Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Coryphaena hippurus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Common dolphinfish, Mahi-mahi

The stock structure of the species is not truly known at a global scale. Considering the Eastern Pacific Ocean, Patterson and Martinez (1991) defined one single population from Ecuador to Costa Rica. Most recently, Díaz-Jaimes et al. (2010) studied the inter-oceanic divergence of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations but the genetic differentiation is not conclusive. Here, the separation of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Central Pacific stocks is based in the genetic heterogeneity found in the Pacific Ocean by Rocha-Olivares et al (2006).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure. The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.

Weaknesses

Data on harvest, bycatch, and discards for all nations catching mahi mahi in the EPO are lacking. There is no formal assessment for this stock and consequently no harvest strategy, management target or limit reference points are in place. In addition, there are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited. IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Conduct outreach to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) requesting the immediate adoption of formal target and limit reference points and harvest control rules. Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the IATTC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual nations. Press individual nations to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Resolutions in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
  • Assure full compliance of current observer coverage with an aim to increase longline observer coverage rates from the current 5% to a minimum of 20% with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers).
  •  Adopt at the national level shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the IATTC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks. 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Request systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage in the fisheries from which you source and ensure this data is provided to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC).
2. Encourage the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request countries from which you source to implement national management plans for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support one of the existing mahi mahi fishery improvement projects (FIPs), or start one of their own if there is no FIP in their region.


FIPS

  • Ecuador mahi-mahi - longline:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating B

  • Guatemala mahi mahi:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating C

  • Panama yellowfin tuna and mahi-mahi:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

  • Peru mahi-mahi - longline (Confremar):

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

  • Peru mahi-mahi - longline (WWF):

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Pacific Ocean IATTC Costa Rica Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Ecuador Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Guatemala Drifting longlines
Nicaragua Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Panama Drifting longlines
Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Peru Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Strengths

Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure. The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.

Weaknesses

Data on harvest, bycatch, and discards for all nations catching mahi mahi in the EPO are lacking. There is no formal assessment for this stock and consequently no harvest strategy, management target or limit reference points are in place. In addition, there are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited. IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 September 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Conduct outreach to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) requesting the immediate adoption of formal target and limit reference points and harvest control rules. Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the IATTC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual nations. Press individual nations to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Resolutions in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
  • Assure full compliance of current observer coverage with an aim to increase longline observer coverage rates from the current 5% to a minimum of 20% with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers).
  •  Adopt at the national level shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the IATTC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks. 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Request systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage in the fisheries from which you source and ensure this data is provided to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC).
2. Encourage the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request countries from which you source to implement national management plans for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support one of the existing mahi mahi fishery improvement projects (FIPs), or start one of their own if there is no FIP in their region.

Ecuador

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Congratulate the Ecuadorian government on the implementation of the mahi mahi National Plan of Action.
2. Thank the Ecuadorian government for pushing the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request the continued expansion of the national observer program and dockside monitoring program to all gear types, especially to ports that are not yet subject to dockside monitoring.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support the existing Ecuador mahi mahi fishery improvement project: https://sites.google.com/site/fisheryimprovementprojects/home/ecuador-mahi.

Nicaragua

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the Nicaraguan government to implement systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage.
2. Ask the Nicaraguan government to push the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request that Nicaragua implement a national management plan for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project (FIP).

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the Panamanian government to implement systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage.
2. Ask the Panamanian government to push the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request that Panama implement a national management plan for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support the current Panama mahi mahi FIP.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the Panamanian government to implement systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage.
2. Ask the Panamanian government to push the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request that Panama implement a national management plan for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support the current Panama mahi mahi FIP.

Peru

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the Peruvian Ministry of Production to implement systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage.
2. Ask the Peruvian government to support the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) in performing an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implementing an international harvest strategy.
3. Request that Peru implement a national management plan for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your suppliers to participate in the Peru mahi mahi fishery improvement project: https://sites.google.com/site/fisheryimprovementprojects/home/peru-mahi-mahi-fip.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 6 April 2015

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is in the beginning stages of developing a plan to assess mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean {IATTC 2014a}.The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) considers mahi mahi a species of Least Concern with a stable population trend (worldwide) {Collete et al. 2011}.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 7 August 2012

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between both countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi mahi.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 7 August 2012

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between both countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi mahi.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 7 July 2013

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate a stock assessment taking into account of the highly migratory character of mahi.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 7 July 2013

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate a stock assessment taking into account of the highly migratory character of mahi.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between both countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi.

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi mahi.

The status of the dolphinfish population in EPO remains unknown; Although, a good account of Panama’s artisanal longline fisheries targeting Dolphinfish is provided in Vega (2007); Vega and Robles (2010); Vega et al., (2010) documents; due to absence of robust biological reference points for this stock in the Eastern Pacific Ocean the status of population cannot be assessed. Most of the biological studies are restricted to length-weight assessments, feeding habits, age and growth data (Solano-Sare et al., 2008; Alejo-plato et al., 2011; MRAG 2009). Significant new information was collected for Ecuador fleet (MAGAP and SRP 2009 cited in MRAG 2009), but catches from other foreign and regional fleets exploiting the stock remain unknown.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi mahi.

The status of the dolphinfish population in EPO remains unknown; Although, a good account of Panama’s artisanal longline fisheries targeting Dolphinfish is provided in Vega (2007); Vega and Robles (2010); Vega et al., (2010) documents; due to absence of robust biological reference points for this stock in the Eastern Pacific Ocean the status of population cannot be assessed. Most of the biological studies are restricted to length-weight assessments, feeding habits, age and growth data (Solano-Sare et al., 2008; Alejo-plato et al., 2011; MRAG 2009). Significant new information was collected for Ecuador fleet (MAGAP and SRP 2009 cited in MRAG 2009), but catches from other foreign and regional fleets exploiting the stock remain unknown.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 28 June 2012

The status of the dolphinfish population in EPO remains unknown; Although, a good account of Panama’s artisanal longline fisheries targeting Dolphinfish is provided in Vega (2007); Vega and Robles (2010); Vega et al., (2010) documents; due to absence of robust biological reference points for this stock in the Eastern Pacific Ocean the status of population cannot be assessed. Most of the biological studies are restricted to length-weight assessments, feeding habits, age and growth data (Solano-Sare et al., 2008; Alejo-plato et al., 2011; MRAG 2009). Significant new information was collected for Ecuador fleet (MAGAP and SRP 2009 cited in MRAG 2009), but catches from other foreign and regional fleets exploiting the stock remain unknown.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

There is not yet a systematic stock assessment for these fisheries. Efforts are being made to coordinate stock assessments and stock recognition between both countries, taking account of the highly migratory character of mahi

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 6 April 2015

There are no reliable stock assessments for this stock throughout its range in the Pacific Ocean and both regional governments and RFMOs have not taken any concrete measures to regulate this fishery in this area.However, the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission has recently initiated a research plan to assess mahi mahi populations, but this will require the cooperation of many nations {IATTC 2014a}.

Costa Rica
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 7 July 2013

No formal analytical assessment is conducted.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 7 July 2013

Because there is no formal assessment, there is little scientific advice that can be utilized for the management of this stock.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 7 July 2013

Because there is no formal assessment, there is little scientific advice that can be utilized for the management of this stock.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 6 April 2015

There are no reliable stock assessments for this stock throughout its range in the Pacific Ocean, and therefore no reference points are available for evaluation.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 7 August 2012

There are no reliable stock assessments for this stock throughout its range in the Pacific Ocean hence no reference points are available for evaluation.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 7 August 2012

There are no reliable stock assessments for this stock throughout its range in the Pacific Ocean hence no reference points are available for evaluation.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

No reference points have been defined yet.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

No reference points have been defined yet.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

No reference points have been defined yet.

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

L∞, k (growth coefficient in one year) and t0 (length at age = 0) have been estimated for this stock in Ecuador, Colombia and Mexican waters (Lasso and Zapata 1999; Patterson and Martinez 1991; Alejo-Plata et al., 2011).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

L∞, k (growth coefficient in one year) and t0 (length at age = 0) have been estimated for this stock in Ecuador, Colombia and Mexican waters (Lasso and Zapata 1999; Patterson and Martinez 1991; Alejo-Plata et al., 2011).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2012

Growth parameters L∞, k (growth coefficient in one year) and t0 (length at age = 0) have been estimated for this stock in Ecuador, Colombia and Mexican waters (Lasso and Zapata 1999; Patterson and Martinez 1991; Alejo-Plata et al., 2011).

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

No reference points have been defined yet.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 April 2015

The status is highly uncertain as no stock assessment has been conducted.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 1 March 2013

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Costa Rican boats landed 2321 tonnes of mahi mahi in 2004, while in recent years the average annual catch was around 4792 tonnes (Whoriskey et al., 2011). There is no mention of hook and line fishing gear in industrial fishery, but artisanal fleet may use such gear in coastal fisheries.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Costa Rican boats landed 2321 tonnes of mahi mahi in 2004, while in recent years the average annual catch was around 4792 tonnes (Whoriskey et al., 2011). There is no mention of hook and line fishing gear in industrial fishery, but artisanal fleet may use such gear in coastal fisheries.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

Costa Rican boats landed 2321 tonnes of mahi mahi in 2004, while in recent years the average annual catch was around 4792 tonnes (Whoriskey et al., 2011). There is no mention of hook and line fishing gear in industrial fishery, but artisanal fleet may use such gear in coastal fisheries.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Nicaragua
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 1 March 2013

In 2010, fishing vessels along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, landed 181 tonnes of mahi mahi (INPESCA Yearbook 2010). Nations exploiting mahi mahi along the Eastern Pacific Ocean landed around 50,000 tonnes of mahi mahi (IATTC 2012), showing that catches from Nicaraguan waters comprised only 0.3 % of total landed catches in this region. Anon (2006); ADPESCA (2006) and FAO (2006) documents suggest that mahi mahi is mostly caught as bycatch by both artisanal and industrial longline fleet, with very little information available on activities of other fleets in Nicaraguan waters.
The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

In 2010, fishing vessels along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, landed 181 tonnes of mahi mahi (INPESCA Yearbook 2010). Nations exploiting mahi mahi along the Eastern Pacific Ocean landed around 50,000 tonnes of mahi mahi (IATTC 2012), showing that catches from Nicaraguan waters comprised only 0.3 % of total landed catches in this region. Anon (2006); ADPESCA (2006) and FAO (2006) documents suggest that mahi mahi is mostly caught as bycatch by both artisanal and industrial longline fleet, with very little information available on activities of other fleets in Nicaraguan waters.
The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The status is highly uncertain. Presently a trial assessment is being driven by an MSC certifier under the GASS/DD Project.

TRENDS

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Information on catch rates from 1. Ecuador, 2. Peru, 3. eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) total and 4. EPO others (EPO total-Ecuador and Peru) and 5. world others. The catch rates from Ecuador have been fairly stable over the past 6 years. Catch rates for mahi mahi incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries have been fairly variable over time depending on the location of fishing. THere is also a high degree of seasonal variability in catch rates of mahi mahi from Ecuador and Costa Rica. Landings peaked during 2009 and 2010 in the eastern Pacific Ocean but have since declined {IATTC 2014a}{IATTC 2014b}.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 6 April 2015

Mahi is not well regulated in this region, there are no measures of stock status, and no input or output controls for this fishery region wide.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 27 December 2010

By-catch has been quantified through the observer program since 1999, for some longliners targeting Mahi mahi and other pelagic fish in Costa Rican waters. However, apart from licensing no other measures appear to be in place for Costa Rica’s pole and line fleet. Exact number of pole mad line vessels and their operational range remain unknown in this fishery.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 27 December 2010

By-catch has been quantified through the observer program since 1999, for some longliners targeting Mahi mahi and other pelagic fish in Costa Rican waters. However, apart from licensing no other measures appear to be in place for Costa Rica’s pole and line fleet. Exact number of pole mad line vessels and their operational range remain unknown in this fishery.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

Costa Rica does not currently have any management plan in place for Mahi mahi. Costa Rica is a member of the the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), the regional fishery management organization in charge of tuna and tuna like species in the eastern Pacific Ocean. However, IATTC does not currently have any management measures in place for mahi mahi.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 20 December 2010

By-catch has been quantified through the observer program since 1999, for the pelagic longline fleet targeting Mahi mahi in Costa Rican waters. No spatial or temporal closures are in place to protect mahi mahi or other pelagic species, which are targeted by Costa rican longliners throughout the year (Whoriskey et al., 2011).

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Neither Ecuador nor Peru has a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not assessed.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Neither Ecuador nor Peru has a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not assessed.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 22 September 2012

Neither Ecuador nor Peru has a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not assessed.

In the small-scale fisheries, the Undersecretariat of Fisheries Resources enforces a total ban on fishing Mahi mahi from July 1 to October 7 each year, when use of longline gear is prohibited in Ecuador waters (SUBPESCA 2012).

Nicaragua
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 10 August 2012

Under INPESCA Resolucion Ejecutiva PA-No. 003-2012 minimum capture size limits are in place for many species of molluscs (conch, sea cucumbers) and finfish (Groupers, snappers) species, but mahi mahi are not covered under this resolution.

Collection of data on incidental and direct catches of sea turtles in the EPO tuna fisheries (IATTC Resolution C—4-07 to mitigate impact of tuna fishing on sea turtles) (IATTC 2004).

IATTC Resolution C-04-05 to reduce bycatch and release all sea turtles caught as accidental bycatch in EPO tuna fisheries (IATTC 2006).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 10 August 2012

Under INPESCA Resolucion Ejecutiva PA-No. 003-2012 minimum capture size limits are in place for many species of molluscs (conch, sea cucumbers) and finfish (Groupers, snappers) species, but mahi mahi are not covered under this resolution.

Collection of data on incidental and direct catches of sea turtles in the EPO tuna fisheries (IATTC Resolution C—4-07 to mitigate impact of tuna fishing on sea turtles) (IATTC 2004).

IATTC Resolution C-04-05 to reduce bycatch and release all sea turtles caught as accidental bycatch in EPO tuna fisheries (IATTC 2006).

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 27 December 2010

There does not appear to be a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not adequately assessed in Panama waters (Teplitzky 2005).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 27 December 2010

There does not appear to be a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not adequately assessed in Panama waters (Teplitzky 2005).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2015

In Panama the Aquatic Resources Authority of Panama (ARAP) is in charge of fisheries management. Currently there are restrictions on longline fishing and this has lead to a decrease in overall effort. Longlines can only be fished with a hand roller (no mechanical aspects) and with no more than 800 hooks and vessels must be under 6 GRT in size (Executive Order No 486 of 2010) (Administrative Resolution of the ARAP No 125 of 2011). There are seasonal restrictions in the Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Panama. The fishing season lasts from July to February. In the Gulf of Panama, the season lasts from April/May through November.There is no harvest strategy or target/limit reference points in place for mahi mahi {CeDePesca 2014}.

Panama is also a member of the Regional Fisheries Management Organization in the region, the Inter-American Tropial Tuan Commission (IATTC). However, IATTC has no measures in place for mahi mahi.
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Neither Ecuador nor Peru has a management plan for mahi mahi. Fishing regulations are minimal and not enforced, and the fishery is poorly monitored and not assessed.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 6 April 2015

The status of mahi mahi is unknown in the eastern Pacific Ocean and therefore it is unknown if any recovery plans are needed. No recovery plans are in place.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 7 August 2012

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 7 August 2012

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 27 December 2010

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 27 December 2010

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2015

There is no recovery plan in place for mahi mahi but their status is unknown.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The eventual implementation of a recovery plan can only take place once the status of the stock is understood.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 6 April 2015

There are no catch limits, quotas etc and no management measure to determine compliance with.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 1 March 2013

There are no catch limits or TAC for this fishery in Costa Rica or IATTC waters. There is scarcity of information on compliance aspects for this fishery in Costa Rican EEZ.

Lack of controls on fishing capacity in Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Guatemala) have led to expansion of pelagic longlining by artisanal and industrial fleets beyond their EEZs leading to decline of Mahi mahi landings with an average decline of 300 tonnes per year in Costa Rica for the 2001-04 period (Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

There are no catch limits or TAC for this fishery in Costa Rica or IATTC waters. There is scarcity of information on compliance aspects for this fishery in Costa Rican EEZ.

Lack of controls on fishing capacity in Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Guatemala) have led to expansion of pelagic longlining by artisanal and industrial fleets beyond their EEZs leading to decline of Mahi mahi landings with an average decline of 300 tonnes per year in Costa Rica for the 2001-04 period (Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

According to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, Costa Rica had noted compliance issues with providing catch data forvessels less than 24 m in length and has not provided information on their progress implementing the FAO turtle guidelines during 2012, but this was provided during 2013 {IATTC 2013}.There is no TAC in place for mahi mahi.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

Existing Government legislation mandating protection of sea turtles and other fisheries regulations are not being enforced in Costa Rican fisheries (PRETOMA 2012; Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006). There are no catch limits or TAC for this fishery in Costa Rica or IATTC waters.

Lack of controls on fishing capacity in Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Guatemala) have led to expansion of pelagic longlining by artisanal and industrial fleets beyond their EEZs leading to decline of Mahi mahi landings with an average decline of 300 tonnes per year in Costa Rica for the 2001-04 period (Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006).

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

In Ecuador, no funds were allocated yet to the Fisheries Research Institute (INP) to prepare a monitoring plan and prepare half-yearly reports or to the National Fisheries Direction for the general enforcement of the regulation. The scarce existing rules are not enforced.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

In Ecuador, no funds were allocated yet to the Fisheries Research Institute (INP) to prepare a monitoring plan and prepare half-yearly reports or to the National Fisheries Direction for the general enforcement of the regulation. The scarce existing rules are not enforced.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

In Ecuador, no funds were allocated yet to the Fisheries Research Institute (INP) to prepare a monitoring plan and prepare half-yearly reports or to the National Fisheries Direction for the general enforcement of the regulation. The scarce existing rules are not enforced.

Nicaragua
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 10 August 2012

Nicaraguan fisheries is troubled with violations of legislations, undersized catches, fishing during closed seasons, poor reporting of catch data by researchers and fishing companies (Archbold 2008).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 10 August 2012

Nicaraguan fisheries is troubled with violations of legislations, undersized catches, fishing during closed seasons, poor reporting of catch data by researchers and fishing companies (Archbold 2008).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 March 2013

Lack of controls on fishing capacity in Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Guatemala) have led to expansion of pelagic longlining by artisanal and industrial fleets beyond their EEZs leading to decline of Mahi mahi landings with an average decline of 300 tonnes per year in Costa Rica for the 2001-04 period (Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006).

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 27 December 2010

MCS operations are conducted in joint co-ordination with DIGEREMA and Servicio Maritimo Nacional (FAO 2001). A wide range of IUU fishing and fishing gear violations are noted in Panama’s artisanal and industrial fisheries (FAO 2001; Wildaid 2005).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 27 December 2010

MCS operations are conducted in joint co-ordination with DIGEREMA and Servicio Maritimo Nacional (FAO 2001). A wide range of IUU fishing and fishing gear violations are noted in Panama’s artisanal and industrial fisheries (FAO 2001; Wildaid 2005).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 2 July 2015

Compliance cannot be calculated as there are no catch limits or TAC reported for this fishery in Panama waters.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

In Peru, there are no set rules at all.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 7 April 2015

The longline fisheries operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) that capture mahi mahi likely have incidental interactions with sea turtles.

Green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captures in longline fisheries operating in the EPO. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies green, leatherback and loggerhead turtles as Endangered, hawksbill as Critically Endangered, and olive ridley as Vulnerable (www.iucn.org).

Marine mammal interactions are not common bycatch species in this fishery.

Several species of seabirds, including black-footed, laysan and waved albatross. Black-footed, laysan albatross are considered Near Threatened by the IUCN and waved albatross as Critically Endangered and may also be incidentally captured.

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has put several management measures aimed at bycatch species into place. IATTC member countries are to implement an International Plan of Action for Seabirds. Two seabird mitigation methods are requiredon vessels larger than 20 m fishing in specific areas. A 3 year program to reduce the impact of fishing on sea turtles has been put into place. This plan requires reporting of any interaction and carrying of proper handling and release gears. Shark finning is banned (5% rule) and oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained (IATTC 2011b)(IATTC 2011c)(IATTC 2005)(IAC 2012).

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 27 December 2010

There are limited problems associated with pole and line fishing gear for interactions with protected, endangered and threatened species.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 27 December 2010

There are limited problems associated with pole and line fishing gear for interactions with protected, endangered and threatened species.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

By-catch has been quantified through the observer program since 1999, for the pelagic longline fleet targeting Mahi mahi in Costa Rican waters (Whoriskey et al., 2011).

There is problematic bycatch of turtles and marine mammals in this fishery.For example, for every 1000 hooks fished around 19 turtles are caught in Costa Rican waters (Swimmer et al., 2011). Bycatch data from the observer program (1999 to 2008) for the pelagic longline fleet targeting Mahi mahi reveals a high incidental catch and mortality of sea turtles. Bycatch rates are as follows: olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea; 9.05 per 1000 hooks), green turtle (Chelonia mydas; n = 49, mean = 0.35 per 1000 hooks),(Arauz 2002, 2004; Whoriskey et al., 2011). New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch. Costa Rica has an executive decree in place that requires the use of circle hooks, to reduce sea turtle interactions, but there have historically been concerns with compliance.According to Costa Rica’s 2013 compliance report to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), they have implemented the FAO Guidelines for turtle, enhanced the implementation of sea turtle bycatch reduction measures, requires vessels to carry and use equipment to release incidentally captured sea turtle. However, Costa Rica has not complied with providing data on all sea turtle interactions in the fishery {IATTC 2013b}.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

These types of fisheries do not typically have interactions for PET species.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Turtles and some impact on seabirds are known as the bycatch of this fishery. Some efforts are being driven in Ecuador with circle hooks, but the yeld of such hooks on the target species is less than the J ones. New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Turtles and some impact on seabirds are known as the bycatch of this fishery. Some efforts are being driven in Ecuador with circle hooks, but the yeld of such hooks on the target species is less than the J ones. New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Turtles and some impact on seabirds are known as the bycatch of this fishery. Some efforts are being driven in Ecuador with circle hooks, but the yeld of such hooks on the target species is less than the J ones. New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch.

Nicaragua
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 10 August 2012

There is incidental mortality of many marine mammals such as sea turtles (leatherback and olive ridley), spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata_), spinner dolphins (S. longirostris_), and common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the pelagic fisheries off Eastern Pacific Ocean (FAO 2011). Other by-catch reported in Eastern Pacific Ocean longline fisheries include silky sharks and Oceanic whitetip sharks. A hook-exchange and observer program is in place in Nicaragua and other EPO countries to reduce bycatch of sea turtles (FAO 2011).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 10 August 2012

There is incidental mortality of many marine mammals such as sea turtles (leatherback and olive ridley), spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata_), spinner dolphins (S. longirostris_), and common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the pelagic fisheries off Eastern Pacific Ocean (FAO 2011). Other by-catch reported in Eastern Pacific Ocean longline fisheries include silky sharks and Oceanic whitetip sharks. A hook-exchange and observer program is in place in Nicaragua and other EPO countries to reduce bycatch of sea turtles (FAO 2011).

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Interactions of pole and line and Handline gear with PET species is not known in Panama waters off the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Interactions of pole and line and Handline gear with PET species is not known in Panama waters off the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 3 July 2015

There is a general lack of information on bycatch in this fishery. The information that exists suggests this fishery tends to have a low number of impacts with sea turtles. This may be because sea turtles migratory season occurs after the mahi mahi fishing season and/or may be a reflection of the fact that small circle hooks are the most commonly used type of hook. Sea bird interactions have not been reported in this fishery (http://cedepesca.net/promes/tuna-and-large-pelagics/panama-pacific-mahi-mahi-and-yellowfin-tuna/).

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Turtles and some impact on seabirds are known as the bycatch of this fishery. New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) longlines fisheries that capture mahi mahi tuna also likely capture a number of other species of fish, including billfish and other tuna species, and sharks.

Other common bycatch species in the longline fishery include blue and silky sharks, indo-Pacific sailfish, tuna and swordfish. Blue shark populations are currently healthy in the north Pacific region of the EPO but populations in the south Pacific appear to be in much worse condition. The current status of silky sharks, despite an assessment being conducted, is unknown in this region. The status of indo-Pacific sailfish is also uncertain. Swordfish populations are healthy in both the northern and southern region of the EPO {IATTC 2014b}.

Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 23 November 2012

Such information is not available for pole and line vessels operating from Costa Rican waters.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 23 November 2012

Such information is not available for pole and line vessels operating from Costa Rican waters.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

There is problematic bycatch of sharksin this fishery. Theexpansion of fishing activities in the Costa Rican EEZ targeting large pelagics such as Mahi mahi, tunas and sharks have caused a decline in populations of sharks and sailfish along the coastline (Ehrhardt and Fitchett 2006).

Bycatch data from the observer program (1999 to 2008) for the pelagic longline fleet targeting Mahi mahi reveals a high incidental catch and mortality of sharks and sting rays. Bycatch rates are as follows:silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis; 2.96 per 1000 hooks), thresher sharks (Alopias sp.; mean = 1.12 per 1000 hooks), and pelagic sting rays mean = 4.77 per 1000 hooks (Arauz 2002, 2004; Whoriskey et al., 2011).

Costa Rica has implemented the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) management measure prohibiting the retention of oceanic whitetip sharks but has had poor success with providing data on any interactions with oceanic whitetip sharks. Costa Rica requires fins be naturally attached {IATTC 2013b}.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 8 April 2015

These types of fisheries typically have low bycatch rates.

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Sharks have been stated as a bycatch in this fishery by environmental organizations, but indeed the used line, with no steel at all, allows the sharks to escape, except some small animals without commercial interest, because of what are many times devolved alive to the sea.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Sharks have been stated as a bycatch in this fishery by environmental organizations, but indeed the used line, with no steel at all, allows the sharks to escape, except some small animals without commercial interest, because of what are many times devolved alive to the sea.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Sharks have been stated as a bycatch in this fishery by environmental organizations, but indeed the used line, with no steel at all, allows the sharks to escape, except some small animals without commercial interest, because of what are many times devolved alive to the sea.

Nicaragua
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 10 August 2012

By-catch reported in Eastern Pacific Ocean pelagic fisheries include silky sharks and Oceanic whitetip sharks. A hook-exchange and observer program is in place in Nicaragua and other EPO countries to reduce bycatch of sea turtles (FAO 2011).

Bycatch of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks in pelagic longline fisheries threatens some populations with extinction.

IATTC has adopted the following conservation and management measures related to mitigating bycatch:

Seabirds
IATTC has not adopted a legally binding measure to mitigate seabird bycatch. In 2005, recommended: (i) implementation of the FAO International Plan of Action – Seabirds; (ii) collection of information on seabird interactions, including bycatch in fisheries; and (iii) Working Group on Stock Assessment to assess the impact of seabird bycatch in eastern Pacific tuna fisheries.

Sea Turtles
IATTC does not require employment of best practice gear technology sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures for pelagic longline fisheries, of a combination of wide circle hooks and whole fish instead of squid for bait. A 2004 resolution established a three-year program to: (i) collect and analyze information on sea turtle fishery interactions in the eastern Pacific Ocean; (ii) review the efficacy and effects on target species catch rates of sea turtle avoidance methods; (iii) educate the industry sector; and (iv) establish a voluntary fund to augment the capacity for sea turtle conservation by coastal developing countries. The program was extended in 2007. Program activities, implemented in collaboration with numerous organizations, have included: (i) the exchange of circle hooks for J hooks, tuna hooks and narrower circle hooks; (ii) distribution of dehookers; (iii) placement of onboard observers to monitor hook trials; and (iv) training in data collection and database management for participants in the hook trials.
A 2007 resolution calls on longline vessels to: (i) carry and use turtle releasing equipment; and (ii) conduct trials of combinations of circle hooks and bait, depth and other turtle bycatch mitigation measures.

Sharks
A 2005 measure requires members’ vessels to: (i) keep all parts of retained sharks, excluding head, guts and skins, to the point of first landing; (ii) have onboard fins that total < 5% of the weight of sharks onboard, up to the first point of landing, or otherwise ensure compliance with the 5% rule through certification, observer monitoring or other method. IATTC has passed resolutions annually since 1999 to evaluate and reduce elasmobranch bycatch. Measures restricting shark finning practices such as IATTC’s generally have limited potential to control shark fishing mortality levels except in fisheries with limited markets for shark meat and strong resources for monitoring, control and surveillance. IATTC does not require employment of longline gear technology best practices for shark bycatch mitigation (Gilman, In Press).

Marine Mammals
No measures relevant to marine mammal interactions with handline fisheries.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 10 August 2012

By-catch reported in Eastern Pacific Ocean pelagic fisheries include silky sharks and Oceanic whitetip sharks. A hook-exchange and observer program is in place in Nicaragua and other EPO countries to reduce bycatch of sea turtles (FAO 2011).

Bycatch of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks in pelagic longline fisheries threatens some populations with extinction.

IATTC has adopted the following conservation and management measures related to mitigating bycatch:

Seabirds
IATTC has not adopted a legally binding measure to mitigate seabird bycatch. In 2005, recommended: (i) implementation of the FAO International Plan of Action – Seabirds; (ii) collection of information on seabird interactions, including bycatch in fisheries; and (iii) Working Group on Stock Assessment to assess the impact of seabird bycatch in eastern Pacific tuna fisheries.

Sea Turtles
IATTC does not require employment of best practice gear technology sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures for pelagic longline fisheries, of a combination of wide circle hooks and whole fish instead of squid for bait. A 2004 resolution established a three-year program to: (i) collect and analyze information on sea turtle fishery interactions in the eastern Pacific Ocean; (ii) review the efficacy and effects on target species catch rates of sea turtle avoidance methods; (iii) educate the industry sector; and (iv) establish a voluntary fund to augment the capacity for sea turtle conservation by coastal developing countries. The program was extended in 2007. Program activities, implemented in collaboration with numerous organizations, have included: (i) the exchange of circle hooks for J hooks, tuna hooks and narrower circle hooks; (ii) distribution of dehookers; (iii) placement of onboard observers to monitor hook trials; and (iv) training in data collection and database management for participants in the hook trials.
A 2007 resolution calls on longline vessels to: (i) carry and use turtle releasing equipment; and (ii) conduct trials of combinations of circle hooks and bait, depth and other turtle bycatch mitigation measures.

Sharks
A 2005 measure requires members’ vessels to: (i) keep all parts of retained sharks, excluding head, guts and skins, to the point of first landing; (ii) have onboard fins that total < 5% of the weight of sharks onboard, up to the first point of landing, or otherwise ensure compliance with the 5% rule through certification, observer monitoring or other method. IATTC has passed resolutions annually since 1999 to evaluate and reduce elasmobranch bycatch. Measures restricting shark finning practices such as IATTC’s generally have limited potential to control shark fishing mortality levels except in fisheries with limited markets for shark meat and strong resources for monitoring, control and surveillance. IATTC does not require employment of longline gear technology best practices for shark bycatch mitigation (Gilman, In Press).

Marine Mammals
No measures relevant to marine mammal interactions with handline fisheries.

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Panama’s semi-industrial boats catch sharks (Teplitzky 2005) as a bycatchin mahi mahi and other pelagic fisheries off the Pacific coast. Sea turtles are also reported as bycatch in similar fisheries in this region (Whoriskey et al., 2011).

WWF through its Bycatch initiative has conducted some experiments in Central American countries incl. Panama to use modified gear in commercial fisheries (WWF 2008); however whether such efforts have really translated into action in Panama’s fisheries remain unknown. Panama does not have any measures to mitigate impact of surface longlines on sea birds (ABC 2005).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Panama’s semi-industrial boats catch sharks (Teplitzky 2005) as a bycatchin mahi mahi and other pelagic fisheries off the Pacific coast. Sea turtles are also reported as bycatch in similar fisheries in this region (Whoriskey et al., 2011).

WWF through its Bycatch initiative has conducted some experiments in Central American countries incl. Panama to use modified gear in commercial fisheries (WWF 2008); however whether such efforts have really translated into action in Panama’s fisheries remain unknown. Panama does not have any measures to mitigate impact of surface longlines on sea birds (ABC 2005).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 3 July 2015

Information on bycatch in this fishery is limited and the impact on sharks is still in need of study (http://cedepesca.net/promes/tuna-and-large-pelagics/panama-pacific-mahi-mahi-and-yellowfin-tuna/). Like other longline fisheries that target mahi mahi is is likely this fishery also catches other bony fish, tunas and sharks. Information that exists for the Panamanian mahi mahi fishery as a whole (including vessels outside of this FIP) indicates that striped bonito, vicuda, Pacific agujon needlefish are also caught in this fishery. Common shark species may include pelagic thresher sharks, scalloped hammerhead and small tail sharks {CeDePesca 2013}{CeDePesca 2014}.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Sharks have been stated as a bycatch in this fishery by environmental organizations, but indeed the used line, with no steel at all, allows the sharks to escape, except some small animals without commercial interest, because of what are many times devolved alive to the sea.

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2013

Pelagic gear used to target dolphinfish does not come in contact with sea floor and has nominal effects on coastal and marine habitats.

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Pelagic fishing gear has nominal adverse effects on coastal and marine habitats.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Pelagic fishing gear has nominal adverse effects on coastal and marine habitats.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 28 June 2012

Pelagic fishing gear has nominal adverse effects on coastal and marine habitats.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The gear (artisanal longlines with 700/1500 hooks) has a minimal impact on the habitat.

MARINE RESERVES
Costa Rica
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 6 August 2012

IATTC adopted a resolution in June, 2000 for live release of non-target species such as sharks, rays, dorado, bill fishes and wahoo.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 6 August 2012

IATTC adopted a resolution in June, 2000 for live release of non-target species such as sharks, rays, dorado, bill fishes and wahoo.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 20 December 2010

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves. Use of circle hooks could reduce interactions of this fishery with sea turtles and reducing soak time in the longline fishery can allow release of bycatch species such as sharks.

No spatial or temporal closures are in place to protect mahi mahi or other pelagic species, which are targeted by Costa rican longliners throughout the year (Whoriskey et al., 2011).

Ecuador
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves.

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves.

Panama
Pole-lines hand operated

Last updated on 29 June 2012

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves. The Pacífico Occidental de Panamá (POP) which includes the Gulf of Chiriqui covers an area of 1,380,293 ha and extends up to 200 m depth. The POP area has eight marine protected areas, with the largest of them being the Coiba National Park (Guzman et al., 2004; Vega et al., 2010).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 29 June 2012

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves. The Pacífico Occidental de Panamá (POP) which includes the Gulf of Chiriqui covers an area of 1,380,293 ha and extends up to 200 m depth. The POP area has eight marine protected areas, with the largest of them being the Coiba National Park (Guzman et al., 2004; Vega et al., 2010).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 28 June 2012

The Pacífico Occidental de Panamá (POP) which includes the Gulf of Chiriqui covers an area of 1,380,293 ha and extends up to 200 m depth. The POP area has eight marine protected areas, with the largest of them being the Coiba National Park (Guzman et al., 2004; Vega et al., 2010).

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

The management strategy is assessed to not be precautionary because the regional fisheries management organizations have not adopted any management measures, reference points or harvest control rules.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

IATTC is beginning to assess mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The stock is not managed through quotas or TACs, but catches have been declining in recent years.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Biomass estimates (or equivalent) are not available. Best available information, which is extremely limited and based on life history characteristics of mahi mahi suggest that mahimahi is of low vulnerability to overexploitation.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Estimates of current fishing mortality (or equivalent) are not available. Best available information, which is extremely limited and based on life history characteristics of mahimahi suggest that mahimahi is of low vulnerability to overexploitation.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for biomass
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 31 May 2014
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP rating changed from A to B - last stage 4 progress report more than 12 months; last stage 3 progress over past 12 months 

1.
FIP Development
Jul 15
2.
FIP Launch
Aug 16
May 14
3.
FIP Implementation
Apr 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
May 16
5.
Improvements on the Water
Dec 15
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Coryphaena hippurus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.

IATTC. 2014a. Preliminary results from IATTC collaborative research activities on dorado in the EPO and future research plan. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Document SAC-05-aab. http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2014/MAYSAC/PDFs/presentations/SAC-05-11b-Dorado.pdf

IATTC. 2014b. Fishery status report No. 12. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport12.pdf

  1. IATTC. 2012. Fishery Status Report No. 10, Tunas and Billfishes in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2011, IATTC, La Jolla, California, 2012, 166 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport10ENG.pdf
  2. Patterson, K. R., and J. Martinez. 1991. Exploitation of the dolphin-fish Coryphaena hippurus L. off Ecuador: analysis by length-based virtual population analysis. Fishbyte 9: 21-23.http://www.worldcat.org/title/fishbyte-newsletter-of-the-network-of-tropical-fisheries-scientists/oclc/22920190
  1. FAO. 2004. Republic of Costa Rica, Fishery Country Profile, FAO of the United Nations, April 2004..http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/FCP/en/CRI/profile.htm
  1. FAO. 2006. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. Nicaragua. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. In: Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura de la FAO [en línea]. Rome.http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_NI/es
  2. IATTC. 2004. IATTC Resolution C-04-07 on a three year program to mitigate the impact of tuna fishing on Sea turtles, 72nd meeting, Lima, Peru, 14-18 June 2004, IATTC, 2 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-07-Sea-turtle-program.pdf
  3. IATTC. 2006. Resolution C-04-05 – Consolidated Resolution on Bycatch, 74th Meeting, 26-30 June 2006, IATTC, 3 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-05-REV-2-Bycatch-Jun-2006.pdf
References

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    Common dolphinfish - Eastern Pacific Ocean

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