SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Macruronus magellanicus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Patagonian grenadier, Hoki

COMMON NAMES

merluza de cola (Spanish)

Patagonian grenadier or Hoki is distributed in the Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic, from southern Chile to Argentina. Chilean hoki has been assessed as a single stock unit, supported by genetic studies (Stewart & Hanselman, 2012), however, recent studies suggested high mixture between Pacific and Atlantic populations (Schuchert et al., 2010; Niklitschek et al., 2013).There have been joint workshops between Chilean and Argentine research institutes but there are two separate assessment units: Patagonian grenadier - Argentine and a Patagonian grenadier - Chilean (GIUSSI et al. 2016).

Two management areas are defined for the hoki fishery in Chilean waters: the central-south unit comprised by the V-X regions and the southern-austral unit including the XI and XII regions.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock assessments have improved following a peer review analysis.
  • Some recovery measures have been set since 2012, e.g. a seasonal closure was implemented to protect the spawning stock during peak of the reproduction period, significant reduction of TAC.
  • SSB has increased in recent years and exploitation rate fall below the target level, after 10 years.
  • Some measures are already in place to protect bottom habitats and biodiversity (e.g., three coastal marine reserves and a ban on trawling within five miles off the shore).
Weaknesses
  • The stock is overexploited, age structure shows predominance of juveniles and recruitment levels are very low since 2000.
  • Estimates for discarding and underreporting are high, but have not been included in the stock assessment as recommended.
  • There is no management plan in place.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

6.2

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

3.8

Future Health:

8.2


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Develop and implement a stock recovery plan which should include harvest control rules and limit reference points aimed to reduce fishing mortality and to recover the biomass.
2. Define and establish Total Allowable Captures based upon scientific recommendations and aligned with the recovery strategy.
3. Improve the stock assessment by including discards and under reporting estimates in the fishing mortality. Make current stock assessment and scientific advice publicly available.
4. Expand the coverage of the Discards Research Program and design and implement a bycatch management and monitoring strategy.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage the fishery’s management agency to develop and implement the stock recovery plan.
2. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).
3. Encourage the producers and processors to start a Fishery Improvement Project.
4. Encourage vessels in your supply chain to participate in the Discard Research Program.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile V-X Chile Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Strengths
  • Stock assessments have improved following a peer review analysis.
  • Some recovery measures have been set since 2012, e.g. a seasonal closure was implemented to protect the spawning stock during peak of the reproduction period, significant reduction of TAC.
  • SSB has increased in recent years and exploitation rate fall below the target level, after 10 years.
  • Some measures are already in place to protect bottom habitats and biodiversity (e.g., three coastal marine reserves and a ban on trawling within five miles off the shore).
Weaknesses
  • The stock is overexploited, age structure shows predominance of juveniles and recruitment levels are very low since 2000.
  • Estimates for discarding and underreporting are high, but have not been included in the stock assessment as recommended.
  • There is no management plan in place.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 October 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Develop and implement a stock recovery plan which should include harvest control rules and limit reference points aimed to reduce fishing mortality and to recover the biomass.
2. Define and establish Total Allowable Captures based upon scientific recommendations and aligned with the recovery strategy.
3. Improve the stock assessment by including discards and under reporting estimates in the fishing mortality. Make current stock assessment and scientific advice publicly available.
4. Expand the coverage of the Discards Research Program and design and implement a bycatch management and monitoring strategy.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the fishery’s management agency to develop and implement the stock recovery plan.
2. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).
3. Encourage the producers and processors to start a Fishery Improvement Project.
4. Encourage vessels in your supply chain to participate in the Discard Research Program.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Recent studies using otolith chemistry suggested the existence of a highly mixed ‘Patagonian stock’, extending from the southern Pacific waters to the Southwest Atlantic Ocean (Schuchert et al., 2010; Niklitschek et al., 2013), indicating that the assumption of independent stocks should be re-evaluated (IFOP, 2013). However, until present hoki is assessed as a single stock unit in Chile based on genetic studies (Stewart & Hanselman, 2012). The assessment of the hoki Chilean stock (Macruronus magellanicus) is carried out annually by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP) on request of the Subsecretariat of Fisheries (Subsecretaría de Pesca, SUBPESCA).

Stock assessments by IFOP are not public but are available upon request. The AD Model Builder platform is used for the assessment. Data from the acoustic surveys relies on a single survey, conducted during the spawning aggregation and in a limited area (between parallels 43°30’ and 47° S). In 2012, the stock assessment was subject to international peer review, the peer review panel concluded that the lack of reliable estimates of discards and underreporting was the most serious deficiency in the assessment (Stewart & Hanselman, 2012). A research program was created in 2013 to estimate discard and bycatch rates in demersal fisheries and is still underway (SUBPESCA, 2013f; 2014d; MEFT, 2015b).

In 2015, the stock assessment has included several of improvements suggested by the peer reviewers, except the use of corrected catches, because there are not reliable estimates for the complete historical series yet (IFOP, 2015).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Official scientific advice has historically been provided annually by IFOP. But under the New General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (SUBPESCA, 2013e), a Scientific and Technical Committee for Demersal and Deep Water resources (CCT-RDAP) – gathering IFOP and SUBPESCA– was created to give scientific support to management decisions. Based on IFOP reports, the CCT- RDAP annually recommends an Acceptable Biological Catch (Captura Biológicamente Aceptable, CBA) range based on the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) approach, where the lower value of the range is 20% below the upper.

IFOP’s updated assessment in 2015 indicates that the stock is overexploited and in risk of depletion (IFOP, 2015). Even though more precautionary reference points (IFOP, 2015) have been adopted recently for the stock (CCT-RDAP, 2015a), projected acceptable biological catch (CBA) options from IFOP assessment implied higher volumes than in 2015. However, given the stock depleted condition, the CCT-RDAP recommended to adopt a status quo strategy, maintaining TAC as in previous year, at 40,321 tons (CCT-RDAP, 2015b). Therefore, the range for CBA for 2016 is 32,257 and 40,321 tons.

Reference Points

Last updated on 01 Feb 2016

More precautionary biological references points than those previously used (IFOP, 2015) have been adopted (CCT-RDAP, 2015a).As data is not sufficient to estimate a stock-recruitment relationship, proxies based on the Maximum Sustainable Yield are used:

• Target biomass reference point proxy: SSBMSY ≈ 45%SSB0
• Limit biomass reference point proxy: 50%SSBMSY ≈ 22.5%SSB0
• Limit fishing mortality proxy: limit exploitation rate: UMSY ≈ U45%SSB/R

These more precautionary reference points were already applied for the 2015 stock assessment (IFOP, 2015).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 1 February 2016

The Chilean hoki stock is overfished and in risk of depletion (IFOP, 2015; CCT-RDAP, 2015b). In the last eight years, age structure from landings shows and from hydroacoustic surveys indicate a predominance of juveniles in the population and scarce abundance of fish older than 6 years (IFOP, 2015; (IFOP, 2015).

Total stock biomass was estimated for 2014 at 409,000 tons and spawning stock biomass at 196,000 tons showing a gradual increase since 2012 for both indicators. This recovery is due to growth of fish in the population, as abundance has remained almost constant. Recruitment is stable at low levels since 2000 to date. Landings have decreased since 2011, the exploitation rate has diminished significantly in 2014 (IFOP, 2015).

Estimations of discarding and under-reporting rates are not yet included in the stock assessment (IFOP, 2015) and may influence the stock status (Stewart & Hanselman, 2012).

Trends

Last updated on 01 Feb 2016

Initially unregulated catches of mostly younger age groups, as a bycatch of the jack mackerel purse seine fishery, led to landings of hoki occasionally exceeding 300,000 tons in the 1990s, and the depletion of the stock. A shift in productivity resulted, leading to lower recruitment (IFOP, 2013).

Recent years stock assessments indicate a gradual decline of the older age classes since 2008 to date (IFOP, 2013; SUBPESCA, 2014a, IFOP, 2015), which coincides with trends in size structure observed from hydroacoustic surveys and landings; interpreted as a deterioration of the hoki population (SUBPESCA, 2014a). Spawning stock biomass (SSB) estimates show a decreasing trend, with exploitation rates above target levels from 2006 to 2013.

An abrupt reduction in recruitment since 2000 was observed and has greatly contributed to the depleted stock condition (IFOP, 2013). This drop exceeded expectations from changes in the SSB, indicating a change in the stock-recruitment relationship. A recent study indicated that sea-surface temperature anomaly may be reflecting major physical or biological changes relevant to M. magellanicus juveniles in the SE Pacific (Cubillos et al., 2014).Since 2004, the stock is collapsed, with SSB lower than the limit reference point, jeopardizing the he renewal of stock. Recruitment shows a period of high levels, from 1985 to 1999, with peaks in 1986, 1994 and 1996, and a period of low recruitment levels, from 2000 to 2014 (IFOP, 2015).

After a period of sharp decline, landings stabilized around 70,000 tons from 2004 to 2011, but have declined to less than 50,000 tons since 2012, explained by the lower TAC, what caused a reduction in both, the fresh and the freezer trawl fleets operation (SUBPESCA, 2014a). In 2014, operations remained similar to recent years, exploitation being concentrated in feeding or spawning aggregations (IFOP, 2015).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 1 February 2016

From February 2013, a modification of the Fisheries and Aquaculture law (“Ley de Pesca y Acuicultura”, Law N° 20.657) was implemented (SUBPESCA, 2013e), leading to the classification of the fisheries according to the definition of conservation measures and management based on the biological and fishery references points defined under the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) criteria, and to positive changes in the management system.
The final set TAC decision lies in the hands of the Ministry of Economy, Development and Turism (Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo) based on CCT-RDAP recommendations. Since 2011 significant reductions in TAC were undertaken in order to protect the stock, due to a strong decrease in stock biomass since 2000. For 2016, TAC was established at 40,321 tons (MEFT, 2015a), in line with recommended catch by the scientific committee (CCT-RDAP, 2015b).

There are two management areas for the Chilean hoki, the central-south unit which includes the V-X regions and the austral unit, including XI and XII regions, each with its own quota fraction of the global TAC. The quota is fractionated for each of the two management units, according to historical landings ratios: 60% for the central-south unit and 40% for the austral unit (MEFT, 2015).

A Hoki Management Committee is being created for the development of a management plan (SUBPESCA, 2016). Also, a research program to estimate discards and bycatch rates in the hoki fishery is underway (MEFT, 2015b).

A seasonal closure, from 1st to 31st August every year, was implemented for the directed fishery in order to protect the spawning stock during peak of the reproduction period, and a hoki bycatch limit of 327 tons was established for the Southern blue whiting fishery (SUBPESCA, 2013c,d).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 01 Feb 2016

Although the Chilean hoki stock is considered over-exploited since 2004, there isno management or recovery plan in place. A Management Committee for Hoki is being created for the development of a management plan (SUBPESCA, 2016), in line with the new Fisheries Law requirements of Management Plans for fisheries with a closed-access system or in a recovery regime.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Overall, reported landings have been below the set TACs – from 2001-2012 in average ~55% of the set TACs were utilized. Since 2012 TACs suffered significant reductions and reported landings have been still below set TACs. However, reported landings have surpassed scientifically advised limits in 2014 and 2015. On board observers continues to report events of discarding and underreporting by the trawl fishery (SUBPESCA, 2014a,d). IFOP (2013) estimated an average discarding and/or underreporting factor of 1.5, obtaining a higher value (1.64) for the fresh vessels than for the offshore southern fleet estimated in 1.32. These estimates are not used in the stock assessment as there are not reliable values for the complete time series. A research project is underway to estimate discard and bycatch rates for the hoki trawl fishery in order to obtain real historical removals (MEFT, 2015b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) and yellownose skate (Dipturus chilensis) are among the bycatch species of the bottom trawling for hoki, though there is no systematic information about the interaction with PET species in this fishery. Tope shark is classified as Vulnerable globally by IUCN but there is no information of its status off Peru and Chile, representing an urgent research need (Walker et al., 2006). Yellownose skate is also Vulnerable globally, and its abundance and biomass are known to have decreased off Chile. A catch quota and seasonal closure have been introduced for the species but its low productivity and continued exploration are of concern (Kyne et al., 2007).

A research program is underway to estimate discard and bycatch in the hoki trawl fishery, which is supposed to provide valuable information on bycatch, including protected, endangered and threatened species (SUBPESCA, 2013f; 2014d; MEFT, 2015b).

Other Species

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Hoki is a clear target for the trawl fishery. The principal bycatch species are Southern blue whiting (around 20%) and Southern hake (10%) which are also assessed and included in the quota management system.

Some extra-official information asserts that Southern hake by-catch is higher than reported, particularly during the spawning season for both species. According to reports from on-board observers, between 60-90% of the catches are discarded, mainly comprised by juveniles of several species (ECOCEANOS, undated).

A research program was created in 2013 and extended to March 2015 to estimate discard and bycatch in the hoki trawl fishery, which is supposed to provide valuable information on bycatch species, including hoki juveniles (SUBPESCA, 2013f; 2014d; MEFT, 2015b).

HABITAT

Last updated on 1 February 2016

There is size segregation in the water column, juveniles and young adults are found at lesser depths, reason why they were vulnerable to the purse seine fleet that used to operate in the V-X Regions.Adults, on the other hand, are found at depths larger than 200 m and are fished with trawling nets in both management areas.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies regarding the impact of trawling operations over the sea bottom. There is, however, a ban on trawling within five miles off the shore, which is likely to protect important benthic habitats.

Hoki is an important dietary item for South Pacific hake and Southern blue whiting, both of which constitute important Chilean fisheries, and is a secondary choice for jumbo squid. The hoki WG has advised that trophic relations be studied further (SUBPESCA, 2012a). The Scientific and Technical Committee has restated this recommendation recently in order to increase the knowledge on the status of the hoki stock (SUBPESCA, 2014c).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 01 Feb 2016

The Marine Park “Francisco Coloane”, inside the Strait of Magellan, protects many species including Chilean hoki.The park has 67,000 ha and it is an important feeding ground for hump whales.It also protects populations of Western Rockhopper penguins, Macaroni penguins, South American sea lions and other sea lions, sea birds and occasionally also mink whales.

There are also five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Pullinque in the X Region.

A seasonal closure of the direct fishery was implemented in order to protect the spawning stock during peak of the reproduction period, which is to take place during 1st to 31st August every year. It applies to the directed fishery and to the distribution area between 41º 28.6 S and 47ºS (SUBPESCA, 2013c, 2013d).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 7 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 6.2.

This measures the Ratio U/Umsy as a percentage of the U=Umsy.

The Ratio U/Umsy is 0.947 . The U=Umsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio U/Umsy/U=Umsy for this index is 94.7%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 40.3 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 40.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Although reported landings are below set TAC since 2001, discards and underreporting have been preliminary estimated at around 50% of reported catches in average for 2001-2012 (IFOP, 2013). Discarding of target species is illegal since 2013, except in fisheries such as hoki, where a research project is underway to estimate discard and bycatch rates in order to obtain total catch estimates (MEFT, 2015b).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 3.8.

This measures the Ratio B/Bmsy as a percentage of the B=Blim.

The Ratio B/Bmsy is 0.321 . The B=Blim is 0.500 .

The underlying Ratio B/Bmsy/B=Blim for this index is 64.1%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.2.

This measures the Ratio U/Umsy as a percentage of the U=Umsy.

The Ratio U/Umsy is 0.947 . The U=Umsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio U/Umsy/U=Umsy for this index is 94.7%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) Relative values are presented for reference points, exploitation rates and spawning stock biomass, obtained from stock status plot (IFOP, 2015).
2) There is no harvest control rule, but limit exploitation rate recently adopted at U45%SSB/R was used to determine score #1 (CCT-RDAP, 2015a).
3) Advised TAC for 2015 and 2016 is by the Scientific and Technical Committee, as IFOP advice was not publicly available or reported (SUBPESCA, 2014a; CCT-RDAP, 2015b; IFOP, 2015).
4) Actual catch is reported until 2014, as 2015 data is not available for the whole year (SUBPESCA, 2015).
5) Actual catch and TAC data refer to landings, as estimates of total removals were not used in stock assessment or advised TAC calculations (IFOP, 2015). However, preliminary discarding and underreporting rate is high, therefore score #3 was determined qualitatively (please mouse-over for more details).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to CeDePesca for contributing to the development of this profile.

  1. IFOP, 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Regionalizada de merluza de cola, 2008. 121 pp. (In Spanish.)
  2. MINECOM, 2008. Decreto Exento N° 1675: Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Given on December 23rd, 2008. (In Spanish.)
  3. Schuchert, Pia C., Arkhipkin, Alexander I. and Koenig, Alan E., 2010. Traveling around Cape Horn: Otolith chemistry reveals a mixed stock of Patagonian hoki with separate Atlantic and Pacific spawning grounds. Fisheries Research, 102, 1–2: 80-86.
  4. IFOP, 2015. Informe de Estatus. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales año 2016: Merluza de cola, año 2016. Convenio de Desempeño 2015: Subsecretaría de Economía y EMT. IFOP, Agosto 2015. 99 p + Anexos. Available upon request in http://www.portaltransparencia.cl/PortalPdT/ingreso-sai-v2?idOrg=843.
  5. CNP, Consejo Nacional de Pesca, 2014. Cuota Unidades de Pesquería de Merluza de Cola V-XII Regiones 2015. SUBPESCA, Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. Dto. Exento N° 957-2014. 3 pp. Publicado en Diario Oficial 27-12-2014. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86513_documento.pdf
  6. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales de Aguas Profundas (CCT-RDAP). 2015a. Informe Técnico N°1/2015 Puntos Biológicos de Referencia de las Pesquerías Demersales de Aguas Profundas. Janeiro 2015. 12 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86806_documento.pdf
  7. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales de Aguas Profundas (CCT-RDAP). 2015b. Informe Técnico N°4/2015 Rango de Captura Biológicamente Aceptable para el Recurso Merluza de Cola (Macruronus Magellanicus), Año 2016. 12 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-91330_documento.pdf
  8. Cubillos, L.A., Niklitschek, E.J., Cahuin, S. Relating a recruitment shift of Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus Lönnberg) to large-scale environmental changes off Southern Chile. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research Vol. 48, Iss. 2, 2014.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00288330.2013.846920#preview
  9. ECOCEANOS, undated. '?Porque hay tanto ruido en la administracion pesquera?'. ECOCEANOS Website. [Accessed on 10-02-2012]. (In Spanish.)http://www.ecoceanos.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=36
  10. IFOP, 2013. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2014. Proyecto 2.2.: Merluza de cola. Segundo Informe- Final. September 2013. 261 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.ifop.cl/wp-content/uploads/merluza-de-cola.pdf
  11. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), 2009. Informe Final Investigación CTP Regionalizada Merluza de Cola, 2009. SUBPESCA/ Marzo 2009. (In Spanish.)Informe_Final_CTP_Merluza_de_cola_2009.pdf
  12. Kyne ,P.M., Lamilla, J., Licandeo, R.R., Jimena San Martín, M., Stehmann, M.F.W. & McCormack, C. 2007. Zearaja chilensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 01 February 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/63147/0
  13. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT). 2015a. Decreto Exento N° 1140/2015: Establece Cuota Anual de Captura para Unidades de Pesquería de Merluza de Cola V-XII Regiones sometidas a Licencias Transables de Pesca, Año 2016. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. 18 December 2015. 4 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-91812_documento.pdf
  14. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT). 2015b. Res. Ex. N° 2433-2015 Modifica Res. Ex. Nº 2571-2013 Programa Investigación del Descarte Merluza de cola y su fauna acompañante. (F.D.O. 11-09-2015) 3 September 2015. 2 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-89687_documento.pdf
  15. Niklitschek, E.J., Secor, D., Toledo, P.,Valenzuela, X., Cubillos, L., and Zuleta, A. Nursery systems for Patagonian grenadier off Western Patagonia: large inner sea or narrow continental shelf? – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst129. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/11/15/icesjms.fst129.full.pdf+html.
  16. SERNAPESCA, 2013. Informe de actividades de fiscalización efectuadas en material de pesca y acuicultura en al año 2012. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (SERNAPESCA). March 2013. Valparaíso, Chile. 55 pp.http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf
  17. Stewart, I.J. & Hanselman, D.H., 2012. Chilean hoki stock assessment review 2012. CHOSAR2012 Review Report. Instituto De Fomento Pesquero / División Investigación Pesquera.CHOSAR_2012_review_report_final_21_June_2012.pdf
  18. SUBPESCA, 2008. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura – Diciembre 2007. Link accessed on December 19th, 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/mostrararchivo.asp?id=5711
  19. SUBPESCA, 2009a. Estabelece cuotas golbales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2010. (In Spanish.)http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2009/12/50748.html
  20. SUBPESCA, 2009b. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura – Diciembre 2008. Link accessed on December 12th, 2009.http://www.subpesca.cl/mostrararchivo.asp?id=6685
  21. SUBPESCA, 2010a. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura – Diciembre 2009. Link accessed on September 16th, 2010. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/
  22. SUBPESCA, 2010b. Cuota global anual de captura para las Unidades de Pesquería de merlluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus), año 2011. Informe Técnico (R.PESQ.) Nº 122/2010. 28 pp. (In Spanish.)SUBPESCA_RPESQ122-2010_Cuota_UPs_merluza_de_cola_2011.pdf
  23. SUBPESCA, 2010c. Decreto Exento N° 1453: Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2011. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 17 pp. Issued on December 27rd, 2010. Link accessed on March 23rd, 2011. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=12080
  24. SUBPESCA, 2011a. Cuota Global Anual de Captura para las Unidades de Pesquería de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus), año 2012. Informe Técnico (R.PESQ.) Nº 112/2011. November 2011. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 75 pp. (In Spanish.)RPESQ_112-2011.pdf
  25. SUBPESCA, 2011b. Reporte reunion Grupo de Trabajo pesqueria merluza de cola. Comite cientifico pesquerias de aguas profundas- reporte reunion Grupo de Trabajo pesqueria merluza de cola (GT – M cola). Subsecreataria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). November 2011. 21 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch1145/appinstances/media1385/Reporte_Final_GT-Mcola_Estatus_y_Diagnostico_Nov_2011.pdf
  26. SUBPESCA, 2011c. Cuotas Anuales de Captura año 2012. SUBPESCA-NationalFisheries Council (‘Consejo Nacional de Pesca, CNP’). 1 p. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch868/appinstances/media1020/Cuotas_2012.pdf
  27. SUBPESCA, 2012a. Cuota Global Anual de Captura para las Unidades de Pesquería de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus), año 2013. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N° 205 – 2012. 62 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ_N_205-2012_Cuota_Global_Captura_M_cola_2013.pdf
  28. SUBPESCA, 2012b. Cuotas Globales de Pesca para 2013. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch868/neochn868.aspx?appinstanceid=1020&pubid=3097
  29. SUBPESCA, 2013a. Cuota Global de Captura de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus) y distribución, año 2014. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N° 207–2013. December 2013. 14 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/INFORME_TEC_RPESQ_207-2013_CUOTA_MERLUZA_DE_COLA.pdf
  30. SUBPESCA, 2013b. Decreto Exento N° 1411-2013: Establece cuota anual de captura para unidades de pesquería de merluza de cola V-XII sobmetidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2014. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). 24 December 2013. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82135_documento.pdf
  31. SUBPESCA, 2013c. Veda biológica reproductiva de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus), entre lo paralelos 41º30’ LS y 47° LS. 12 Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N° 96–2013. July 2013. 16 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/IT_RPESQ_N096-2013_Veda_biologica_reproductiva_M_cola_Agosto_41_30-47_LS.pdf
  32. SUBPESCA, 2013d. Decreto Exento N° 795-2013: Establece veda biológica para el recurso en área y período que indica. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). 12 August 2013. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-81087_documento.pdf
  33. SUBPESCA, 2013e. Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (texto actualizado incorpora modificación Ley N°20.657). 186 pp. (In Spanish) http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-516_documento.pdf
  34. SUBPESCA, 2013f. Resolución Exenta N° 2571/2013: Autoriza Programa de Investigación del descarte para pesquería Merluza de Cola y su fauna acompañante, con red de arrastre. 11 September 2013. 4 pp. (In Spanish). http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-81344_documento.pdf
  35. SUBPESCA, 2014a. Cuota Global de Captura de Merluza de Cola (Macruronus magellanicus) para las unidades de pequería de las regiones V-X y XI-XII, año 2015. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N°244–2014. December 2014. 11 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/INF_TEC_R.PESQ_244-2014_CUOTA_MERLUZA_COLA_2015.pdf
  36. SUBPESCA, 2014b. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. Diciembre 2014. 19 pp. (In Spanish). http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/w3-article-86569.html
  37. SUBPESCA, 2014c. Informe Técnico N°2/2014: Rango de Captura Biologicamente Aceptable para el recurso Merluza de Cola (Macruronus magellanicus), AÑO 2014. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales de Aguas Profundas (CCT-RDAP). 12 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86446_documento.pdf
  38. SUBPESCA, 2014d. Resolución Exenta N° 830-2014: Prorroga Programas de Investigación del descarte. 25 March 2014. 2 pp. (In Spanish).http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-83719_documento.pdf
  39. SUBPESCA, 2014e. Planes de Manejo y Comités de Manejo. SUBPESCA Website. [Accessed on 09-01-2014]. (In Spanish)http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/w3-propertyvalue-51242.html
  40. SUBPESCA, 2015. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. December 2015. 19 pp. (In Spanish). http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/w3-article-92002.html
  41. SUBPESCA, 2016. Comité de manejo de merluza de cola. [Accessed on 01-02-2016]. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-53087.html
  42. Walker, T.I., Cavanagh, R.D., Stevens, J.D., Carlisle, A.B., Chiaramonte, G.E., Domingo, A., Ebert, D.A., Mancusi, C.M., Massa, A., McCord, M., Morey, G., Paul, L.J., Serena, F. & Vooren, C.M. 2006. Galeorhinus galeus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 01 February 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39352/0
References

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