Last updated on 18 February 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Coryphaena hippurus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Common dolphinfish, Mahi-mahi

The stock structure of the species is not truly known at a global scale.  Díaz-Jaimes et al. (2010) studied the inter-oceanic divergence of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations but the genetic differentiation is not conclusive. The population structure in the eastern Pacific Ocean is unclear (IATTC 2014). Here, the separation of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Central Pacific stocks is based in the genetic heterogeneity found in the Pacific Ocean by Rocha-Olivares et al (2006) and due to differences in fisheries and management.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) and conducted a preliminary stock assessment.
  • Binational meetings have been held between Peru and Ecuador to improve the regional management of the common dolphinfish fishery
  • Historical information regarding landings and catch rates trends are available for this country
  • There is a National Plan of Management (PAN Perico-Peru) aimed to develop a sustainable fishery for common dolphinfish in Peru. 
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
  • There is no management plan set at the national or international level for common dolphinfish
  • There are no reference points in place to evaluate the status of common dolphinfish in the area
  • Extensive and reliable information are needed to condcut a comprehensive stock assessment of common dolphinfish in the area
  • The fishing gear used (longlines) interacts with some Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species and information on interactions is lacking
  • More information regarding bycatch and juveniles should be taken from artisanal and medium-sized fleet.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members (CPCs) to: 
    • Immediately adopt formal limit and target reference points and develop a harvest control rule.
    • Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean including improved catch, effort, discard and biological data reporting for the target species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Support continuation of improved catch, effort, and biological data reporting for bycatch species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance. Aim to increase longline observer coverage rates to a minimum of 20% within 5 years and with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers) on vessels greater than 20 meters length.
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques such as those outlined in the Best Practices in Tuna Longline Fisheries Report
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

  • Peru mahi-mahi - longline (WWF):

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

  • Peru mahi-mahi - longline (Confremar):

    Stage 4, Progress Rating E

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Pacific Ocean IATTC Costa Rica Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Ecuador Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Guatemala Drifting longlines
Nicaragua Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Panama Drifting longlines
Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Peru Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 January 2019

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO
IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) and conducted a preliminary stock assessment.
  • Binational meetings have been held between Peru and Ecuador to improve the regional management of the common dolphinfish fishery
  • Historical information regarding landings and catch rates trends are available for this country
  • There is a National Plan of Management (PAN Perico-Peru) aimed to develop a sustainable fishery for common dolphinfish in Peru. 
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

  • There is no management plan set at the national or international level for common dolphinfish
  • There are no reference points in place to evaluate the status of common dolphinfish in the area
  • Extensive and reliable information are needed to condcut a comprehensive stock assessment of common dolphinfish in the area
  • The fishing gear used (longlines) interacts with some Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species and information on interactions is lacking
  • More information regarding bycatch and juveniles should be taken from artisanal and medium-sized fleet.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with IATTC Members and Cooperating Non-Members (CPCs) to: 
    • Immediately adopt formal limit and target reference points and develop a harvest control rule.
    • Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean including improved catch, effort, discard and biological data reporting for the target species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Support continuation of improved catch, effort, and biological data reporting for bycatch species at the national and IATTC level, including through measures such as electronic logbooks from all fleet segments of the fishery and for the fishery north of the equator.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance. Aim to increase longline observer coverage rates to a minimum of 20% within 5 years and with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers) on vessels greater than 20 meters length.
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques such as those outlined in the Best Practices in Tuna Longline Fisheries Report
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) conducted an exploratory stock assessment of mahi mahi in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2016 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). The assessment was conducted using the Stock Synthesis model. The model assumed monthly time steps between 2007 and 2014 and included length specific information and catch data from Peru and Ecuador and catch rate series from Ecuador (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because there are no reference points in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against sustainable levels (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). Scientific advice related to management has not been provided.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The current status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because reference points are not in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against. There are yearly fluctuations in biomass of mahi mahi in the south eastern Pacific Ocean. Peaks in biomass are typically seen in fall and winter, declining to lower levels during May and June. Overall, the biomass of mahi mahi has remained stable during the modeled time period (2007-2014). Recruitment shows inter-annual variability. Fishing mortality estimates ranged from 0.53 to 0.85 between 2007 and 2014 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
IATTC

There are curretly no management measures in place for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean through the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). The status of mahi mahi is unknown in the eastern Pacific Ocean and therefore it is unknown if any recovery plans are needed. No recovery plans are in place.

Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

In 2016, the “Plan de Acción Nacional para la conservación y manejo del recurso perico en el Perú” (National action plan for the conservation and management of the common dolphinfish in Peru, PAN Perico-Perú) was established by the Ministerio de la Producción (Ministry of Production, PRODUCE), following the recommendations issued by IMARPE. The main objective of the plan is to promote the conservation and the management of the common dolphinfish in jurisdictional and adjacent waters off Peru, and maintain its sustainable use in the long term. Therefore, some of the aspects the national plan covers are: (1) to promote biological, ecological and fisheries research; (2) to design and implement a monitoring system of the common dolphinfish supply chain; (3) to enhance the regulation framework related to the common dolphinfish; (4) to reduce the bycatch of common dolphinfish in non-target fisheries; (5) to contribute to the protection of the biological diversity, structure and function of the ecosystem; (6) to identify and evaluate threats to the common dolphinfish population and its habitats; and (7) to develop educational programs (PRODUCE 2016). In this national plan it is also suggested that a unique database (including fisheries and trading information) for the first semester (January-June) of 2018 be developed. For the second semester (July-December) it is projected that the development of one national Fishing Ordinance Regulation will occur (ROP, in Spanish).

It is important to mention that even though there is no Regional Plan of Action for common dolphinfish in Peru, there are two important regulations that contribute to its sustainable exploitation. First, there is a fishing season from October 1stto April 30th, every year. Hence, captures are strictly prohibited from May 1stto September 30th. However, it is noted that closure periods could still be modified according to IMARPE (PRODUCE 2014). Secondly, the common dolphinfish has a minimum catch size of 70 centimeters (considered juveniles) fork length with a tolerance of 10 % juvenile captured per vessel (PRODUCE 2011).

Recovery Plan

No recovery plans are yet set for common dolphinfish in Peruvian waters since the population of the common dolphinfish in under study and not currently known (PRODUCE 2016).

COMPLIANCE
IATTC

There are no catch limits, quotas etc and no management measure to determine compliance with.

Peru

Last updated on 8 January 2019

Common dolphinfish landings have surpassed 40,000 tonnes annually over the last 10 years (FAO 2018). However, since there are no TACs in place, no comparisons to landings are possible. Although, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing fishing of dolphinfish have not been assessed in Peru, it is stated that the dolphinfish fishery is poorly regulated with a high level of informality along the supply chain. In addition, the scarcity of control or appropriate follow-up to the extractive activity encourages the entry of informal or illegal seafood into formal and legal channel of the supply chain (Amoros et al. 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

The longline fisheries operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) that capture mahi mahi likely have incidental interactions with sea turtles.

Green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in longline fisheries operating in the EPO. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies green, leatherback and loggerhead turtles as Endangered, hawksbill as Critically Endangered, and olive ridley as Vulnerable (www.iucn.org).

Marine mammal interactions are not common bycatch species in this fishery.

Several species of seabirds, including black-footed, laysan and waved albatross. Black-footed, laysan albatross are considered Near Threatened by the IUCN and waved albatross as Critically Endangered and may also be incidentally captured.

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has put several management measures aimed at bycatch species into place. IATTC member countries are to implement an International Plan of Action for Seabirds. Two seabird mitigation methods are required on vessels larger than 20 m fishing in specific areas. A 3 year program to reduce the impact of fishing on sea turtles has been put into place. This plan requires reporting of any interaction and carrying of proper handling and release gears. Shark finning is banned (5% rule) and oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained (IATTC 2011b)(IATTC 2011c)(IATTC 2005)(IAC 2012). 

IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 15 July 2011

Turtles and some impact on seabirds are known as the bycatch of this fishery. New modifications in the gears could avoid entanglement of turtles, which has been estimated as the mayor cause of by catch.

Other Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) longlines fisheries that capture mahi mahi tuna also likely capture a number of other species of fish, including billfish and other tuna species, and sharks.

Other common bycatch species in the longline fishery include blue and silky sharks, indo-Pacific sailfish, tuna and swordfish. Blue shark populations are currently healthy in the north Pacific region of the EPO but populations in the south Pacific appear to be in much worse condition. The current status of silky sharks, despite an assessment being conducted, is unknown in this region. The status of indo-Pacific sailfish is also uncertain. Swordfish populations are healthy in both the northern and southern region of the EPO {IATTC 2014b}.

IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

In the fishery for common dolphinfish, several species, including sharks, are usually bycaught. Doherty et al., (2014) stated that blue sharks (Prionace glauca), shortfin makos (Isurusoxirynchus) and smooth hammerheads (Sphyrna zygaena) are usually caught at a rate of 1.4 ± 2.6 sharks per set. Furthermore, other species such as rays (Dasyatis spp.), sunfish (Mola mola, Masturusl anceolatus), opah (Lampris sp.), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are bycaught while fishing for common dolphinfish (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2011). From these, only the last two species are kept for sale.

 

In addition, thresher sharks (Alopias spp.) are reported as bycatch in the common dolphinfish fishery In Central Peru; however, the incidence is minimum (Ayala and Sánchez-Scaglioni 2014).

 

            No management plans are set for monitoring and mitigate bycatch in Peruvian longlines targeting dolphinfish

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2013

Pelagic gear used to target dolphinfish does not come in contact with sea floor and has nominal effects on coastal and marine habitats. 

IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

The common dolphinfish longline fishery in Peru is seasonal, usually operating from spring (November) to summer (March)(Solano et al. 2008).Hook types used are J2, J3, J4, J5, and J6, using giant squid, mackerel and flying fish as bait (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2010) (Solano et al. 2015). Further, this type of fishery deploys between1000 and 1600 hooks per set, on average (Ayala and Sánchez-Scaglioni 2014) (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2010) . Although longlines targeting common dolphinfish operate along the Peruvian coast, the most important fishing grounds are located between 5° and 14°S, and 17° and 18°S (Solano et al. 2008).

 

Common dolphinfish is caught primarily beyond 5 nautical miles, ranging farther from the coast than other Peruvian artisanal fisheries (Estrella Arellano and Swartzman, 2010). Longlines targeting dolphinfish set their gear at the sea surface with 99% of sets occurring in oceanic waters >200m in depth (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2010). As a result, there is likely to be minimal damage to the habitat since the nature of the fishing methods and the fishing grounds used by the fishery.

ECOSYSTEM
IATTC
Peru
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 8 January 2019

No major ecosystem threats have been described in Peruvian waters due to the fishery for common dolphinfish. However, it is important to point out that common dolphinfish plays an important role in the Peruvian marine (pelagic) ecosystem as a predator. Common dolphinfish consumes a wide number of prey items (22) with a diet dominated by cephalopods (regarding paper nautilus-Argonauta spp.-, Patagonian longfin squid-Doryteuthis gahi-, and jumbo flying squid-Dosidicus gigas), fishes (flying fish-Exocoetus volitans- and Peruvian anchovy-Engraulis ringens) and crustaceans such as the carrot squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon(Solano et al. 2015) (Alegre et al. 2014) (Solano et al. 2008) . In addition, common dolphinfish has been reported as prey of the blue (Prionace glauca) shark in northern Peru (Cordova-Zavaleta 2018). Therefore, an ecosystem approach must be conducted for the common dolphinfish fishery in Peru to minimize the impacts of this fishery on the Peruvian marine ecosystem.

 

The fact that the magnitude of longlining effort is important in Peru, suggests to the Peruvian government the necessity for implementing monitoring programs to fully describe the impacts of this fishery in the short and the long term (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2011).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 9 January 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Even though no assessments are set to place yet, the PAN PERICO-PERU highlights the importance of immediate strategies to follow for the sustainable use of common dolphinfish in Peru(PRODUCE, 2016)

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

PRODUCE has follow recommendations made by IMARPE regarding closure of fishing seasons and especially to the PAN PERICO-PERU

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

IUU captures have not been evaluated by IMARPE in their reports. In addition, common dolphinfish catch and bycatch in gillnets are not evaluated by IMARPE.

STOCK HEALTH:

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

×

Bycatch Subscores

Estimation of bycatch have been published in recent years (Alfaro-Shigueto et al., 2010; Ayala and Sánchez-Scaglioni, 2014; Doherty et al., 2014)

ETP species are bycaught by Peruvian longlines fisheries targeting common dolphinfish. It is unknown whether it is threating or not their populations

High levels of main bycatch (e.g., blue sharks) are captured (Doherty et al., 2014). However, it does not represent major threats for rebuilding

No management measures are in place by Peruvian authorities for bycatch mitigation.

×

Habitat Subscores

Little information is available regarding impacts of longlines on common dolphinfish habitats. However, since longlines are set near the surface, impacts to the habitat are minimal

Little information is available regarding primary priority habitats.

As longlines are set near the surface, impacts to the habitat are minimal.

No management plans are set to control potential impacts.

×

Ecosystem Subscores

Few studies have focused on C. hippurus as a predator and as a prey. Some trophic relationships are already described.

There is comprehensive information about the Humboldt Current System(Tam et al., 2008; Taylor et al., 2008). However,new investigations have described uncertainty for this ecosystem.

As trophic relationships between common dolphinfish and its prey and predators have been established (Solano et al., 2008, 2015; Cordova-Zavaleta, 2018), a disruption of the fishery on the ecosystem could occur. However, serious or irreversible harm have not been observed

Although possible impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem have not been identified yet, some measures are in place to manage potential impacts (e.g., PAN PERICO-PERU)

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES

Scores 1-5 were scored qualitatively because there are no set TAC's and no reference points in place.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Nov 2013
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating is A. New stage 4 results over the past 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Jan 15
2.
FIP Launch
Apr 13
Dec 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Sep 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Dec 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Coryphaena hippurus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.

IATTC. 2014a. Preliminary results from IATTC collaborative research activities on dorado in the EPO and future research plan. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Document SAC-05-aab. http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2014/MAYSAC/PDFs/presentations/SAC-05-11b-Dorado.pdf

IATTC. 2014b. Fishery status report No. 12. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport12.pdf

  1. IATTC. 2012. Fishery Status Report No. 10, Tunas and Billfishes in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2011, IATTC, La Jolla, California, 2012, 166 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport10ENG.pdf
  2. Patterson, K. R., and J. Martinez. 1991. Exploitation of the dolphin-fish Coryphaena hippurus L. off Ecuador: analysis by length-based virtual population analysis. Fishbyte 9: 21-23.http://www.worldcat.org/title/fishbyte-newsletter-of-the-network-of-tropical-fisheries-scientists/oclc/22920190
  1. FAO. 2004. Republic of Costa Rica, Fishery Country Profile, FAO of the United Nations, April 2004..http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/FCP/en/CRI/profile.htm
  1. FAO. 2006. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. Nicaragua. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. In: Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura de la FAO [en línea]. Rome.http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_NI/es
  2. IATTC. 2004. IATTC Resolution C-04-07 on a three year program to mitigate the impact of tuna fishing on Sea turtles, 72nd meeting, Lima, Peru, 14-18 June 2004, IATTC, 2 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-07-Sea-turtle-program.pdf
  3. IATTC. 2006. Resolution C-04-05 – Consolidated Resolution on Bycatch, 74th Meeting, 26-30 June 2006, IATTC, 3 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-05-REV-2-Bycatch-Jun-2006.pdf
References

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