SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Coryphaena hippurus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Common dolphinfish, Mahi-mahi

The stock structure of the species is not truly known at a global scale.  Díaz-Jaimes et al. (2010) studied the inter-oceanic divergence of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations but the genetic differentiation is not conclusive. The population structure in the eastern Pacific Ocean is unclear (IATTC 2014). Here, the separation of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Central Pacific stocks is based in the genetic heterogeneity found in the Pacific Ocean by Rocha-Olivares et al (2006) and due to differences in fisheries and management.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) and conducted a preliminary stock assessment.
  • Panama has presented some data to IATTC.
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • Some regulations have been stablished in order to regulate the fishing effort (storage capacity) of vessels targeting common dolphinfish
  • There is a fishery improvement project in place.
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
  • There is no management plan set at the national or international level for common dolphinfish
  • There are no reference points in place to evaluate the status of common dolphinfish in the area
  • Extensive and reliable information are needed to condcut a comprehensive stock assessment of common dolphinfish in the area
  • The fishing gear used (longlines) interacts with some Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species and information on interactions is lacking
  • More information regarding bycatch and juveniles should be taken from artisanal and medium-sized fleet.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members (CPCs) to: 
    • Immediately adopt formal limit and target reference points and develop a harvest control rule.
    • Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean including improved catch, effort, discard and biological data reporting for the target species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Support continuation of improved catch, effort, and biological data reporting for bycatch species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance. Aim to increase longline observer coverage rates to a minimum of 20% within 5 years and with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers) on vessels greater than 20 meters length.
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques such as those outlined in the Best Practices in Tuna Longline Fisheries Report
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Pacific Ocean IATTC Costa Rica Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Ecuador Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Guatemala Drifting longlines
Nicaragua Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Panama Drifting longlines
Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Peru Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 January 2019

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO
IATTC
Panama
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) and conducted a preliminary stock assessment.
  • Panama has presented some data to IATTC.
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • Some regulations have been stablished in order to regulate the fishing effort (storage capacity) of vessels targeting common dolphinfish
  • There is a fishery improvement project in place.
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
IATTC
Panama
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

  • There is no management plan set at the national or international level for common dolphinfish
  • There are no reference points in place to evaluate the status of common dolphinfish in the area
  • Extensive and reliable information are needed to condcut a comprehensive stock assessment of common dolphinfish in the area
  • The fishing gear used (longlines) interacts with some Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species and information on interactions is lacking
  • More information regarding bycatch and juveniles should be taken from artisanal and medium-sized fleet.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members (CPCs) to: 
    • Immediately adopt formal limit and target reference points and develop a harvest control rule.
    • Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean including improved catch, effort, discard and biological data reporting for the target species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Support continuation of improved catch, effort, and biological data reporting for bycatch species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance. Aim to increase longline observer coverage rates to a minimum of 20% within 5 years and with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers) on vessels greater than 20 meters length.
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques such as those outlined in the Best Practices in Tuna Longline Fisheries Report
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) conducted an exploratory stock assessment of mahi mahi in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2016 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). The assessment was conducted using the Stock Synthesis model. The model assumed monthly time steps between 2007 and 2014 and included length specific information and catch data from Peru and Ecuador and catch rate series from Ecuador (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 11 June 2019

The status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because there are no reference points in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against sustainable levels (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). Scientific advice related to management has not been provided but the IATTC Scientific Committee has recommended the IATTC staff continue working with countries to determine the stock status or mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (Personnel Communication, IATTC SAC 2019).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The current status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because reference points are not in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against. There are yearly fluctuations in biomass of mahi mahi in the south eastern Pacific Ocean. Peaks in biomass are typically seen in fall and winter, declining to lower levels during May and June. Overall, the biomass of mahi mahi has remained stable during the modeled time period (2007-2014). Recruitment shows inter-annual variability. Fishing mortality estimates ranged from 0.53 to 0.85 between 2007 and 2014 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
IATTC

There are curretly no management measures in place for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean through the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). The status of mahi mahi is unknown in the eastern Pacific Ocean and therefore it is unknown if any recovery plans are needed. No recovery plans are in place.

Panama

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Although there is no management plan set for common dolphinfish, the ARAP have developed the Plan de Acción para la Pesca Sostenible (Plan of action for sustainable fisheries, in English) for Panama (Gaceta Oficial 2016). This plan is organized into 4 actions: (1) Institutional strengthening, (2) Productivity and competitive optimization, (3) Responsible and sustainable fishing, and (4) Integral control and management. The main objective is the sustainable use of the aquatic resources, with an ecosystem approach and transparent management, coherent, equitable, and participative that guarantees the social and economic wellness of the fishing sector.

There is no total allowable capture in this fishery.

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

There are no explicit management plans for common dolphinfish in Panama set by the Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá (Authority of the aquatic resources of Panama, ARAP); the institute in charge of marine resources management in Panama. However, some measures have been set to control fishing effort in general. First, the exclusiveness of using longlines (superficial, midwater and bottom) for vessels with gross register tonnage (GRT) less than 6 tones (artisanal fishery)(MIDA 2010). Secondly, the legislation for the artisanal longline fishery (vessels with GRT < 6 tones) focused on limiting the number of hooks allowed per longline (up to 600) and the system of operation (ARAP 2011).

Although there is no management plan set for common dolphinfish, the ARAP have developed the Plan de Acción para la Pesca Sostenible (Plan of action for sustainable fisheries, in English) for Panama (Caceta Oficial 2016). This plan is organized into 4 actions: (1) Institutional strengthening, (2) Productivity and competitive optimization, (3) Responsible and sustainable fishing, and (4) Integral control and management. The main objective is the sustainable use of the aquatic resources, with an ecosystem approach and transparent management, coherent, equitable, and participative that guarantees the social and economic wellness of the fishing sector.

The only regulation set for common dolphinfish is the annual closure of its fishery from August 15th to October 15th. During this time, it is prohibited to use hooks smaller than 16/0 or mainline smaller than 12.6 meters  (MIDA, 2017). Nevertheless, there is constant need for implementing a monitoring program in the common dolphinfish fishery for the sustainable management of this important resource (Lasso and Zapata 1999).

Recovery Plan

No recovery plan is yet set for common dolphinfish in Panamanian waters since the population of the common dolphinfish in unknown.

COMPLIANCE
IATTC

There are no catch limits, quotas etc and no management measure to determine compliance with.

Panama

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Reporting’s on common dolphinfish landings have recently been started in Panama. The average landings of common dolphinfish are about 404 tonnes per year (FAO 2018). Since no TACs are officially set, no comparisons to total landings are possible.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

The longline fisheries operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) that capture mahi mahi likely have incidental interactions with sea turtles.

Green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in longline fisheries operating in the EPO. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies green, leatherback and loggerhead turtles as Endangered, hawksbill as Critically Endangered, and olive ridley as Vulnerable (www.iucn.org).

Marine mammal interactions are not common bycatch species in this fishery.

Several species of seabirds, including black-footed, laysan and waved albatross. Black-footed, laysan albatross are considered Near Threatened by the IUCN and waved albatross as Critically Endangered and may also be incidentally captured.

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has put several management measures aimed at bycatch species into place. IATTC member countries are to implement an International Plan of Action for Seabirds. Two seabird mitigation methods are required on vessels larger than 20 m fishing in specific areas. A 3 year program to reduce the impact of fishing on sea turtles has been put into place. This plan requires reporting of any interaction and carrying of proper handling and release gears. Shark finning is banned (5% rule) and oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained (IATTC 2011b)(IATTC 2011c)(IATTC 2005)(IAC 2012). 

IATTC
Panama
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Longlines are recognized fishing gears with incidental turtle and shark catches. Circular hooks (number 13) are the most popular type of hook used to target common dolphinfish in Panama. Turtle mortality from this fishery has been low, maybe due to the fact that the common dolphinfish season starts before the migratory season of turtles (CEDEPESCA 2013).

 

Pacheco (2013) (Pacheco 2013) recorded that 4 species of turtles: green (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) are bycaught in longlines targeting dolphinfish in Panama, species that are classified as endangered, critically endangered, critically endangered, and vulnerable by the IUCN, respectively (IUCN 2018). Pacheco (2013) (Pacheco 2013) reported that the most captured species is the olive ridley. Nevertheless, it is also reported that the negative impact of this fishery is low due to the fact that 98% of total turtles bycaught are captured alive (Pacheco 2013). In addition, the amount of hooked green turtles (Chelonia mydas) is statistically lower when using smaller hooks (Type C, number 13) (Pacheco 2013).

 

Interactions with seabirds are considered insignificant in this fishery. Pacheco (2013) (Pacheco 2013) recorded one bird bycaught.

Other Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) longlines fisheries that capture mahi mahi tuna also likely capture a number of other species of fish, including billfish and other tuna species, and sharks.

Other common bycatch species in the longline fishery include blue and silky sharks, indo-Pacific sailfish, tuna and swordfish. Blue shark populations are currently healthy in the north Pacific region of the EPO but populations in the south Pacific appear to be in much worse condition. The current status of silky sharks, despite an assessment being conducted, is unknown in this region. The status of indo-Pacific sailfish is also uncertain. Swordfish populations are healthy in both the northern and southern region of the EPO {IATTC 2014b}.

IATTC
Panama
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

The common dolphinfish fishery in Panama is considered a multi-species fishery that captures a wide number of commercial and non-commercial species. Pacheco (2013) (Pacheco 2013) reported more than 25 bony fishes and 8 sharks captured in longlines targeting common dolphinfish. From these the most commercial species such as yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) or wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) are commonly retained due to their price. In addition, billfishes such as the Indo-Pacific sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), black marlin (Makaira nigricans), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are also bycaught.

 

No management plans are set for monitoring and mitigating bycatch in Panamanian longlines targeting dolphinfish.

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2013

Pelagic gear used to target dolphinfish does not come in contact with sea floor and has nominal effects on coastal and marine habitats. 

IATTC
Panama

The oceanic character of this species doesn´t allow any coping with marine reserves. The Pacífico Occidental de Panamá (POP) which includes the Gulf of Chiriqui covers an area of 1,380,293 ha and extends up to 200 m depth. The POP area has eight marine protected areas, with the largest of them being the Coiba National Park (Guzman et al., 2004; Vega et al., 2010).

Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Longlines targeting common dolphinfish are reported to operate along the coast of Panama. Lasso and Zapata (1999) (Lasso and Zapata 1999) recorded that longline vessels use between 1400 and 1500 hooks per set. In addition, they noted that the most important fishing grounds were: the Panama area (6°00’ to 7°00’N, and 80°00’ to 82°00’W) and el Filo zone (6°22’ to 7°48’N, and 78°00’ to 79°00’W). Similarly, Pacheco (2013) (Pacheco 2013) conducted an experiment in which they identified that there are two main fishing grounds used by fishermen in Panama. First, a western one from the Coiba island within the Gulf of Chiriqui. Secondly, the zone southern from Las Perlas Archipelago within the Gulf of Panama. In this experiment, total hooks used (changed from circular #13 and #14-usually used by fishermen- to circular #15 and #16) varied between 400 and 1800 per set, with an average of 1111 hooks per set. As the operational activity is performed between 5 and 33 meters from the surface (depth used by most fishermen in and out of the experiment), there is likely to be minimal damage to the habitat.

 

In the Coiba National Park, an artisanal fishery is allowed to target groupers, snappers and dolphinfishes. To target those fishes, pelagic longlines are utilized deploying between 600 and 1500 circular hooks. Circular hooks of size 8.0 to 15.0 (size) but more 9.0, 13.0, and 14.0 are used in the fishery (Vega et al. 2016). No interaction with the seabed occurs.

ECOSYSTEM
IATTC
Panama
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Since major restrictions have been recently settled to control longline fishing effort in Panama, no considerable threats to the ecosystem are currently thought to occur. Studies focused on possible impacts on the ecosystem due to common dolphinfish fisheries in Panama have not been conducted yet. Nonetheless, some approaches have been discussed to determine the position of common dolphinfish in the Panamanian marine trophic web. Lasso and Zapata (1999) (Lasso and Zapata 1999) considered that common dolphinfish is a primary carnivore species, with a diet dominated by fishes (Exocoetidae, Signathidae, and Scombridae) but occasionally with ingestion of other prey species such as crustaceans (Portunus spp.) and cephalopods (Loligo spp.), depending on availability. To comprehend the ecological role of common dolphinfish further research needs to be developed (e.g., predator-prey relationships). Thus, the ecosystem approach desired by the Plan of Action for Sustainable Fisheries in Panama would be reinforced to guarantee the sustainability of the common dolphinfish fishery.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 12 June 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

Since population of dolphinfish is unknown in Panamanian waters, no management objectives are set yet

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Although there is no assessment program conducted by any scientific national body, Panamanian authorities are following recommendations made by IATTC.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

IUU captures are unknown

STOCK HEALTH:

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Click on the score to see subscore

×

Bycatch Subscores

Pacheco(2013) give some information regarding bycatch but a small scale.

Although interaction with ETP species is presented in this fishery, no major threats are considered. For instance, the majority of green turtles captured in longlines are released alive.

Captures of tunas, sharks, and skatesoccur; however, it does not represent major threats for these populations(CEDEPESCA, 2013c)

Some management measures are set (e.g., number of hooks per vessel) to reduce control effort(ARAP, 2011). Nonetheless, further and enforced plans are needed for monitoring bycatch

×

Habitat Subscores

Little information is available regarding impacts of longlines on common dolphinfish habitats. However, since longlines are set near the surface, impacts to the habitat are minimal.

Some information is known about the fishery in the Gulf of Chiriqui. Nevertheless, the impacts have not been identified yet

As longlines are set in the surface, impacts in the habitat are minimal.

In the National park of Coiba, a management plans is set for artisanal fisheries targeting dolphinfish.

×

Ecosystem Subscores

Some information is available about trophic relationships between common dolphinfish and its prey.

There is comprehensive information about the Panamanian Pacific ecosystem, especially for the Eastern Tropical Pacific

The national plan of action for sustainable fisheries aims to implement an ecosystem approach to all fisheries in Panama

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES

Scores 1-5 were scored qualitatively because there are no set TAC's and no reference points in place.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the Global Sustainable Supply Chains for Marine Commodities (GMC) project for contributing to the development of this profile. GMC is an interregional initiative implemented by Ministries and Bureaus of Fisheries and Planning of Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines, with technical support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), facilitated by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

  1. Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Coryphaena hippurus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.
  2. FAO. 2004. Republic of Costa Rica, Fishery Country Profile, FAO of the United Nations, April 2004..http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/FCP/en/CRI/profile.htm
  3. FAO. 2006. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. Nicaragua. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. In: Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura de la FAO [en línea]. Rome.http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_NI/es
  4. IATTC. 2004. IATTC Resolution C-04-07 on a three year program to mitigate the impact of tuna fishing on Sea turtles, 72nd meeting, Lima, Peru, 14-18 June 2004, IATTC, 2 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-07-Sea-turtle-program.pdf
  5. IATTC. 2006. Resolution C-04-05 – Consolidated Resolution on Bycatch, 74th Meeting, 26-30 June 2006, IATTC, 3 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-05-REV-2-Bycatch-Jun-2006.pdf
  6. IATTC. 2012. Fishery Status Report No. 10, Tunas and Billfishes in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2011, IATTC, La Jolla, California, 2012, 166 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport10ENG.pdf
  7. IATTC. 2014a. Preliminary results from IATTC collaborative research activities on dorado in the EPO and future research plan. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Document SAC-05-aab. http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2014/MAYSAC/PDFs/presentations/SAC-05-11b-Dorado.pdf
  8. IATTC. 2014b. Fishery status report No. 12. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport12.pdf
  9. Patterson, K. R., and J. Martinez. 1991. Exploitation of the dolphin-fish Coryphaena hippurus L. off Ecuador: analysis by length-based virtual population analysis. Fishbyte 9: 21-23.http://www.worldcat.org/title/fishbyte-newsletter-of-the-network-of-tropical-fisheries-scientists/oclc/22920190
References

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