Last updated on 3 October 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pollachius virens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Saithe

The stock structure is not totally clear; migrations are detected among the areas according to tagging experiments (Jakobsen and Olsen, 1987; Jákupsstovu, 1999 in ICES, 2014b). Magnitude of migrations seem to differ among the areas studied due to the topography or distance and further studies are recommended (Homrum et al., 2013). Four assessment units are considered within the NE Atlantic region for evaluation of the stock condition as well as for management purposes:
1 – Barents Sea (Subareas I and II, Northeast Arctic), mainly along the coast of Norway south to 62ºN (this profile). Haddock and cod are also targeted in this fishery.
2 – Icelandic (Division Va),
3 – North Sea, Skagerrak, west of Scotland and the Rockall (Divisions IIIa, IV and Subarea VI).
4 – Faroe Islands (Division Vb).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

There is a management plan which is consistent with the precautionary approach. Precautionary reference points have been defined. Several fisheries on the stock are certified by the Marine Stewardship Council. Discards are low. Work is in progress to set MSY reference points. Catches are below set TACs, and TACs have been in line with scientific advice.

Weaknesses

The stock biomass has been decreasing since 2008 and is now just slightly above biomass target reference point. Fishing mortality has decreased in 2013 but remains too high. Recruitment indexes are not reliable. Port sampling effort has decreased considerably, which may affect the overall quality of the assessment input data (e.g., catch, maturity at age).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.6

Future Health:

7.2


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
  • Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supply chain roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Barents Sea cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • Faroe Islands and Iceland North East Arctic cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • Greenland cod, haddock and saithe trawl:

    MSC Certified

  • Norway North East Arctic saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • Scapeche, Euronor and Compagnie de Peche de St Malo saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Group saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Barents Sea EU/Norway Faroe Islands Bottom trawls
France Bottom trawls
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Germany Bottom trawls
Iceland Single boat bottom otter trawls
United Kingdom Single boat bottom otter trawls
Greenland/Russia & Greenland/Norway Greenland Bottom trawls
Russia/Norway Norway Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Mechanized lines
Purse seines
Russian Federation Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 10 July 2014

Strengths

There is a management plan which is consistent with the precautionary approach. Precautionary reference points have been defined. Several fisheries on the stock are certified by the Marine Stewardship Council. Discards are low. Work is in progress to set MSY reference points. Catches are below set TACs, and TACs have been in line with scientific advice.

Weaknesses

The stock biomass has been decreasing since 2008 and is now just slightly above biomass target reference point. Fishing mortality has decreased in 2013 but remains too high. Recruitment indexes are not reliable. Port sampling effort has decreased considerably, which may affect the overall quality of the assessment input data (e.g., catch, maturity at age).

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 3 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs.
  • Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supply chain roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.
France

Last updated on 3 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.
United Kingdom

Last updated on 3 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
  • Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
  • Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).

Last updated on 3 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
  • Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
  • Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).
Norway

Last updated on 3 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
  • Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
  • Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 July 2014

During the first couple of years of life, saithe have a near-shore distribution (virtually inaccessible for commercial gears); larvae drift northwards, settle in inshore areas and migrate to the coastal areas at age two to four (ONS, 2011).

The assessment of the Northeast Arctic saithe stock in Subareas I and II is carried out by the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG) from ICES. The latest assessment, based on the Inter-Benchmark Protocol (IBP) on Northeast Arctic Saithe (ICES, 2014b), was conducted using an state–space assessment (SAM) model with a 3-15+ catch matrix, and based on commercial catch data from the Norwegian, Russian and German fisheries, indices from a Norwegian acoustic survey, and average maturity data from spawning zones (ICES, 2014a,c). Misreporting of landed cod as saithe is apparently occurring due to the declining availability and quotas of cod and a better availability of saithe. A fixed natural mortality of 0.2 for all age groups was used both in the assessment and the forecast (ICES, 2014c). Discards are not included and are assumed negligible (ICES, 2014a). The biological sampling from some vessel groups has decreased considerably, which may affect the overall quality of the input data (e.g., catch, weight, maturity at age) (ICES, 2014c). Lack of reliable recruitment estimates is still considered a major problem (ICES, 2014a)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 10 July 2014

In 2010, ICES started a transition to a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach for scientific advice (ICES, 2010). Work is in progress to set MSY reference points for saithe Barents sea stock (ICES, 2014a,c).

ICES advice is based on the harvest control rule (HCR), anticipated in the management plan adopted by Norwegian authorities. Following the management plan, which pertains to all catches of Northeast Arctic Saithe, will imply a TAC of 122,000 tonnes in 2015 (ICES, 2014a). Under this scenario, SSB is expected to remain above Bpa in 2016. ICES has concluded that the HCR is consistent with the precautionary approach (ICES, 2014a).

The precautionary approach scenario implies that fishing mortality in 2015 should not exceed Fpa (0.35), corresponding to a catch limit of 128,000 tonnes. This is also expected to maintain SSB above Bpa in 2016 (ICES, 2014a).

ICES’s additional recommendation is to keep bycatches of coastal cod and golden redfish as low as possible (ICES, 2014a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 10 Jul 2014

Work is in progress to set MSY reference points for saithe Barents sea stock (ICES, 2014c).
In terms of the precautionary approach, ICES defined the precautionary level for stock biomass (Bpa) at 220,000 tonnes and the precautionary level for fishing mortality (Fpa) at 0.35. The limit reference point for spawning stock biomass (Blim) is 136,000 tonnes; (Flim) is defined at 0.58 (ICES, 2014a).

The reference points used in the Norwegian management plan are a trigger biomass (Trigger SSBMP) of 220,000 tonnes (= Bpa), and a target fishing mortality (Ftrp) of 0.32. The target fishing mortality was revised in 2013 (ICES, 2014a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 10 July 2014

According to the 2014 assessment, the stock remains at healthy levels, but fishing mortality is still too high. Spawning stock biomass has been declining since 2006 but remains above the biomass target reference point (Bpa). SSB in 2014 was estimated at 250 thousand tonnes, 14% above Bpa. Fishing mortality in 2013 was estimated at 0.38, i.e., 20% above the recently revised management plan target (Ftrp = 0.32). The last relatively strong recruitment was observed in 2010; recruitment in 2013 was estimated to be around the long-term average but uncertainty is high (ICES, 2014a).

Trends

Last updated on 10 Jul 2014

Saithe landings data is available since 1960. Landings reached a maximum of 265,000 tonnes in 1970. After a six-year period of landings above 200 thousand tonnes, landings declined during the following years to an historical low of 67 thousand tonnes in 1986. An increasing trend was then observed between 1987 and 2006, when total reported landings reached 213 thousand tonnes. Since 2007, saithe landings have been declining (ICES, 2014a).

From 1960-1970, saithe spawning stock biomass (SSB) ranged from 455,000-565,000 tonnes. After that period, SSB decreased to low levels (to below Bpa), reaching the lowest value in 1987 (around 73,000 tonnes). An increasing trend was then observed for the following 20 years, with SSB reaching the second highest historical value in 2005 (574,000 tonnes) (ICES, 2014a). Since then SSB has been declining, with the 2013 estimate (250,000 tonnes) representing 55% of the estimated for 2005.

Following an historical low in the early-2000s, fishing mortality increased from 2004-2012, and has been above the management target (Ftrp = 0.32) since 2008. In 2013, F has decreased by 7% compared to 2012 (ICES, 2014a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 10 July 2014

Total Allowable Catches (TACs) are in place for the Barents sea (or Northeast Arctic) Saithe stock and set annually by the Norwegian and Russian governments. Within the Norwegian fishery, quotas may be transferred between fleets if the quota allocated to one of the fleets is not expected to be taken. The stock is exploited by fleets from different nations which acquire fishing rights by quota swaps with Norway; Russia sets a small quota for its own zone. ICES advice relates to catches of all Northeast Arctic Saithe (ICES, 2014a).

In addition to TAC regulations, minimum mesh size, minimum landing sizes, bycatch regulations, sorting grids in the trawl fishery, area closures and other area and seasonal restrictions are applied (ICES, 2011a). The minimum landing size of saithe is 45 cm for trawl and conventional gears, 42 cm for the north of Lofoten, 40 cm (between 62°N and Lofoten) for purse-seine, and 35cm for the first 3,000 tonnes caught by purse-seiners between 62°N and 66° 33΄N. A real time closure system has been in force along the Norwegian Coast and in the Barents Sea since 1984, aimed at protecting juvenile fish (ICES, 2014a).

The set TAC for 2014 was 119,000 tonnes (Norwegian TAC only; TAC for Russian EEZ is not included), a reduction of 15% in relation to the TAC set in 2013 (140,000 tonnes) (ICES, 2014a). From 2003 onwards the set TAC has been in accordance with the scientifically advised. In 2014, the set TAC was set 15% below the advised (140,000 tonnes) (ICES, 2014a).

Several fisheries targeting Saithe are within the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) program: Norway North East Arctic saithe (Certified since 2008), Euronor saithe (Certified since 2010), Scapêche and Compagnie de Pêche de St. Malo (Certified since 2011), UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic saithe (Certified since 2012) and Greenland cod, haddock and saithe trawl (under Full Assessment).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 10 Jul 2014

There is a defined harvest control rule (HCR) in place for the stock of saithe in Subareas I and II proposed by the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs and evaluated by ICES in 2007. This management plan focuses on maintaining high long-term yield, year-to-year stability, and full utilization of all available information on the stock dynamics. The HCR aims to maintain target fishing mortality (Ftrp) at a level of 0.32 and limit between-year TAC change to no more than 15%, expecting to rebuild a depleted stock to a level above Blim within three years. The fishing mortality is to be reduced linearly to zero should the spawning stock biomass (SSB) drop to values below Bpa. The implemented management plan involves a TAC level estimation based on the average of predicted catches for the coming 3 years while fishing at Ftrp, which results in a TAC of 122,000 tonnes in 2015(ICES, 2014a,c).

ICES has concluded that the Norwegian proposal for a HCR for setting the annual fishing quota (TAC) for Northeast Arctic saithe is consistent with the precautionary approach, as long as uncertainties and errors present in the assessment are not greater than those calculated from historic data (ICES, 2011a,b). Highest long-term yield is obtained at F values(0.32) lower than the F = 0.35 currently used in the management plan. More work on this is needed to determine an FMSY value that may be considered as a basis for changing the harvest control rule (ICES, 2012).

France
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 11 July 2014

The Scapêche and Compagnie de Pêche de St. Malo is certified since January 2011. Three conditions regarding the impacts on PET species was defined upon certification, but are currently all closed (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2014).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 10 July 2014

The fishery was certified in 2010 with no conditions and all requisites are being maintained (Gascoigne and Clers, 2012); therefore all MSC principles are met.

United Kingdom

Last updated on 11 July 2014

The UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic saithe is certified since June 2012. A single condition regarding the impacts on bottom habitats was defined upon certification, but has recently been closed (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

Greenland

Last updated on 11 July 2014

The Greenland cod, haddock and saithe trawl is under Full Assessment by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) program.

Norway

Last updated on 10 July 2014

The Norway North East Arctic saithe fishery is certified since June 2008 by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and re-certified by June 2013. A single condition regarding the retained species was defined. More specifically, increased research is needed on ling (Molva molva) and tusk (Brosme brosme), in order to define reference points and develop a sustainable management strategy for these stocks (Nichols et al., 2013).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 July 2014

From 1989 to 2001 landings exceeded the set TAC, but since 2002 landings have in general been below the TAC. In 2013 for example, total landings (131,830 tonnes) were 6% below the set TAC (ICES, 2014a). Discarding is illegal. Although some discarding may occur (e.g., in fisheries targeting cod without fishing quotas for saithe), discards are in general considered minor.In recent years there is notice of misreporting due to both decreasing quota and availability of cod, which is landed as saithe. Slipping has been reported in the purse seine fishery, mostly related with the small size of fish(ICES, 2014a,c).

Norway accounts for more than 90% of the landings. In 2013, about 49% of the catch originated from bottom trawl, 26% from purse seine, 15% from gill net and 10% from other conventional gears (long line, Danish sine and hand line) (ICES, 2014a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 10 July 2014

The IUCN list for the Barents Sea includes a total of 56 species comprising 28 fish species, 9 bird species, and 18 mammal species (ICES, 2011b). Little is known about the specific impact of different gear type within the saithe fishery on PET species. Some elasmobranch species are known to be captured, including of the Critically Endangered blue skate Dipturus batis (IUCN, 2014), but bycatch levels are considered relatively low and unlikely to have significant negative impacts in the populations. EU regulations mandate this and two other Endangered species of rays (undulate ray Raja undulata and bottlenose skate Rostroraja alba) to be discarded, but misidentification of skate species exists (MEP, 2010).

Harbour porpoise is subject to some bycatch in gillnet fisheries. In episodes of coastal invasion of arctic seals, large mortality of seals has been observed in net fisheries, but this has not been regarded as problematic for the state of the seal stocks due to the general good condition and low harvesting level of the stocks (ICES, 2014c). Mortality of large marine mammals due to bycatch has not been reported and is probably low (ICES, 2009b). In 2004 Norway initiated a monitoring program on bycatches of marine mammals in fisheries (ICES, 2014c). In 2009, the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) and the Institute of Marine Research in Norway also started a cooperation to develop methods for estimation of bird by-catch; first results demonstrate that most of the fisheries have unimportant impact on bird mortality (ICES, 2014c).

France
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 11 July 2014

For this particular fishery, are no reported interactions of this fishery with marine mammals or seabirds. In 2004 Norway initiated a monitoring program on bycatches of marine mammals in fisheries (ICES, 2014c). In 2009, the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) and the Institute of Marine Research in Norway also started a cooperation to develop methods for estimation of bird by-catch; first results demonstrate that most of the fisheries have unimportant impact on bird mortality ( ICES, 2014c). Some elasmobranch species are known to be captured, including of the Critically Endangered blue skate Dipturus batis (IUCN, 2014). But this certification unit met and closed all conditions regarding potential impacts on PET species. The observer data was sufficient to conclude that impacts of this fishery on blue skate are very limited, although a fully quantitative analysis probably cannot be made (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 10 July 2014

Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Least Concern; IUCN, 2014) is the only marine mammal identified as being of potential concern. However, no reported evidence of interactions between any cetaceans or bird PET species and this particular fishery. Some elasmobranch species are known to be captured, including of the Critically Endangered blue skate Dipturus batis (IUCN, 2014), but bycatch levels are relatively low and unlikely to have significant negative impacts in the populations (MEP, 2010). EU regulations mandate this and two other Endangered species of rays (undulate ray Raja undulata and bottlenose skate Rostroraja alba) to be discarded, but misidentification of skate species exists, yielding a new recommendation to accurately identify these species (Gascoigne and Clers, 2012). By the third surveillance audit, considering the difficulties and time requirements related to identifying rays and skates to species level, the company has decided to adopt a zero landing policy for skates, rays and sharks (Clers and Sieben, 2013).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 11 July 2014

There is still limited information about the specific impact of different gear type within the saithe fishery on PET species. However, there are no reported interactions of this fishery with marine mammals or seabirds. Sharks and rays are considered to be of most concern in the fishery although most bycatch is of low concern species. The Critically Endangered blue skate (IUCN, 2014) is considered very rare in the the Barents Sea (MEP, 2012), but there has been some occasional bycatch of this species in the Svalbard. The MSC assessment team has thus recommended the continued monitoring and reporting of future bycatch events (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014). At the stock level, Norway has also monitoring programs in place to evaluate to evaluate bycatches of marine mammals and seabirds (ICES, 2014c).

Norway

Last updated on 10 July 2014

In terms of this specific fishery, by the re-certification, interactions between the fishery and marine mammals were considered infrequent; the numbers involved are trivial in population terms. Seabird bycatch is too low to justify formulation of an explicit strategy. The electronic logbook used by all vessels >15 m requires any interactions with seabirds (including ‘zero’ results) be recorded but this aspect of the system is not yet fully operational. Some elasmobranch species are known to be captured, including Leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), sandy ray (Leucoraja circularis), smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus) and starry skate (Amblyraja radiata), classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN redlist (IUCN, 2014). Bycatch levels are considered relatively low however, and unlikely to have significant negative impacts in the populations (Nichols et al., 2013).

Other Species

Last updated on 10 July 2014

Discarding is illegal. There are no quantitative estimates of the level of discarding available, but overall it is considered low; attempts to obtain better quantification are ongoing (ICES, 2014a,c). Due to its near-shore distribution saithe is virtually inaccessible for commercial gears during the first couple of years of life and there are no reports indicating overall high discard rates in the Norwegian fisheries. There are reported incidents of slipping in the purse seine fishery, mainly related to minimum landing size. For trawlers, discarding may occur when vessels targeting other species (e.g., cod) catch saithe, for which they may not have a quota or have already filled it. There are undocumented observations and comparisons of scientific samples from non-Norwegian commercial trawlers indicating that discarding may be substantial in certain areas and seasons (ICES, 2011b). Cod and haddock represent the majority of by-catch in the saithe fisheries (MSC, 2008; MEP, 2010), but other species such as coastal cod and golden redfish (Sebastes marinus) are also incidentally caught. Given the poor condition of both the Norwegian coastal cod and golden redfish stocks, ICES recommends that bycatches of these two species should be kept as low as possible (ICES, 2014a).

Technical measures as sorting grids and large mesh sizes reduce by-catch of non-commercial species, which consist mainly of dab Limanda limanda, sharks and skates (ICES, 2005).
The catching efficiency of lost gillnets has been examined for some species and areas, but at present no estimate of the total effect is available. Some small-scale effects are demonstrated, but the population effect is not known (ICES, 2011b).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 11 July 2014

The fishery targets cod, haddock and saithe. Bycatch species include redfish (both Sebastes marinus and S. mentella), Atlantic and Greenland halibut, wolffish and ling; all bycatch species must be retained under Norwegian legislation. Several bycatch species are depleted (e.g., coastal cod and redfish) or of unknown status but bycatch rates are low and the fishery is not thought to have significant negative impacts(MEP, 2012). Given the poor condition of both the Norwegian coastal cod and golden redfish stocks, ICES recommends that bycatches of these two species should be kept as low as possible (ICES, 2014a).

Norway

Last updated on 10 July 2014

By the re-certifcation process a single condition was defined: a sampling programme should be developed to deliver sufficient information on the nature and extent of retained species is adequate to determine the risk posed by the fishery and the effectiveness of the strategy to manage ling (Molva molva) and (Nichols et al., 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 10 July 2014

Saithe is found mainly along the Norwegian coast, but also occurs in the Norwegian Sea and in the southern Barents Sea. The 0-group saithe drifts from the spawning grounds to inshore waters. Saithe in Subareas I and II is an important predator on other species in the ecosystem, notably young herring and haddock and Norway pout (ICES, 2011a, b). Saithe is a typical migrating fish and makes both feeding and spawning migrations. There have been variations in distribution and migrating patterns over the years, but no link with environmental parameters has been established (ICES, 2011b).

In general, in-depth high resolution mapping data over the Barents sea is still scarce. The MAREANO programme is giving priority to obtain relevant data and to see the ecosystem as a unity performing seabed and benthic habitat surveys and the development of ecosystem-based management, in a cooperation between Norwegian and Russian scientists. Vulnerable and valuable bottom areas have been pre-identified (Mareano, 2014).

Trawls on hard bottom habitats are known to affect the associated ecosystem (e.g. anthozoans, sponges, abundance of corals); the impact on soft sediments is poorly known (ICES, 2014c). Effects of ghost fishing, namely by lost gillnets has also been investigated to some species and areas, but no quantitative estimates on the effects on ecosystems are still available (ICES, 2014c). Norwegian and Russian scientists are collaborating since 2008 and studying the use of pelagic or semi-pelagic trawls in order to minimize adverse ecosystem effects as well as save fuel (ICES, 2014c).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 10 Jul 2014

Norway has adopted the goal of establishing an international network of MPAs by 2010 and 2012. The National plan comprises 36 candidate Marine Protected Areas, already identified by Skjoldal (2005), was initiated in 2009, under the OSPAR convention and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). More information at NOS, here and at the Directorate of Fisheries website.

An area of about 2700 km2 of Norway’s marine waters is currently designated as protected under the Nature Conservation Act. Norway has an international responsibility to safeguard a representative selection of fjord and coastal areas of types that are not found anywhere else in the world. None of the national parks includes the skerries off the coast, and fjords are very poorly represented (Directorate for Nature Management, 2011). Russia’s eleven existing and proposed protected areas in the Barents Sea similarly focus on the protection of seabirds and seaducks and their coastal habitat.

Real-time closures are enforced along the Norwegian coast and in the Barents Sea when the proportion of juveniles of cod, haddock and saithe exceeds 15% by number (or 30% in the purse seine fishery). Surveillance determines when the percentage has fallen and determines the reopening of the closed areas (ICES, 2014a).

France
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 31 August 2013

This certification unit imposed one condition to be develop a partial strategy to avoid fishing in sensitive habitats. This condition was met and closed by the 2nd surveillance audit (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 11 July 2014

A condition was defined for MSC certification requiring the review and mitigation of impacts to benthic communities in the UKF fishery (MEP, 2012). The condition was closed upon the second surveillance audit, in light of new regulations restricting fishing activities in known sensible areas (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

Norway

Last updated on 11 July 2014

Research from the IMR shows that the amount of lost gillnets increases with depth, and that effects of ghost fishing in deeper waters may be greatest due to lesser rates of biofouling and tidal scouring. Strategies to mitigate the impact of fisheries on the seabed habitats include the closure to bottom fishing in five marine protected areas off the Norwegian coast (ICES, 2014c).

Russian Federation

In Russian waters there is no evidence of any area closures specifically designated to protect bottom habitats (ICES, 2014c).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

ICES has concluded that the HCR is consistent with the precautionary approach (ICES, 2014a,b).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 119 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 140 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 85.0%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 132 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 140 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 94.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.6.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBpa.

The SSB is 250 ('000 t). The SSBpa is 220 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBpa for this index is 114%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 7.2.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.383 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 120%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) TACs are Norwegian only. Russia sets a small TAC for its EEZ (11,000 t in 2009). 2) Advised TAC for 2015 is based on the management plan scenario. 3) A quantitative score was defined for Score #1, since the Harvest Control Rule is considered precautionary (ICES, 2014a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Barents Sea cod, haddock and saithe

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 22 November 2010

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species – Atantic cod 94.4
Principle 1 – Target Species – Haddock 89.4
Principle 1 – Target Species – Saithe 88.8
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.8
Principle 3 – Management System 93.3

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Cappell, R., Lassen, H., Pawson, M., 2015. Greenland Cod, Haddock and Saithe Trawl Fishery in the Barents Sea. Intertek Fisheries Certification. 284pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/greenland-cod-haddock-and-saithe-trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20150505_PCR_COD412.pdf
  2. des Clers, S., Sieben, C. 2013.Surveillance Visit Report for EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) - Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, March 2013. 12 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130409_SR_SAI143.pdf
  3. Directorate for Nature Management. 2011. State of Environment Norway: Protected Area. Assessed on 16th August 2011 http://www.environment.no/Topics/Biological-diversity/Protected-areas/
  4. EC, 2010. Council Regulation (EC) No 23/2010 of 14 January 2010, fixing for 2010 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in waters where catch limitations are required and amending Regulations (EC) No 1359/2008, (EC) No 754/2009, (EC) No 1226/2009 and (EC) No 1287/2009 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:021:0001:0120:EN:PDF
  5. Fiskeridirektoratet, 2010. Landet Kvantum av Torsk, Hyse, Sei og Blåkveite | 2010 http://www.fiskeridir.no/statistikk/fiskeri/fangst-og-kvoter/ukestatistikk
  6. Gascoigne, J. and J.-C. Brêthes, 2011. Fisheries Annual Surveillance Report for the EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) Certificate No.: Mep-F-001. Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd. January 2011. 7 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/08.02.2011_euronor_1st_Annual_Surveillance_Report.pdf
  7. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for UK Fisheris LTD. / DFFU / Doggerbank Cod (Gadus morhua), Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Saithe (Pollachius viridens). Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, February 2013. 19 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/uk_fisheries_dffu_doggerbank_northeast_arctic_cod_haddock_saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130321_SR_COD247.pdf
  8. Gascoigne, J., Clers, S. 2012. Report for Euronor Saithe fishery (Pollachius virens), Surveillance year 2, Certificate code: MEP-F-001, MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, United Kingdom. 19 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120208_SR.pdf
  9. Gascoigne, J. and des Clers, S. 2012. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) by Scapeche and Cie des Peches St. Malo. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd., January 2012. 24 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120308_SR.pdf
  10. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe fishery (Pollachius virens) by Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo - Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, January 2013. 21 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130226_SR_SAI145.pdf
  11. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) by the Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo. Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, January 2014. 14 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140313_SR_SAI145.pdf
  12. Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit report for Euronor Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) – Surveillance Year 4. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, April 2014. 16 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140506_SR_SAI43.pdf
  13. Gascoigne, J., Cardinale, M., Löwenberg, U., Collinson, K., 2015. Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Third Annual Surveillance Audit UK Fisheries Ltd., DFFU, Doggerbank cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and saithe (Pollachius virens). ME Certification Ltd, July 2015. 35pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/uk_fisheries_dffu_doggerbank_northeast_arctic_cod_haddock_saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20150716_SR_COD247.pdf
  14. ICES, 2005. Report of the Regional Ecosystem Study Group for the North Sea (REGNS), 9–13 May 2005, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2005/. 49 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/rmc/2005/REGNS/REGNS05.pdf
  15. ICES. 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2008. Book 3. The Barents Sea and the Norwegian Sea. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%203.pdf
  16. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 3. 3.3.4. Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). 10 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/sai-arct.pdf
  17. ICES, 2009b. Report of the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG), 21 -27 April 2009, San-Sebastian, Spain. ICES CM 2009/ACOM:02. 579 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/AFWG/AFWG09.pdf
  18. ICES, 2010. ICES Advice 2010, Book 1: Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 255 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf
  19. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 3: The Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea; 3.4.4 Ecoregion: Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea; Stock: Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Advice summary for 2012, 9 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/sai-arct.pdf
  20. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG), 28 April - 4 May 2011, Hamburg, Germany. ICES CM 2011\ACOM:05. 659 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/AFWG/AFWG%20Report%202011.pdf
  21. ICES, 2012. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 3. Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea 3.3.4. Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Advice June 2012, 10 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/sai-arct.pdf
  22. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 3. 3.4.8. Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Advice June 2013, 8 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/sai-arct.pdf
  23. ICES, 2013b. Report of the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG), 18–24 April 2013. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:05. Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic): 299-350. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/AFWG/Sec%2005%20Saithe%20in%20Subareas%201%20and%20II%20(Northeast%20Arctic).pdf
  24. ICES, 2013c. Report of the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG), 18–24 April 2013. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:05. Annex 5 – Stock Annex Northeast Arctic Saithe, 602-621. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/AFWG/Annex%2005%20Stock%20Annex%20Northeast%20Arctic%20Saithe.pdf
  25. ICES, 2014a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 3. Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea 3.3.8. Saithe in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Advice June 2014, 11 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/sai-arct.pdf
  26. ICES, 2014b. Report of the Inter-Benchmark Protocol on Northeast Arctic Saithe in Subareas I and II (IBP NEAsaithe), March/April 2014, By correspondence. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:53. 97 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/IBP%20NEAsaithe%202014/ibp_nea_saithe_2014.pdf
  27. ICES, 2014c. Report of the Arctic Fisheries Working Group (AFWG), 2014, Lisbon, Portugal. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:05. 656 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/AFWG/01%20AFWG%20-%20Report%20of%20the%20Arctic%20Fisheries%20Working%20Group.pdf
  28. IUCN, 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Downloaded on 11 June 2014. http://www.iucnredlist.org
  29. Lockwood, S., Chaudhury, S. 2011. Report for 3rd Surveillance audit for Norway North East Arctic and North Sea Saithe Fisheries, 29 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/28.06.2011_NEA_NS_SAITHE_Surv_report.pdf
  30. Lockwood, S., Nichols, J., Pedersen, G. M., 2014. Surveillance nº1: Surveillance Visit – Report forthe Norway North East Arctic saithe fishery. DNV GL Business Assurance Norway AS, August 2014. 264pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe/reassessment-documents/20140826_SR_SAI118.pdf
  31. Mareano, 2014. The Sea in Maps and Pictures: Results. Accessed 9th July 2014. http://www.mareano.no/en/results
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  33. Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), 2011. Certified fisheries,North-east Atlantic, Norway North East Arctic saithe. [Assessed on 15 August 2011] http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe
  34. McAlister Elliott & Partners, 2010. MSC Public Certification Report: Euronor saithe (Pollachius virens) fishery. March 2010. 138 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/09.03.2010-euronor-saithe-pcr.pdf
  35. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP), 2011. Public Certification Report Saithe (Pollachius virens) fishery by Scapêche and Compagnie de Pêche de St. Malo. January 2011. 141 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/27.01.2011_Public_Certification_Report.pdf
  36. MEP, 2011. Public Certification Report: UK Fisheries Ltd. / DFFU / Doggerbank saithe (Pollachius virens) fishery. MacAlister Elliott & Partners (MEP) Ltd. January 2011. 156 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/UK-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/06.01.2011_uk_saithe_Public_Certification_Report.pdf
  37. MEP, 2012. Public Certification Report Fishery for Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and saithe (Pollachius virens) by UK Fisheries, DFFU and Doggerbank. MacAlister Elliot and Partners (MEP) LTD. May 2012. 186 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/UK-cod-haddock-and-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120503_PCR.pdf
  38. Nichols, J., Lockwood, S., Skagen, D., Chaudhury, S., Pedersen, G.M. 2013. Public Certification Report Norway North East Arctic and North Sea saithe fisheries. 623pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe/reassessment-documents/20130614_PCR_SAI118.pdf
  39. Nichols, J., Pedersen, G.M., 2015. Surveillance Visit – Report for the Norway North East Arctic saithe fishery. DNV GL - Business Assurance. July 2015. 240pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe/reassessment-documents/20150618_SR_SAI088.pdf
  40. Pfeiffer, N. and Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit Report for UK Fisheries LTD. / DFFU/ Doggerbank Cod (Gadus morhua), Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Saithe (Pollachius virens) Fishery. Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, March 2014. 23 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/uk_fisheries_dffu_doggerbank_northeast_arctic_cod_haddock_saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140417_SR_COD247.pdf
  41. Piling, G., D. Agnew, A.H. Hoel & A. Hough, 2008. Marine Stewardship Council Public Certification Report for Norwegian Saithe Fishery. Moody Marine Ltd.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/norway-north-east-arctic-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/Norwegian_Saithe_public_cert_report_June_08.pdf
  42. The Fish Site, 2012. 2013 TAC set for Northeast Arctic Saithe Fishery. News: 06 November 2012. Available at: http://www.thefishsite.com/fishnews/18699/2013-tac-set-for-northeast-arctic-saithe-fishery
  43. The Official Norwegian Site (ONS), 2011. Saithe (Pollachius virens). Assessed at 15th August 2011 http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/fish_stocks/saithe/
  44. Cappell, R., Lassen, H., Pawson, M., 2015. Greenland Cod, Haddock and Saithe Trawl Fishery in the Barents Sea. Intertek Fisheries Certification. 284pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/greenland-cod-haddock-and-saithe-trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20150505_PCR_COD412.pdf
  45. des Clers, S., Sieben, C. 2013.Surveillance Visit Report for EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) - Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, March 2013. 12 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130409_SR_SAI143.pdf
  46. Directorate for Nature Management. 2011. State of Environment Norway: Protected Area. Assessed on 16th August 2011 http://www.environment.no/Topics/Biological-diversity/Protected-areas/
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  48. Fiskeridirektoratet, 2010. Landet Kvantum av Torsk, Hyse, Sei og Blåkveite | 2010 http://www.fiskeridir.no/statistikk/fiskeri/fangst-og-kvoter/ukestatistikk
  49. Gascoigne, J. and J.-C. Brêthes, 2011. Fisheries Annual Surveillance Report for the EURONOR Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) Certificate No.: Mep-F-001. Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd. January 2011. 7 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/08.02.2011_euronor_1st_Annual_Surveillance_Report.pdf
  50. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for UK Fisheris LTD. / DFFU / Doggerbank Cod (Gadus morhua), Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Saithe (Pollachius viridens). Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, February 2013. 19 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/uk_fisheries_dffu_doggerbank_northeast_arctic_cod_haddock_saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130321_SR_COD247.pdf
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  52. Gascoigne, J. and des Clers, S. 2012. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) by Scapeche and Cie des Peches St. Malo. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd., January 2012. 24 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20120308_SR.pdf
  53. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe fishery (Pollachius virens) by Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo - Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, January 2013. 21 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20130226_SR_SAI145.pdf
  54. Gascoigne, J. and Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit Report for the Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) by the Scapeche and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo. Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners (MEP) Ltd, January 2014. 14 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/Scapeche-and-CoPSM-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140313_SR_SAI145.pdf
  55. Gascoigne, J., Sieben, C., 2014. Surveillance Visit report for Euronor Saithe Fishery (Pollachius virens) – Surveillance Year 4. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, April 2014. 16 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/euronor-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20140506_SR_SAI43.pdf
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References

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