted that the suspension of the research assessment surveys (2010 onwards) in the area extending from 45° to 55° SL, produced a significant increase in the uncertainty and this triggered an update and re-analysis of the CPUE as an abundance index (Morsan et al. 2016).
In 2019, an evaluation of strategies of exploitation was undertaken through the Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) approach (Canales et al. 2019). Three harvest strategies were tested: a) the proposal harvest control rule (HCR) based on the proportional value of the virgin biomass (BV between 25% and 40%), b) the actual management procedure that considers the fishing mortality variable (Fvar) to avoid decrease the biomass with a risk level smaller than 10%, and c) considering the fishing mortality constant corresponding to the target reference point (F40%). All the strategies presented a low level of bias. The results indicated that the current rule (Fvar) will lead to a higher escape of the reproductive biomass (SSB) resulting in a lower average value of catches and with higher variability. The other two strategies (HCR proposal and F40%) presented similar results. The proposal HCR was considered robust and with the advantage of being adjustable to situations were biomass estimates were below the reference point. If the SSB is estimated below 25% SSB virgin then the fishing mortality is decreased to a value that corresponds to 25%Ftarget to allow biomass recovery. However, Canales et al. (2019) mentioned that to apply the HCR it is necessary to re-establish the research surveys to obtain abundance indices at least every two years (Canales et al. 2019). However, in this simulations, a value of target SSB at 161,000 tonnes was estimated that is lower than the value estimated by the last assessment (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018)(Giussi and Zavatteri 2018).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
From 2016, there was a significant change in the stock status compared with previous stock assessments, due to changes in the assessment model, updated population parameters and reference points (GIUSSI et al. 2017b). The INIDEP Technical report no. 11/2016 proposed a new limit reference point at 40% of SSB0, which supersedes the 500,000 tonnes limit used between 2001-2013 and the 450,000 tonnes limit used between 2013-2015 (Giussi et al. 2016). The 2016 stock assessment report (Technical report no. 40/2016) mentions the limit reference point (PRBL) as 25% of SSB0 = 126,985 tonnes and the target reference point (PRBO) as 40% of SSB0 = 203,176 tonnes (GIUSSI et al. 2016). Those references points considered the virgin spawning stock (SSB0) as it was in 1985 (corresponding to the first year of diagnosis of the abundance through assessment). The same reference points were considered in the proposal of a Harvest Control Rule (GIUSSI et al. 2017). These (and other assumptions of the assessment model) were reviewed by an international expert (Cristian Canales) but the results from the workshop dedicated to the "Revision and Evaluation of Patagonian grenadier in SW Atlantic", held on May 2016 jointly with INIDEP experts, are not available publicly, even if mentioned in several INIDEP and MSC reports. The same reference points were established by the Consejo Nacional Pesquero as being part of the set HCR, by June 2017 (ACTA CFP N° 14/2017). On the other hand, the MSC Public Certification Report, in regard to the assumption to recognize the virgin spawning stock (SSB0) as in 1985 to calculate both limit and target reference points, considers that “With respect to this assumption, analysis of the information showed that there was no evidence to support that BR1985 was the virginal biomass. In fact, there are records of catches at least since the beginning of the 80’ and estimation of the BR0 produced higher values than those corresponding to BR1985.” (Morsan et al. 2018).
The same assessment model was used in 2017. In the last stock assessment (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018), the virgin state (SSB0= 507,271 tonnes) was considered as a theoretical condition due to the lack of exploitation and under equilibrium conditions, before the analysed period (t=1985) (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018)(Giussi and Zavatteri 2018). The limit reference point (PRBL) as 25% of SSB0 = 126,818 tonnes and the target reference point (PRBO) as 40% of SSB0 = 202,908 tonnes were then calculated. SSB in 2018 (=255,740 tonnes) was considered slightly above the target level. The current SSB value is at 50% of the virgin biomass (SSB0=507,271 tonnes) and at 63% of the biomass estimate at the begin of exploration (SSB1985= 403,050 tonnes) (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018)(Giussi and Zavatteri 2018).
However, both new limit and target reference levels are not supported by the stock-recruitment series available in last stock assessment reports (GIUSSI et al. 2016)(GIUSSI et al. 2017) (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018), raising uncertainties around the recently defined reference points and thus on the current stock status. Additionally, the current SSB estimate is below the long-term time-series average (SSB1985-2017= 380,000 tonnes).
The stock has experienced cyclic increments and declines over the time series (see graphics for trends). The significant decrease in Pacific and Atlantic populations' biomasses from mid 2000's may be related to the absence of high recruitment events observed in the mid-1990's. A gradual increase is observed since 2013 (GIUSSI et al. 2016)(GIUSSI et al. 2017). Current recruitment seems similar to the high recruitment phase identified in 1998-2000, but the estimates show high uncertainty (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018). This may be more related to abiotic factors than to intrinsic population conditions.
Catches attained relative maximum values (145,000 tonnes) when foreign fleets started to explore this resource under international agreements in mid-1980s. Between 1990 and 1997 catches decreased to ~40,000 tonnes, due to the end of these agreements. Since 2012, total catch levels have been well below catch limits, and are close to the lower limits of biologically acceptable catch ranges (GIUSSI et al. 2016)(GIUSSI et al. 2017). For 2018, catches (38,425 tonnes) (Secretaria de Agroindustria 2018) increased in relation to the previous year but they are still well below the recommended level (80,000 tonnes).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
A system of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) was established in 2010, and the Total Allowable Catch (TAC; Captura Maxima Permissible, CMP) for hoki is set annually by the Fisheries Federal Council (Consejo Federal Pesquero, CFP), based on acceptable biological catch recommendations. In 2019, it was established an exceptional and transitory mechanism for the ITQC holders to attenuate the effects of the “exctintion regime” by lack of exploitation (Resolución 2 (7-3-13)), to overpass the difficulties experienced by shipowners to comply with the percentage of catch established (CFP 2019).
In 2012, CFP established a Fishery Management Plan that includes specific objectives and management measures (CFP Resolution N° 22/2012), among these are: i) a spatial closure for industrialtrawlers (Surimi processing); ii) minimum mesh size of 120 mm; iii) minimum landing size of 60cm; iv) when >50% of the catch proportion is of juveniles, the fishing operation should be moved a minimum of 5 nautical miles; v) the presence of an onboard scientific observer from INIDEP to monitor bycatch of seabirds, and an inspector. Also, an Advisor Commission was created to monitor fishing activities (CFP Resolution N° 5/2010). The level of enforcement of the regulation in place is not clear and the high level of discards of the target species resulted in the suspension of the MSC certificate (effective since June 2019).
Between 2000 and 2003, TACs were set at scientifically advised levels but since then TACs have generally overpassed scientific recommendations (with exception of 2008 and 2013). TAC has been set at 130,000 tonnes from 2014 to 2016, overpassing the advice (CFP, 2014c), for 2017 it was significantly reduced to 80,000 tonnes (CFP 2016). However, this volume was 30% higher than the advised catch level to maintain the stock biomass at the new target level (GIUSSI et al. 2016). For 2019, TAC remained at 80,000 tonnes, which is in line with INIDEP advice (CFP 2018).
A harvest control rule (HCR) has been proposed (GIUSSI et al. 2017) and accepted by the CFP (CFP 2017), which anticipates reducing fishing effort if the biomass drops below target and limit levels. A recent study (Canales et al. 2019) applied a Marine Strategy Evaluation (MSE) and considered this HCR robust. However, it is not clear if it is already in place.
Last updated on 22 August 2019
Four fleets target hoki in Argentinean waters: ice chilled vessels, hake freezer vessels, factory freezer vessels and surimi freezer vessels. Catches have been consistently below set TACs, in 2017 TAC was set at 80,000 tonnes while catches were at 29,047 tonnes. For 2018, TAC remained at 80,000 tonnes (CFP 2018) and catch data indicated a value around 38,425 tonnes (Secretaria de Agroindustria 2018). Underreporting and discarding are regularly estimated, and up-to-date estimates are used to correct nominal catches (GIUSSI et al. 2015)(GIUSSI et al. 2016)(GIUSSI et al. 2017). Since 2004, fishing vessels are equipped with VMS and must take an on-board observer; dockside monitoring is also performed in 100% of landings (CFP, 2012; Prenski et al., 2015).
Discards of the target species represent about 14% of the total catches (3,176 tonnes) based on 2017 data (Mari and Giussi 2018). This situation seems to be associated with unwanted catches of juveniles (Morsan et al. 2019) and the management measures in place (see Management section) resulting in the suspension of the MSC certificate (effective since June 2019). Although the discard estimate is considered high, discards and catch values are still well below the set TAC. Additionally, the most frequent age of individuals caught in 2017 was 4 years, age that most of the individuals are already mature (> 50% mature) while the immatures individuals (age < 3) represented about 38% of the total catch (Giussi and Zavatteri 2018).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
A National Action Plan for the Conservation of Marine Mammals has been approved in Argentina in late 2015 (PAN-Mamíferos). Hoki fishery interacts with marine mammals (Morsan et al. 2018).
The Argentine hoki bottom and mid-water trawl fishery in Argentine Sea interacts with chondrichthyes and seabirds that are classified as ETP species by national legislation (CFP Resolutions N° 6/2009 and N° 15/2010) and binding international agreements.
Argentina published in 2010 the National Action Plan for the Reduction of Bird-fishery Interactions (PAN-Aves) and is signatory of international agreements to protect seabirds. Black browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys is the main species interacting with trawlers. It was considered as Near Threatened until 2017 (IUCN red List; BI, 2014a) but was recently assessed as Least Concern (IUCN 2017) as population is increasing. Other ETP seabirds such as the Atlantic petrel Pterodroma incerta (Endangered in IUCN Red List; BI, 2015a), the Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora (Vulnerable in IUCN Red List; D2, assessed in 2016) and white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis (Vulnerable in IUCN Red List; BI, 2015b) also interact with fishing gears (Prenski et al., 2012). A pilot project to assess the effectiveness of a streamer line in the surimi freezer trawler fleet was conducted. A mortality rate of 0.25 birds per tow was estimated, including: Black-browed Albatross, Southern Royal Albatross, Southern Giant Petrel and Northern Giant Petrel ((Macronectes halli). Impacts were significantly reduced when using the streamer line as a mitigation measure (Tamini et al. 2016). An update of the plan of action for seabirds for the period 2017-2019 was undertaken.
Mandatory use of two streamer lines in all freezer vessels with bottom trawl net has recently entered into force (CFP 2017). A condition was set to the certified component of the fishery to provide evidence of the effectiveness and appropriate implementation to minimize mortality of ETP seabirds (Morsan et al. 2018). Another mitigation measure was also implemented, scare-birds lines in the warp cables, but some boats are not implementing the mitigation measures. Data from on board observers indicated that 1.16 % of the hauls have interactions with birds which represents an incidental mortality of 3.6 birds / 100 haul. The black-browed albatross is the most critical species for these interactions (Morsan et al. 2019).
According to Morsan et al. (2018), identification and quantification of ETP species are systematically carried out by INIDEP onboard observers program and the secretariat of fisheries (SSPyA) authorities in the landing process, however report on ETP species interactions and bycatch is not publicly available. In 2019, a new commission for strengthen the measures to reduce the bycatch was established (CFP 2019).
A National Action Plan for the Reduction of Chondrichthyans-fishery Interactions (PAN-Tiburones) was published in 2009, and has been updated in 2015 (PAN-Tiburones Revision 2015). Among chondrichthyans, Porbeagle (Lamna nasus) is the only ETP species with significant catches (Cortés and Waessle, 2017; Morsan et al., 2018), which is categorized by IUCN as “vulnerable” at the global level. Another three chondrichthyans categorized by IUCN as vulnerable are caught int this fishery: whitedotted skate (Rhinoraja albomaculata), yellownose skate (Zearaja chilensis) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). There is a 50% bycatch limit of chondrichthyans per fishing trip, yet, no information on current bycatch levels is available.
Generic measures are in place for the purpose of sharks bycatch mitigation: i) it is forbidden to target chondrichthyan species, ii) shark finning and use of hooks in discarding process are also is forbidden, iii) it is mandatory to return live individuals that exceed the size of 160 cm and all individual dead by fishing process shall be recorded, iv) it is established a 50% as total landing catch of skates, sharks and Callorhynchus callorhynchus per fishing trip, or a 30% as maximum limit of landing for sharks and skates per fishing trip, and in case detecting that fishing haul exceeds the limits mentioned above, the vessel shall change the fishing operation area (CFP Resolutions N° 13/2003, N° 13/2009, N° 4/2013 and N° 7/2013). (Puliafito and Massa 2016) reviewed an alternative measure that maximizes post-capture survival of great sharks in the demersal austral fishery, but this is not mandatory yet.
In 2018, a National Plan to reduce the interaction of marine turtles in the fisheries was established (CFP 2018). In Argentine waters, 4 turtle species can be found: green turtle (Chelonian mydas), loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Green turtle and loggerhead are considered in endangered and the leatherback turtle is considered critically endangered (CFP 2018).
In 2018, Argentina extended its network of Marine Proteted Areas (MPAs) creating two new marine protected areas: the Yaganes Marine National Park and and the Namuncurá-Burdwood Bank II Marine National Park in the South Atlantic. Together, the two parks cover a total area of about 98,000 square kilometers (37,000 square miles) and those areas cover several vulnerable and threatened species such as black-browed albatrosses and South American fur seals (Ley 27490).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
Hoki is mostly captured in the southern demersal fishery (85% bottom trawl). This fishery is mainly carried out in the Patagonian area located south of 48°, has multispecies characteristics including as main target species Patagonian grenadier or hoki (Macruronus magellanicus) encompassing 50-70% of catches and Southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis) with 15-35% of catches. Secondary species are Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) with 6-11% of catches in recent years, Patagonian cod (Salilota australis) with 5-6% of catches and southern hake (Merluccius australis) with 2-5% (GORINI and GIUSSI 2018). However, percentages vary among the different fleets fishing hoki. In 2016, factory vessels caught mainly hoki (70%), and several secondary species: 9%), hake (Merluccius hubbsi), southern hake (Merluccius australis, 7%) and Tadpole codling or Patagonian cod (Salilota australis, 5.5%) (SSPyA 2017). Ice-chilled and freezer vessels can target hake or hoki and the main incidentally species captured is squid (Illex argentinus) (Prenski et al., 2014). These catches are considered in squid assessments by INIDEP, however on board observers monitoring should increase (Buono and Ivanovic 2015).
Most of these species are managed under the quota system, therefore are closely followed by INIDEP (e.g. CFP Resolutions Nº 4/2016, Nº 17/2016, Nº 18/2016). Southern blue whiting (locally known as polaca) is around its limit reference point; biomass is increasing since 2011 after management measures were established to allow recovery of the stock (GIUSSI and ZAVATTERI 2017). Patagonian toothfish (locally known as merluza negra) is above its limit reference point but below the recently proposed target reference point (DI MARCO et al. 2017); TAC has been set at 3,700 tonnes since 2015 (CFP 2015)(CFP 2016)(CFP 2017)(CFP 2018), slightly above the recently recommended level to achieve the target reference point (30% of the spawning stock biomass in 1980, at the beginning of the evaluation of the stock). However, catches have been above 5,000 tonnes in the last years (GORINI and GIUSSI 2018).
For southern hake (locally known as merluza austral), for 2019 TACs was set at 3,400 tonnes (CFP 2019), representing a 32% decreased from the previous years. The Argentine hoki fishery went through a MSC re-certification process recently, in which a condition was issued to update the knowledge of the stock status of this species (Morsan et al. 2018). A stock assessment was recently conducted and reference points were proposed (GIUSSI and ZAVATTERI 2018); indicating the stock is around the proposed target reference point set at 50% of the spawning stock biomass in 1986, at the beginning of the evaluation of the stock (GIUSSI and ZAVATTERI 2018).
Patagonian cod (locally known as bacalao austral) last TAC was established in 2005 at 5,000 tonnes, however, this TAC was not supported by a scientific recommendation and was never renewed or updated. There is no stock assessment conducted and no management measures set for this species. Landings have ranged from 6 to 12 thousand tonnes from 2005 to 2014, dropped below 6 thousand tonnes since 2015 and dropped again below 3 thousand tonnes in 2017 (GORINI and GIUSSI 2018).
The freezer and the surimi fleets caught 79.9% and 19.9%, respectively, of the total catch of patagonian grenadier (hoki). Globally, the freezer vessels discard 19% of their total catch and mainly “other bony fishes” without commercial interest. The surimi fleet discard 2% of their total catch and discards are mainly constituted by patagonian grenadier and cephalopods (Mari and Giussi 2018).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
Several studies have been undertaken to describe the benthic habitats where the hoki fishery is conducted and to assess the specific impacts. Invertebrate groups were mapped from samples collected before the hoki fishery reached its maximum development. Many identified groups are considered as indicator taxa of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME), e.g. porifera, bryozoans, hydroids, echinoderms, and their distribution pattern match with areas of main hoki reported catches by Argentine and foreign fleets operating in the AEEZ (Prenski et al., 2014). According to a recent study, the highest benthic diversity occurs between 800-1500 m depth, mostly dominated by the phyla Porifera and Cnidaria (Portela et al. 2015).
In 2014, INDEP began to explore the state of the seafloor where the hoki fishery takes place. An initial study conducted by the hoki commercial fleet with onboard observers indicated that the amount of biomass of benthos bycatch arriving on board is very low (Marí & Giussi, 2014). Updated data indicate changes in fleets’ behavior, with increased and more spatially concentrated bottom trawling in comparison to previous years. Two main areas of high bottom trawling intensity were detected, one south of Island of Tierra del Fuego characterized by scallop Zygochlamys patagonica. The other areas is located northeast of Staten Island and is dominated by a mixture of predators such as echinoderms and the snail Fusitriton magellanicus and filters like sponges and scallop. The highest richness areas were identified in Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands) and around Tierra del Fuego (Morsan et al. 2018).
VMS monitoring system allowed estimation of the timing, location, and severity of the impacts of the trawl fisheries in the Argentine continental platform (Alemany et al. 2016), and they determined that the spatial distribution of trawling activity is patchy and trawling hotspots were small, comprising annually <5% of the shelf extension or <7% of the total trawlable area. These findings suggest that the magnitude of habitat effects as result of bottom trawling is relatively small. Even if coincident with high richness areas, the fishing area is low, thus, the probability that the fishery would reduce structure and function of habitats now or in the future is low. Still, concerns on cumulative impacts from bottom trawling in those small hotspots have been raised (Gaitán and Mari 2016); and the need to assess with greater detail the composition of the benthic community in the sector has been pointed (Morsan et al. 2018).
Mid-water trawl net rarely encounters the sea bottom as it can be damaged by it, incurring in significant costs to fishers (Morsan et al. 2018).
The strategy to protect priority habitats from fishery impacts is via areas closed for trawl fishing, such as: (1) area for the protection of hake juveniles (CFP Act N° 265/2000); (2) area for the protection of Patagonian toothfish juveniles (CFP Act N° 17/2002); (3) area closed for all trawling fisheries (Argentinean Federal Law Nº 23.968); and (4) the first marine protected area (MPA) Namuncurá – Banco Burdwood (Law Nº 26.875) created in 2013 (MEyFP 2013). Following, the National System of Marine Protected Areas was established in 2014 as a tool for creation and coordination of new necessary MPAs (MAyDS 2016).
Last updated on 22 August 2019
Fishery ecosystems have been identified in the Argentine Sea. Since the promulgation of the first MPA in Argentina, in 2013, and establishment of the National System of Marine Protected Areas in 2014, information on ecosystems at finer scale has been published (MAyDS 2016). Main areas with ecological importance include the austral slope, the Burdwood Bank and its slope (Schejter et al. 2016), where the hoki fishery operates. The key element of the ecosystem is the presence of the Malvinas Current (cold and rich in nutrients) (Morsan et al. 2018). It flows along the slope generating oceanographic structures, such as fronts, which are discontinuities in the marine environment influencing the ecology of marine organisms. This system brings several services like nutrient recycling from the bottom, carbon dioxide absortion (specially associated to fronts) and antropogenic use (transport and fisheries). Frontal systems are characterized by high primary and secondary production that is transferred to higher trophic levels within the regional food web (Alemany et al. 2014). Juvenilles of patagonian grenadier were more frequently located along frontal areas while adult individuals did not shown any relationship with fronts (Alemany et al. 2018). The trophic web of fish community between 45° and 54° S is strongly supported by zooplankton. A Magellanic corridor is being proposed as one of the 3 corridors to integrate key ecological areas in the Argentine EEZ (MAyDS 2016). A comprehensive description of the possible impacts of the climate change in the fisheries in SW Atlantic can be found at (Bertrand et al. 2018).