Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 2 February 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Haddock

COMMON NAMES

Northeast Arctic haddock, Norwegian-Russian haddock

Haddock in Northeast Arctic is considered a single stock (Giӕverm and Forthun, 1999; Olsen et al., 2010). 


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The spawning stock has been generally increasing since 2012 and remains well above the biomass target reference point.
  • Fishing mortality has dropped and is currently below both MSY and precautionary reference points.
  • 2016 and 2017 catch limit were set by the managers in line with advice.
  • Illegal, unreported and unregulated catches from 2009-2014 are considered to be close to zero.
  • Under the Marine Resources Act, listed non-target species need to be landed.
  • Discarding is forbidden and a number of bycatch mitigation measures and spatial closure areas are in effect.
  • The project MAREANO and other annual trawl ecosystem surveys have been providing a deeper knowledge of the Barents Sea seabed ecosystem. Sensitive species and habitats’ composition have been determined spatially. Sensitive areas are identified.
Weaknesses
  • Current uncertainties in the assessment relate to the low levels of sampling from commercial catches, and to incomplete spatial coverage of the scientific surveys.
  • Trawls are known to impact the hard bottom ecosystem and the effect on the soft bottom is not yet well studied.
  • There is bycatch of coastal cod and golden redfish, which are depleted. Bycatch of golden redfish is of particular concern; it is estimated to contribute to a significant share of the total golden redfish catches and considered by ICES to be far above any sustainable catch level (according to the cod ICES advice and considering the multi-species nature of the fishery).
  • Bycatch of Harbour porpoise (Least Concern under IUCN red list) by gillnets is a concern and cannot be determined due to lack of reliable data.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Implement an at-sea monitoring programme to improve data on protected, endangered, and threatened species interactions.
  • Make further efforts (e.g. via additional technical conservation measures) to minimize bycatch of coastal cod and golden redfish. 
  • Participate in the ongoing efforts to investigate impacts of bottom trawls on the soft-bottom habitat of the Barents Sea.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Arkhangelsk Trawl fleet Norwegian and Barents Seas cod & haddock fishery:

    MSC Certified

  • Barents Sea cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Recertified

  • Compagnie des Pêches Saint Malo and Euronor cod and haddock:

    MSC Certified

  • Faroe Islands and Iceland North East Arctic cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Certified

  • FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas cod and haddock:

    MSC Certified

  • Greenland cod, haddock and saithe trawl:

    MSC Certified

  • Norway North East Arctic haddock:

    MSC Recertified

  • Russian Federation Barents sea cod and haddock:

    MSC Certified

  • UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic cod, haddock and saithe:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Barents Sea Norway/Russia Faroe Islands Bottom trawls
France Single boat bottom otter trawls
Germany Single boat bottom otter trawls
Greenland Bottom trawls
Norway Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Russian Federation Bottom trawls
Longlines
United Kingdom Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 June 2017

Strengths
  • The spawning stock has been generally increasing since 2012 and remains well above the biomass target reference point.
  • Fishing mortality has dropped and is currently below both MSY and precautionary reference points.
  • 2016 and 2017 catch limit were set by the managers in line with advice.
  • Illegal, unreported and unregulated catches from 2009-2014 are considered to be close to zero.
  • Under the Marine Resources Act, listed non-target species need to be landed.
  • Discarding is forbidden and a number of bycatch mitigation measures and spatial closure areas are in effect.
  • The project MAREANO and other annual trawl ecosystem surveys have been providing a deeper knowledge of the Barents Sea seabed ecosystem. Sensitive species and habitats’ composition have been determined spatially. Sensitive areas are identified.
Weaknesses
  • Current uncertainties in the assessment relate to the low levels of sampling from commercial catches, and to incomplete spatial coverage of the scientific surveys.
  • Trawls are known to impact the hard bottom ecosystem and the effect on the soft bottom is not yet well studied.
  • There is bycatch of coastal cod and golden redfish, which are depleted. Bycatch of golden redfish is of particular concern; it is estimated to contribute to a significant share of the total golden redfish catches and considered by ICES to be far above any sustainable catch level (according to the cod ICES advice and considering the multi-species nature of the fishery).
  • Bycatch of Harbour porpoise (Least Concern under IUCN red list) by gillnets is a concern and cannot be determined due to lack of reliable data.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 10 July 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Implement an at-sea monitoring programme to improve data on protected, endangered, and threatened species interactions.
  • Make further efforts (e.g. via additional technical conservation measures) to minimize bycatch of coastal cod and golden redfish. 
  • Participate in the ongoing efforts to investigate impacts of bottom trawls on the soft-bottom habitat of the Barents Sea.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 2 February 2017

The stock is assessed by ICES using an age-based analytical model (State-Space Assessment Model: SAM) since the last benchmark was conducted in 2015, using commercial landings data (including age and length samples), four survey indices, annual maturity data from surveys and natural mortalities including by cod predation. Bycatch data is included in the assessment (ICES 2016a, 2016b). There are ongoing concerns with survey coverage and with the sampling of commerical catches, which are affecting the assessment quality (ICES 2016a, 2016b).

The fishable stock now contains a substantial proportion of older fish, which is expected to generate some variability in historic SSB estimates (ICES 2016a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 2 February 2017

ICES’ ACOM (Advisory Committee) issues advice for this fishery. Norway’s Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and Russia’s Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO) provide much of the basis for the scientific advice, through annual cod surveys and cooperation in data collection and research programmes (Lockwood et al., 2010). ICES’ advice for 2017 is predicated on the joint Norwegian-Russian management plan, limiting catches to 233,000 tons (ICES 2016a):

The current harvest control rule (HCR) defined under the management plan is based on maximum sustainable yield fishing mortality, FMSY, and a 25% cap on year-on-year TAC changes as long as the stock is healthy. Under the advised 2017 catch scenario, the spawning stock is expected to drop 29% but remain well above the precautionary reference point, Bpa, in 2018.

In 2016, ICES evaluated alternative proposed HCRs at the request of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Fisheries Commission and provided advice as to their precaution (ICES 2016c) and scenarios for their adoption in 2017 (ICES 2016a).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 2 February 2017

Biological reference points for this stock are unchanged since 2011 and are as follows (ICES 2016a).

Management plan:MSY Approach:Precautionary Approach:
SSBMGT = 80,000 t
FMGT = 0.35
MSY Btrigger = 80,000 t
FMSY = 0.35
Blim = 50,000 t
Bpa = 80,000 t
Flim = 0.77
Fpa = 0.47
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 2 February 2017

Based on the latest (2016) assessment, ICES classifies the stock as at full reproductive capacity and being harvested sustainably. The spawning stock biomass (SSB) was on a generally increasing trend between 2002 and 2015, peaking at around 802,000 tons. SSB in 2016 was estimated slightly lower, at 753,485 tons (ICES 2016a). Fishing mortality F4-7 had been decreasing, concomitant with the SSB increase, but recorded a slight uptick to 0.207 in 2015, well below all corresponding reference points. Year classes of 2004-2006 are among the strongest of the time series and are still dominating the spawning stock; but no strong year classes have yet followed these (ICES 2016a) and a decreased, but still strong, stock size is expected in upcoming years (ICES 2016b). Discards are known to occur but cannot be quantified. However they are now assumed to be below 5% in recent years (ICES 2016a). Landings in 2015 have been estimated at 194,756 tons (ICES 2016a).

TRENDS

Last updated on 2 February 2017

The spawning stock biomass (SSB) has been above MSY Btrigger since 1989 after recovering from a weak period between 1978-1988. It increased from 2000 to a series maximum of 802,100 tons in 2015. F fluctuated around FMSY from the late 90s as a result of quota restrictions, and has been below this level since 2012. Recruitment in the early 2000s remained close to the time series average. From 2007 to 2010 the very strong 2004 to 2006 year-classes recruited to the fishery; ensuing year classes have been oscillating around the time series average (ICES 2016a).

Following very low landings of under 69,000 tons in 2000, landings increased progressively to a maximum of 315,627 tons in 2012; from 2013 landings have dropped considerably as a result of TAC reductions (ICES, 2015b).
Managers tended to set TACs 5-30% above the advised TACs from 1992 to 2008 (except for 1997). From 2009-2012 the TAC has been set in line with the scientific advice and thus with the agreed management plan; and in 2013 was set lower than advised. In 2014 and 2015 the TAC again exceeded the scientific advice and in 2016 and 2017 it is aligned with advice (ICES 2016a; Undercurrent News 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 2 February 2017

The NE Arctic haddock fishery is managed through a Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission (JNRFC) management plan, agreed in 2004 and regularly evaluated. The MP includes a HCR aimed at maintaining the set TACs at a level corresponding to FMSY. Between-year variations in set TAC are limited to ±25%, unless SSB drops to values below Bpa (ICES 2016a) (see Recovery Plans section for details) .

The 2017 TAC has been set at 233,000 tons, in line with scientific advice (ICES 2016a; Undercurrent News 2016; Norebo website). The first 2015 TAC set, at 178,500 tons, exceeded the recommended limit by about 8%. Later in 2015 managers agreed to increase the TAC to 223,000 tons given the good stock condition (ICES, 2015c). The 2016 TAC was set in line with the second scientific recommendation (released upon a JRNFC special request) at 244,000 tons with 118,700 tons for Norway (including research quota) (NG, 2015).

The JRNFC agreed that since 2015 quotas can be transferred among years (ICES, 2015b). Norway establishes quotas for trawls and others gears (ICES 2016b). Technical regulations are since 2011 harmonized within both Norwegian and Russian Economic Exclusive Zones (EEZ): minimum landing size of 40 cm, maximum of 15% of allowable catch of fish below the minimum size (combined for cod, haddock and saithe in the Norwegian EEZ and cod and haddock in the Russian EEZ). A discarding ban started in 1987 only for cod and haddock and in 2009, a list identifies all species, dead or dying, that are obliged to be landed (with some exemptions) (Gullestad et al., 2015). Other regulations consist of mesh size limitations, a real-time closure system for juveniles (fishing is prohibited in areas where the proportion by number of undersized cod, haddock, and saithe combined has been observed by inspectors to exceed 15%) and other seasonal and spatial restrictions. Sorting grids are mandatory since 1997 and minimum mesh size is of 130 mm for the entire Barents Sea (ICES, 2014a).

Specific bycatch regulations are set in the Fisheries Protection Zone around Svalbard, vessels are subject to 19% of haddock per trawl and 15% of haddock per trip (under the EU Directive Nr. 44/2102). Regarding bycatch species, both redfish species can be 20% in each trawl catch outside 12nm and upon landing. Trawling inside 12nm is limited to 10% redfish bycatch (ICES, 2016d). Other gears can catch up to 10% of redfish, or up to 30% from August 1st to December 31st for vessels <21m (ICES 2016d) Bycatch of 12% of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in individual catches as well as “an intermixture of up to 7% is permitted in the catch on board at the end of fishing operations and in the catch landed” (de Clers and Sieben, 2013.)

Faroe Islands
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 19 January 2015

The MSC certification of the Faroe Island North East Arctic haddock fishery was attributed in August 2012; the fishery location is the North East Arctic Ocean within ICES sub-Areas I and II (Norwegian and Russian EEZ and International waters), and the fishing method is demersal trawl. This fishery represents less than 1% of the haddock total catches in the Barents sea. All Faroese catches are retained, species are recorded and counted against the respective quotas (Lockwood et al, 2012).

France

Last updated on 19 January 2015

The MSC certification of the Comapêche and Euronor cod and haddock fishery was attributed in April 2012, is for both cod and haddock fisheries and the fishing area includes ICES Sub-Areas I and II (MEP, 2012). This fishery represents less than 1% of the total catches of haddock in the Barents sea.

Germany

Last updated on 19 January 2015

The MSC certification of the UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic cod, haddock and saithe fishery was attributed in May 2012, is for cod, haddock and saithe and the fishing area includes ICES Sub-Areas I and II (MEP, 2012). This fishery represents less than 1% of the total catches of haddock in the Barents sea.

Norway

Last updated on 1 February 2016

The MSC certification of Norway North East Arctic offshore haddock was first attributed in April 2010 and in October 2015 was re-certified. The fishery location is the NE Arctic Ocean within ICES sub-Areas I and II, and the fishing methods are: trawl, longline, gillnet, Danish Seine and hook and line gears (MSC, 2016). The inshore and offshore components of the fishery were combined in November 2011. Two conditions (2.1.1 and 2.3.1) are carried over from the previous assessment. Four new conditions (2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.4.1 and 2.3.1) and two recommendations were raised (Nichols et al., 2015).

Russian Federation
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 19 January 2015

The MSC certification of the FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas cod and haddock fishery was attributed in June 2013. The fishery takes place in the Barents and Norwegian Seas (ICES la, lb, lla and llb), within Norwegian and Russian EEZ and International waters; the target species are cod and haddock; and the fishing methods are bottom trawl and longline. One of the conditions upon certification (MSC Condition 3) was the need to involve all relevant stakeholders in the management process (Hønneland et al, 2013). In 2013, this fishery represented about 19% of the total catches.

The MSC certification of the Barents Sea cod and Barents Sea haddock fishery was attributed in November 2010, is for both cod and haddock fisheries and includes ICES Sub-Areas I and II within Norwegian and Russian EEZ and International Waters (MSC, 2011). In 2012, this fishery represented about 14% of the total catches. Six conditions were defined by the MSC certification, to be completed within different timescales (details in the Public Certification Report). There were implemented MSC Conditions to guarantee that all interested parties are involved in the fisheries regulation and management and to the integration of the precautionary approach in managing risk and uncertainty in decision-making (Hønneland et al., 2011; FCI, 2012). Both conditions were closed by the third surveillance report (FCI, 2013).

MSC certification of this specific fishery (Russian Federation Barents sea cod and haddock) was attributed in May 2014. The fishery takes place in the Barents Sea (ICES Sub-areas I and II), essentially in the Norwegian EEZ and Svalbard Fishery Protection Zone (FPZ); the target species are cod and haddock, and the fishing method is bottom trawl. This fishery represents a very small part (<1%) of the haddock total catches in this area. No conditions were raised upon certification. One recommendation was to foster involvement of all relevant stakeholders in the management process (Hønneland et al, 2014).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 19 January 2015

The MSC certification of the UK Fisheries/DFFU/Doggerbank Northeast Arctic cod, haddock and saithe fishery was attributed in May 2012, is for cod, haddock and saithe and the fishing area includes ICES Sub-Areas I and II (MEP, 2012). This fishery represents less than 1% of the total catches of haddock in the Barents sea.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 2 February 2017

There is a defined harvest control rule (HCR) in place for the Haddock stock in Subareas 1 and 2, agreed by the JRNFC in 2004. It was modified in 2007 from a three-year rule to a one-year rule on the basis of the HRC evaluation conducted by ICES. ICES evaluated the modified management plan and concluded that it is in accordance with the precautionary approach. F reference points were revised in 2011 and the HCR modified in 2012 to be based on FMSY, which had since been estimated.The HCR aims to maintain the set TAC at a level corresponding to FMSY and limit between-year variations in set TACs to no more than 25%. If SSB drops to values below Bpa, F is to be linearly reduced from Fpa at Bpa to zero at SSB=0, and the TAC variation constraint does not apply (ICES 2016b). 

In 2010, it was agreed in a JRNFC session to use the current management plan for more 5 years before a new evaluation (ICES, 2014a). ICES evaluated a range of HCR scenarios submitted by the JRNFC in 2016 (ICES 2016c).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 2 February 2017

ICES provided estimates of unreported landings from 2002, which when added to reported catches resulted in TACs being exceeded. From 2009, unreported landings have been estimated as zero and total estimated landings have been below the set TAC. . Total catches are not determined because discarding cannot be quantified. Discarding is forbidden in Russia and Norway since 1987 (NG, undated) and is known to occur in the longline and trawl fisheries, usually associated with undersized haddocks, but quantitative data is not available and it is now assumed to be below 5% in recent years (ICES 2016a).Monitoring and enforcement of regulations is conducted through Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), satellite tracking for some fleets, inspections at sea and catches control points while entering and leaving the EEZ (ICES, 2014a,b).

Faroe Islands

Last updated on 28 July 2014

Monitoring and enforcement of regulations is conducted through Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) satellite tracking for some fleets, inspections at sea and catches control points while entering and leaving the EEZ (ICES, 2014a,b). The control system comprises a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) also in the Faroese fleet, inspections at sea from Norway and catches control points while entering and leaving the EEZ (Lockwood and Kiseleva, 2013; ICES, 2013a).

France

Last updated on 28 July 2014

The fishery operates in the Norwegian EEZ and in the Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone – both under the jurisdiction of Norway. Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) are conducted through a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), radio checks, daily catch reports, logbook submissions (electronic logbooks in use) and checks at sea and at port. MCS is known to be very strict in areas under Norwegian jurisdiction. There are no infractions reported by the Norwegians against any of the vessels comprised in the MSC Unit of Certification (de Clers and Sieben, 2013; Gascoigne and Sieben, 2014).

Germany

Last updated on 19 January 2015

This specific fishery operates in the Norwegian EEZ and in the Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone – both under the jurisdiction of Norway. Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) are conducted through a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), radio checks, daily catch reports, logbook submissions (electronic logbooks in use) and checks at sea and at port. MCS is known to be very strict in areas under Norwegian jurisdiction (MEP, 2012). Observer coverage is still low, but no compliance issues have been reported (Pfiffer and Sieben, 2014). The bycatch proportion by both certified companies varied in the last years but is within regulated limits; as discarding is illegal (and strictly enforced in Norwegian waters), discards are though to be very low (MEP, 2012; Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

Russian Federation

Last updated on

In the past, there have been concerns over a Russian overfishing in the Barents Sea, but it is considered to have been eliminated. In terms of this certified fleet, the level of compliance with regulations is deemed high; vessels have been subject to regular inspections and no serious infringements been reported (Hønneland et al., 2014).

In terms of the MSC-certified fishery, the second surveillance report mentioned that the level of fishery monitoring and information from the observers’ program has improved. The MSC logbook scheme, coupled with the recent ICES report, confirm discarding and IUU in this fishery are minimal to non-existent; this was considered sufficient by the MSC assessment team to conclude that there is good information on all removals from this joint-fishery (Hønneland et al., 2011). In order to improve IUU estimates and promote control of the discards ban, the client has been recording all captured species in logbooks and data has been verified by the Scientific Observers Scheme (FCI, 2013). MSC Conditions regarding the promotion of transparency and ensure the involvement of all stakeholders in the decision making process and the condition to ensure clear long-term management policies of sustainable fisheries (Southall et al., 2010), were closed in the third surveillance audit. MSC recommendation 1, aimed to promote the liaison of the fishing industry and scientific research, was also closed (FCI, 2013).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 19 January 2015

This specific fishery operates in the Norwegian EEZ and in the Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone – both under the jurisdiction of Norway. Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) are conducted through a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), radio checks, daily catch reports, logbook submissions (electronic logbooks in use) and checks at sea and at port. MCS is known to be very strict in areas under Norwegian jurisdiction (MEP, 2012). Observer coverage is still low, but no compliance issues have been reported (Pfiffer and Sieben, 2014). The bycatch proportion by both certified companies varied in the last years but is within regulated limits; as discarding is illegal (and strictly enforced in Norwegian waters), discards are though to be very low (MEP, 2012; Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The 2010 Norwegian red list classifies ten species of marine mammals and seventeen of seabirds in the region as Regionally Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered or Near Threatened (NBIC, 2010). Among the most abundant marine mammals the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Reilly et al., 2013), Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis (Reilly et al., 2008a) and blue whale Balaenoptera musculus (Reilly et al., 2008b) are listed as “Endangered” by the IUCN redlist. Capture of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (least concern in IUCN red list; Hammond et al., 2008) is a current concern. Are estimated to be captured in this fishery but the impact is not yet determined due to unreliable data (Nichols et al., 2015).

There are several species of seabirds included in the Norwegian and Russian redlists. Many species are currently in decline but it is not clear the reason for that. However, fisheries have a low impact on bird mortality and when those impacts occur are mainly due  gillnet fisheries (Hønneland et al., 2016).

Seabirds and marine mammals have been recorded feeding both within trawl nets and apparently on fish escaping through meshes but only few bycatch of seabirds or marine mammals in otter trawls have been recorded widely. Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (vulnerable in IUCN red list; Fowler, 2005), porbeagle Lamna nasus (vulnerable in IUCN red list; Stevens et al., 2006) and picked dogfish (spurdog) Squalus acanthias (vulnerable; Fordham et al., 2006) can be caught but have to be landed or released if alive. There is also some bycatch of rays, which are generally released alive, but records are not detailed to the species level; Starry ray Amblyraja radiata (Least Concern in the region) is likely the most captured species (Hønneland et al., 2014). These and other skates/rays are occasionally caught, particularly by gillnets, but within national and international requirements (Nichols et al., 2015). Sometimes, trawl fisheries taken harp seals but the impact of this gear is considered low risk for bycatches of marine mammals (Guadian et al., 2016).

There is a strategy in place to manage and minimize the impacts of the fishery in place, both by the managing countries and ICES. All commercial fish, seabird and marine mammal populations are monitored. Real-time appropriate conservation actions can be implemented if needed (Nichols et al., 2015).

Sebastes norvegicus is currently classified as a threatened (EN) species on the Norwegian Redlist according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria (ICES, 2016b) (more detailed information in Other target and bycatch species section).

Faroe Islands
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 30 January 2015

In terms of this fishery specifically, there is no evidence that Faroese trawlers operating in the Barents Sea are having adverse effects on seabird or marine mammal populations; there were no bird or mammal catches recorded in 2013 (Lockwood and Kiseleva, 2013; Kiseleva and Lockwood, 2014). The only MSC recommendation is related to the registration of PET species in catches, in the e-logbooks (Lockwood et al., 2012).

France
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on

In terms of this fishery specifically, there are no reported catches of Protected, Endangered or Threatened (PET) marine mammals and seabirds or rays, skates and sharks. The distribution range of Blue Skate Dipturus batis (IUCN Redlist: Critically Endangered) partly overlaps with the fishery, but no interactions have been reported (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2014).

Germany
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on

In terms of this fishery specifically, no interactions with PET species, such as marine mammals or seabirds, have been reported. There are episodes of catches of sharks and rays species. Reported catches are not detailed to the species level, but Starry ray Amblyraja radiata (Least Concern in the region) is likely the most captured (MEP, 2012); the distribution of other elasmobranchs such as Blue skate Dipturus batis (Critically endangered; 2006 IUCN Redlist) also overlaps with the fishery, but interactions are considered rare (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

Norway

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The lack of gear-specific information on the level of interactions with PET species triggered condition 2 (trawl, longline, gill net, Danish seine) for certification which is carried over from the previous certification (i.e., the recollection of relevant information to support the management of the impacts on PET species for each gear type) (Nichols et al., 2015). Norwegian legislation currently requires recording and reporting of all bycatch (including PET species). The interaction of the fishery with marine mammals should be quantified and assessed, and mitigation measures implemented when unacceptable levels are found. The status of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (least concern in IUCN red list; Hammond et al., 2008) is unknown, the interaction with gillnets is not yet quantified and extrapolated numbers (based on reference-fleet data) constitute a concern. Condition 3 (only gillnets) requires the determination of this interaction, to make sure that’s within limits of national and international requirements for protection. Moreover, condition 4 (only gillnets) demands the development of a strategy to minimize the gillnet-related mortality and the use of pingers, which efficacy is still to be determined, is proposed (Nichols et al., 2015). By the second surveillance report, those conditions were on target (Huntington and Chaudhury, 2017).

Russian Federation
Longlines

Last updated on 5 January 2012

 In terms of this fishery specifically, bycatches of PET species of marine mammals and seabirds are considered rare overall. Blue skate (Dipturus batis), three species of wolfish (Anarhicas minor, A. denticulatus, and A. lupus), redfish (Sebastes marinus), Porbeagle(Lamna nasus), Spurdog (Squalus acanthias) and Blue ling (Molva dypterygia) are all captured in the longline fisheries, but information available is still limited. More data is needed to fully evaluate impacts of the fishery on PET species (both retained and discarded) (Hønneland et al., 2013).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

There are programmes in place to reduce and monitor bycatch of marine mammals. An MSC logbook is used onboard to report interactions with PET species (Hønneland et al., 2014).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 29 July 2014

In terms of this fishery specifically, no interactions with PET species, such as marine mammals or seabirds, have been reported. There are episodes of catches of sharks and rays species. Reported catches are not detailed to the species level, but Starry ray Amblyraja radiata (Least Concern in the region) is likely the most captured (MEP, 2012); the distribution of other elasmobranchs such as Blue skate Dipturus batis (Critically endangered; 2006 IUCN Redlist) also overlaps with the fishery, but interactions are considered rare (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Most haddock is taken by trawl as bycatch in the cod fishery, but there are some directed haddock fisheries of variable importance (ICES, 2014a). The directed haddock fisheries also take other species as bycatch (ICES, 2010a). Vessels targeting saithe also have a haddock bycatch quota (Lockwood et al., 2010).

Both Norwegian and Russian jurisdictions require catches of species from a set list to be landed. Bycatch data oscillates with season and fishing area. Non-target species are identified and quantified. Management measures such as a discard ban (both by Norwegian and Russian jurisdictions), area closures, minimum sizes, use of a larger mesh size, bycatch limits and sorting grids for trawls are in place to reduce impacts on retained bycatch species. Real-time closures along the Norwegian coast, in order to reduce the percentage of juvenile fish in catches, are implemented since 1984 (ICES, 2014a).

Besides cod and haddock, the main retained species by volume (1%) was saithe. Other retained species include redfish (Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella  and  Golden redfish Sebastes norvegicus), species of wolfish (Anarhichas spp), American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), and small quantities of ling (Gaudian et al., 2016).

Cod/haddock fishery is considered a relatively “clean” fishery with low levels of bycatch (Southall et al. 2010). However, bycatch of coastal cod, golden redfish and wolfish species is a concern. Besides, high bycatch level of wolfish (about 32% of the catch) is occurring in the longline fishery (Hønneland and Revenga, 2016).

Bycatch of golden redfish, which is depleted, is of particular concern.  The current catches of golden redfish as bycatch in fisheries targeting Northeast Atlantic (NEA) cod constitute a considerable part of the total golden redfish catches, and are considered above any sustainable catch level (ICES, 2016a). Although the level of removals is considered low individually by each fleet ( e.g Guadian et al., 2016, Honneland et al., 2016), the cumulative golden redfish catches is preventing rebuilding.

The total catches of the golden redfish decreased about 70% since 2003, with a catch reduction of about 87% in trawl, 73% in gillnet and 25% in longline fisheries. Gillnets represent more than 50% of the total golden redfish annual catches, longline has been increasing their proportion in the last years (about 35% in 2015). In opposition, trawl presents a decreasing trend along the years (2003-2015), representing about 12% of the golden redfish catches in 2015, the smallest value estimated for this period (ICES, 2016b).

However,  the golden redfish total catch in 2015 was 3,633 tonnes (ICES, 2016b,d), well above the anterior sustainable level (1,500 tonnes). Currently, ICES is not able to identify any reference points or catch levels for this species (ICES, 2016b). Considering the poor state of the golden redfish stock,  ICES advice a catch equal to zero for the 3 next years (2017 to 2019) to remain mature fish and to protect any recruitment (ICES, 2016d). Additionally, ICES recommends a bycatch reduction to minimize all sources of fishing mortality (ICES, 2016d). Directed trawl fishery is not allowed and a bycatch limit of 20% (in weight) of the total catch is allowed for redfish (15% limit until 2015) (ICES, 2016b). For the other gears, there is a moratorium in place and since 2012, the moratorium was extended to 20 December-31 July and September, except for trawl and handline vessels less than 11 meters (ICES, 2015c). Recently, for vessels less than 21 meters it was implemented a bycatch limit of 30% between 1 August to 31 December (ICES, 2016b). ICES considers that current bycatch restrictions are not enough to allow the recovery of this golden redfish stock and other measures should be implemented (e.g. closures, moratorium, and restrictions in gears (ICES, 2016b).

Faroe Islands
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 1 March 2017

All fish caught by Faroese vessels in the Barents Sea are retained and must be recorded on the daily log sheet. Each species counts against the vessel and Faroese national quota allocation and is reported for fishery management and stock assessment purposes. As discarding is prohibited, once a vessel has completed its quota for any one of the quota-managed species, it must cease fishing and leave the Barents Sea (Lockwood et al., 2012). Discarding from Faroese vessels fishing in the Barents Sea is thus assumed to be zero(Lockwood et al., 2012; Lockwood and Kiseleva, 2013).

The principal target species, cod, accounts for almost 88% of the total catch taken by Faroese vessels in the NE Arctic (ICES sub areas I & II), followed by Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus (11%), Saithe Pollachius virens (0.2%), Redfish Sebastus marinus and S. mentella (0.2%), and Wolffish Anarhichas spp. (0.1%)(Lockwood and Kiseleva, 2013). All fish caught must be retained, recorded and landed. Commercial species too small to process for human consumption are recorded against the appropriate species for management purposes but then often go for reduction to fishmeal, together with non-commercial species.

France
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 1 March 2017

In this certified fleet the proportion of non-targeted species is minimal and specific management measures are in place to reduce bycatch levels (MEP, 2012b). Bycatch of Redfish Sebastes spp. (0.36% of total catches in 2012) and Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (0.27%) is controlled in Norwegian waters; other retained species are Saithe Pollachius virens (6.44%), Wolffish Anarhichas lupus (0.29%) and Ling Molva molva (0.03%) (de Clers and Sieben, 2013).

Germany

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The fishery targets cod, haddock and saithe. Bycatch species include redfish (both Sebastes marinus and S. mentella), Atlantic and Greenland halibut, wolffish and ling; all bycatch species must be retained under Norwegian legislation. Upon the last surveillance audit, the MSC assessment team also recommended that catches of Blue skate Dipturis batis continue to be monitored and reported (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

Norway

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Norway represents 69% of the golden redfish total catch (2,492 tonnes in 2015, provisional values), with a higher catch occurring in the ICES division IIa (ICES, 2016b).

The main non-target bycatch species are (2011-2013) saithe, tusk, ling, Greenland halibut, wolffish (3 species) and redfish (2 species) which must all be landed under the new Marine Resources Act. Of these redfish, tusk and non-PET elasmobranchs (skates and rays) may be of concern. 

In terms of this certified fleet, uncertainties affecting retained species, i. e. impacts of catches of non-target species in relation to the distribution, ecology and abundance of the species and populations affected, including cod, were raised in condition 1 (all gear types) upon the MSC certification (carried over from the previous assessment). Gear specific catch recording of any species is already known. Impacts of the fishery on non-target species should be determined (namely of elasmobranchs) and an assessment and mitigation measures should be developed and implemented when significant impacts take place (Nichols et al., 2015). Condition 6 (all gears) regards the fishery effect on golden redfish Sebastes norvegicus. Direct fishing is forbidden and Norway implemented strict bycatch restrictions in both cod and haddock fisheries due to severe declining of the golden redfish stock. The interaction level should be within national and international requirements for protection of the species (Nichols et al., 2015).

Russian Federation

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The Russian certified fisheries have conditions open regarding the retained species  (wolfish species and Golden redfish)  (Guadian et al., 2016; Hønneland and Revenga, 2016;).

The second surveillance report of the FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas cod and haddock certification indicated that no additional measures are needed to reduce the golden redfish bycatch but recording should be maintained. The surveillance team considers that the aggregated catch of Golden redfish by the Russian fleet was 770 tonnes for trawlers and longliners (below the previous 1,500 tonnes considered a precautionary catch) (Hønneland and Revenga, 2016).

Longlines

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Results from the second surveillance report indicated a high bycatch percentage of wolfish in the longline fishery (UoC2 and UoC4), representing a 32% of the total catch, most of which is Northern wolfish, whose stock status has been declining in recent years ( Hønneland and Revenga, 2016).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 1 March 2017

 By-catch of macrobenthos is likely and this is not included in the list that regulates discarding so can be returned to the sea. Observer programme by PINRO and MSC procedures during certification will contribute for the determination of discard levels and the consequent development of the management strategy considering the Norwegian and Russian discard bans (Southall et al., 2010). The main bycatch species that present more concerns are spotted wolffish and golden redfish. MSC condition 2 is closed for the other species (FCI, 2012).

MSC Condition 3 regards the need for an effective management strategy of retained species, being Spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor (the reference species of the wolffish group) and Golden Redfish Sebastes marinus and Deepwater redfish S. mentella of special concern due to the biological status; Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides and elasmobranch species are also included. Suggested actions comprise technical and management measures. All non-target and non-commercial species have been registered by the client in logbooks and a Scientific Observers Scheme. Spotted wolffish represents 11% of total catches and the stock biomass have been increasing, thus the condition was closed for this species. But in spite of an average annual bycatch of 0.1 % within regulated limits (report of the Polar Research Institute of Marine Researches and Oceanography (PINRO), ICES recommends no direct or indirect fishing due to the weak biological condition (decrease of the spawning stock and poor recruitment) of Golden Redfish. The respective MSC Condition remains open for this species, to demonstrate that the certified fishery is not preventing the rebuild of the species (FCI, 2013).

Research is ongoing re the use of semi-pelagic trawls to reduce capture of non-target species (Hønneland et al., 2011; FCI, 2012).

The most important retained species in this certified fishery are cod (69% of total catch), haddock (27%), and saithe (3%). In terms of bycatch, it is considered a ‘relatively clean’ fishery. Rays (Rajidae family) are the most important group in terms of bycatch volumes, but records are not detailed to the species level; however, Starry ray Amblyraja radiata (Least Concern in the region) is likely the most captured species (Hønneland et al., 2014).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 29 July 2014

The fishery targets cod, haddock and saithe. Bycatch species include redfish (both Sebastes marinus and S. mentella), Atlantic and Greenland halibut, wolffish and ling; all bycatch species must be retained under Norwegian legislation. Several bycatch species are depleted (e.g., coastal cod and redfish) or of unknown status but bycatch rates are low and the fishery is not thought to have significant negative impacts (MEP, 2012). Given the poor condition of both the Norwegian coastal cod and golden redfish stocks, ICES recommends that bycatches of these two species should be kept as low as possible. Upon the last surveillance audit, the MSC assessment team also recommended that catches of Blue skate Dipturis batis continue to be monitored and reported (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 12 June 2017

The project MAREANO and other annual trawl ecosystem surveys (conducted by IMR-PINRO) have been providing a deeper knowledge of the Barents Sea seabed ecosystem. Sensitive species and habitats’ composition have been determined spatially. More than 3050 benthic species are identified. In the Norwegian area, coral reef sites of the edge of the continental shelf were recently designated as protected areas where fishing is prohibited. Deep-water sensitive habitats and species are protected by a fishing ban below 1000m within the Norwegian EEZ. Regulations of bottom fishing activities are in place in the Norwegian EEZ and around Jan Mayen and the Fisheries Protection Zone around Svalbard. Fishing operations are as well forbidden in the surroundings of known coral reefs and gardens. Nineteen cold-water reef marine protected areas off the Norwegian coast have been created to date, in order to mitigate the impact of fisheries on the seabed habitats in the Barents Sea (Mareano project; Huntington and Chaudhury, 2017). Move-on rules are in place for the protection of vulnerable benthic habitats in Norwegian waters requires that any evidence of impacts on corals or sponges (i.e. presence in the trawl) be reported to the Directorate of Fisheries (DoF), with a move-on rule of 2 nautical miles if there is evidence of an ‘encounter’ (defined as a coral catch of 60kg or greater or a sponge catch of 800 kg or greater) (MEP, 2012). Knowledge of coral reefs in the Russian sector is not that much detailed and is thought to be much more disperse. Coastal protected areas in Russia do not cover benthic habitats or species but fishing vessels are not allowed to operate within the 12nm coastal zone, bringing protection to this area. Coastal waters (<12 nm) from Varanger Fjord to 37º E are closed to bottom trawling and purse seining in order to specifically protect benthic habitats (Hønneland et al., 2014). Norway has in place measures to prevent significant adverse impacts on VMEs following the NEAFC recommendations (Guadian et al., 2016). There are some concerns on the possible future effects of the fishery beyond  the current fishing areas. However, the fleets have been operating mostly inside the historic foot print of the fishery, zones considered “clean” and presenting lower risk for the gears. The on-going work  of the MAREANO project will help to advise on “unexploited” areas (Cappell et al., 2016; Kiseleva and Nichols, 2016).

In general, there is good understanding of the potential impacts of bottom trawling on the benthos and habitats (Guadian et al., 2016). Qualitative effects on the total impact of trawling on the ecosystem have been studied to some degree and the most serious effects have been demonstrated for hard bottom habitats dominated by large sessile fauna, where erected organisms such as sponges, anthozoans and corals have been shown to decrease considerably in abundance in the pass of the ground gear (Freese et al, 1999; Althaus et al., 2009). Studies by Denisenko (2001, 2005, 2007) in the Barents Sea revealed that in areas of intensive bottom fisheries there was a degradation in the overall benthic habitats, with a shift towards more opportunistic, short-lived detritus eating organisms, and considerable decrease in the benthos biomass (Southall et al. 2010). According to Denisenko (2007) the gross biomass (75-80%) of the benthic community in the Barents Sea Sea is composed by 15-20 species (Southall et al. 2010). Investigations by Fossa et al., (2002) concluded that the damage to coral reefs in Norway amounts to between 30% and 50% of the total coral area. Most obvious impact of trawling on Lophelia pertusa is the mechanical damage caused by the gear itself. The impact of trawled gear will kill the coral polyps and break up the reef structure. Impacts of trawling on soft (e.g., sandy, clay-silt) bottoms have been less studied. According to available research in sandy bottoms of high seas fishing grounds, trawling disturbances have not produced large changes in the benthic assemblages, suggesting these habitats may be resistant to trawling due to natural disturbances and large natural variability (ICES, 2014b). However, more research is needed to fully evaluate possible impacts on this type of habitats. More recently, the impacts of bottom trawling on megabenthos were examined in the Barents sea and megabenthos density and diversity (namely the sponges Craniella zetlandica and Phakellia / Axinella,  Flabellum macandrewi (Scleractinia), Ditrupa arietina (Polychaeta), Funiculina quadrangularis (Pennatulacea), and Spatangus purpureus (Echinoidea)) showed a negative relation  with fishing intensity. However, some asteroids, lamp shells, and small sponges showed a positive trend (Buhl-Mortensen et al. 2016).

Longlines, gillnets, Danish seines and hook and lines are less impacting on the ecosystem but a potential impact assessment on the impacts of gillnets, longline and trawl on sensitive habitats is required by the MSC for certifications of the Norwegian parts of the fishery.

It is wider accepted that fishing activity has been effect in benthic habitat in the Barents Sea but there is no evidence that these changes have led to wider changes in ecosystem functioning, losses of productivity or ecosystem services (Hønneland et al., 2016).

A comprehensive review of the biotic and abiotic drivers influencing early life history dynamics of the Barents Sea cod is presented in Ottersen et al. (2014). Experimental studies also suggest possible ocean acidification effects on cod larval survival and recruitment (Stiasny et al. 2016).

Faroe Islands
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

For this fishery in particular, no conditions were raised upon MSC certification. Skippers avoid benthic communities of sponges and cold-water coral reefs and the fishery was not considered to significantly impact vulnerable habitats (Lockwood et al, 2012).

France

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The single MSC condition on habitat is closed and the review of data found no information that would suggest any impact on vulnerable habitats (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2014; Sieben and Gascoine, 2016). A VMS helps to detect if fishing operations are carried out on sensitive or protected habitats (Gascoigne and Sieben, 2013).

Germany

Last updated on 4 August 2014

For this specific fishery, an MSC condition was raised upon MSC certification, related with the review of recent information on sensitive benthic habitats in the fishing area (notably from the MAREANO project) and implementation of measures to reduce possible impacts (MEP, 2012). Currently, the overlap of the sensitive and fishing areas is being analyzed. Scientific observers will be onboard. Skippers have now to consult publicly available regulations before fishing operations and a protocol defines specific rules while exploring new fishing areas; to date no infringements were observed in terms of these requirements/regulations. The condition was therefore closed in the second MSC surveillance audit (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

Norway

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Norwegian regulations (755/2011) have been amended (9 March 2016) along international (e.g. NEAFC) standards (Huntington and Chaudhury, 2017). Condition 5 (trawling and Danish seine) requires the assessment of the fishery interaction with Pennatulacea (sea pens) and to determine if the habitat structure and function is not compromised at serious or irreversible levels (Nichols et al., 2015). This condition is on target with progresses on: IMR is starting to document and map benthic fauna on their regular trawl surveys; the Mareano project is moving its coverage further north; the industry has imposed a voluntary closure on expansion on trawling in the Barents ; and trawling is banned within the 12 nm zone in most areas, as well as within identified cold-water coral areas (19 coral areas have been identified through MAREANO and protected)  (Huntington and Chaudhury, 2017).

Russian Federation

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Russian coastal waters (<12 nm) from Varanger Fjord to 37 degrees E are closed to bottom trawling and purse seining in order to specifically protect benthic habitats (Hønneland et al., 2014). Norwegian and Russian scientists are also studying the use of pelagic or semi-pelagic trawls in order to minimize adverse ecosystem effects (ICES, 2014b); however, monitoring of bycatch of small cetaceans must be undertaken if their use expands (Lockwood et al., 2010).

The Russian certified fisheries have conditions open regarding the collection and analyse of relevant information to evaluate and develop a strategy to mitigate the possible habitats impacts of the fishery (Guadian et al., 2016; Hønneland and Revenga, 2016).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 1 March 2017

The MSC fishery FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas cod and haddock Fishery has an open  condition that aims to better understand and minimize the impact of the fishery on the seabed ecosystem, safeguarding habitat structure and function. Efforts are in place to gather additional information on the overlapping of fishing operations and sensitive habitats, recording and analysis of benthic sessile species bycatch; the potential use of semi-pelagic trawl is also in research to reduce the impact (Hønneland et al., 2011; FCI, 2012; FCI, 2013). The collection of data on benthic species interactions is behind target but this not compromises the progress of the condition (Hønneland and Revenga, 2016).

Mapping of the vulnerable habitats continues via the Joint Russian-Norwegian Ecosystem assessment and the Mareano project, skippers avoid benthic communities of sponges and cold-water coral reefs and the fishery was not considered to significantly impact vulnerable habitats (available information from MSC logbooks revealed no interactions with corals and few with sponges). However, MSC recommendation 1 encouraged further actions to decrease the likelihood of any significant impacts, namely: the potential use of less impacting fishing gears (semi-pelagic trawls); b) gather additional information on the overlapping of fishing operations and sensitive habitas; continue using navigation systems to avoid areas of sensitive habitats (Hønneland et al., 2014).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 4 August 2014

For this specific fishery, an MSC condition was raised upon MSC certification, related with the review of recent information on sensitive benthic habitats in the fishing area (notably from the MAREANO project) and implementation of measures to reduce possible impacts (MEP, 2012). Currently, the overlap of the sensitive and fishing areas is being analyzed. Scientific observers will be onboard. Skippers have now to consult publicly available regulations before fishing operations and a protocol defines specific rules while exploring new fishing areas; to date no infringements were observed in terms of these requirements/regulations. The condition was therefore closed in the second MSC surveillance audit (Pfeiffer and Sieben, 2014).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Real-time closures are enforced along the Norwegian coast and in the Barents Sea when the proportion of juveniles of cod, haddock and saithe exceeds 15% by number. Surveillance determines when the percentage has fallen and determines the reopening of the closed areas. An initial study found that discarding of undersized cod and haddock had been reduced by the system (ICES, 2014a).

Thirty-six areas are proposed for protection under Norway’s marine conservation plan, and other areas where the environment and natural resources are considered valuable or vulnerable are part of a proposed Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea−Lofoten Area. These are selected based on the importance of their biological production and biodiversity, in terms of endangered, vulnerable or important species or habitats. Key spawning and egg and larval drift areas for important fish stocks; breeding, moulting and wintering areas for important seabirds and critical benthic fauna habitats are included. To date, nineteen cold-water reef marine protected areas off the Norwegian coast have been created to date, in order to mitigate the impact of fisheries on the seabed habitats in the Barents Sea (Mareano project; Huntington and Chaudhury, 2017). Eighty seven percent of the territorial waters around Svalbard are protected through under the Svalbard Environmental Protection Act (MoE, 2012). The Norwegian Government has set a target for at least 10 % of coastal and marine areas to be protected by 2020 (Hønneland et al., 2014).

In Russian waters specifically, most area closures (permanent and temporary) are designated to protect spawning and nursery areas of certain species (e.g., red king crab). But the coastal waters (<12 nm) from Varanger Fjord to 37º E are closed to bottom trawling and purse seining in order to specifically protect benthic habitats, however. Although not part of the OSPAR Convention, a considerable part of the Russian EEZ within the Barents Sea is covered by the OSPAR Region 1 – Arctic waters (Hønneland et al., 2014).

Norway

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Norway was the first country to implement protection measures for cold-water corals in European waters. In Norway, especially large amounts of the cold-water coral Lophelia have been detected, including the world’s largest known Lophelia -reef, the Røst-reef in Lofoten, Northern Norway.

Russian Federation
Longlines

Last updated on 1 March 2017

 Russia’s eleven existing and proposed protected areas in the Barents Sea similarly focus on the protection of seabirds and seaducks and their coastal habitat (Southall et al., 2010).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 12 June 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

ICES has evaluated the modified management plan and concluded that it is in accordance with the precautionary approach and not in contradiction with the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) approach (AFWG 2016).

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 233 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 233 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Estimated landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Estimated landings is 195 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 223 ('000 t) .

The underlying Estimated landings/Set TAC for this index is 87.3%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 753 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 80.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 942%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.207 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.350 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 59.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  • ICES reviewed the management plan and concluded that it is in accordance with the Precautionary Principle and not in contradiction with the MSY Framework (ICES, 2014a). Thus, a qualitative score of ≥ 8 has been added to Score 1.
     

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Arkhangelsk Trawl fleet Norwegian and Barents Seas cod & haddock fishery

STATUS

MSC Certified on 26 January 2016

SCORES

Fishery named changed in February 2016 from "Arkhangelsk Trawl Fleet Barents Sea cod & haddock" to "Arkhangelsk Trawl Fleet Norwegian and Barents Seas cod & haddock".

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species - Cod 94.4
Principle 1 – Target Species - Haddock 89.4
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 80.0
Principle 3 – Management System 94.3

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T., Kloser, R., Green, M., Barker, B., Bax, N., Brodie, P. and Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397: 279-294.http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v397/p279-294/
  2. Cappell, R., Lassen, H., Pawson, M., 2015. Greenland Cod, Haddock and Saithe Trawl Fishery in the Barents Sea. Intertek Fisheries Certification. 284pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/greenland-cod-haddock-and-saithe-trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20150505_PCR_COD412.pdf
  3. Cappell, R., Lassen, H., Pawson, M., 2016. Off-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for Greenland cod, haddock and saithe trawl FisheryJune 2016, 15pp https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/greenland-cod-haddock-and-saithe-trawl-fishery/@@assessments
  4. Cetacean Specialist Group 1996. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  5. Commission of the European Communities. 1999. Communication from the Commission to the Council and The European Parliament. Fisheries Management and Nature Conservation in the Marine Environment. Brussels. 1999 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2000:0015:FIN:EN:PDF
  6. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Bern 19.IX.1979 http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/104.htm
  7. de Clers, S. and Sieben, C. 2013. Report for Euronor and Compagnie des Peches St. Malo Cod (Gadus morhua) and Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) fishery, Certificate codes: MEP-F-008/9, MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, March, 16 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/arctic-ocean/comapeche_euronor_cod_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20130409_SR_COD224.pdf
  8. Directorate of Fisheries (DOF), 2011. Marine protected areas. Directorate of Fisheries Website. Last updated 28 September 2011.http://www.fiskeridir.no/english/fisheries/marine-protected-areas
  9. DNM, 2009. State of Environment Norway: Protected Areas. Directorate for Nature Management.http://www.environment.no/Tema/Naturomrader/Vernet-natur/
  10. Eleftheriou, A. Marine Benthos Dynamics:Environmental and Fisheries Impacts. Introduction and Overview. The ICES Symposium on “Marine Benthos Dynamics: Environmental and Fisheries Impacts” held in Hersonissos, 5-7 October 1998. http://www.imbc.gr/whats_new/ICES_overview.doc
  11. European Commission. 2006. http://www.EuropeanCommission/Fisheries/press_corner/press_releases/archives/com03_en.htm
  12. FAO, 2013. Globefish, European price report, Issue 10/2013 October 2013, Fish Products and Industry Division, 22 pp.http://www.thefarmsite.com/reports/contents/EPROct2013.pdf
  13. Ferretti, F., Morey, G, Serena, F., Mancusi, C., Fowler, S.L., Dipper, F. & Ellis, J. 2015. Squatina squatina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T39332A48933059. [Accessed 14 January 2016]http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T39332A48933059.en
  14. Food Certification International, 2012. MSC Sustainable Fisheries - 2nd Annual Surveillance – Barents Sea cod and Barents Sea haddock Fishery. October 2012. 25pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/barents-sea-cod-and-haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20121009_SR_COD10.pdf
  15. Food Certification International (FCI), 2013. Off-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for Barents Sea cod and Barents Sea haddock Fishery. 3rd Annual Surveillance. November 2013. 27pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/barents-sea-cod-and-haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20131209_SR_V2_COD10.pdf
  16. Food Certification International (FCI), 2014. Off-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas cod and haddock Fishery. 1st Surveillance Audit, October 2014. 36pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/fiun_barents_and_norwegian_seas_cod_and_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/1st_Surveillance_Report_-_Final_v2_-_FIUN_BSCH.pdf
  17. Food Certification International (FCI), 2015. On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for Barents Sea cod and Barents Sea haddock Fishery. 4th Surveillance Audit, March 2015. 31pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/barents-sea-cod-haddock-and-saithe/assessment-downloads-1/20150310_SR4_COD010.pdf
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  97. Undercurrent News, 2016. Norway, Russia set 2017 Barents Sea cod quota at 890,000t. Published online on 20 October 2016. https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2016/10/20/norway-russia-set-2017-barents-sea-cod-quota-at-890000t/
  98. Wood, LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org
References

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