Last updated on 18 February 2016

SUMMARY

Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Coryphaena hippurus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Common dolphinfish, Mahi-mahi

The stock structure of the species is not truly known at a global scale.  Díaz-Jaimes et al. (2010) studied the inter-oceanic divergence of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations but the genetic differentiation is not conclusive. The population structure in the eastern Pacific Ocean is unclear (IATTC 2014). Here, the separation of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Central Pacific stocks is based in the genetic heterogeneity found in the Pacific Ocean by Rocha-Olivares et al (2006) and due to differences in fisheries and management.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO.
  • A National Plan of Action of Dolphinfish was implemented in Ecuador in 2011 including short and long term objectives for the fishery of this resource.
  • The Dolphinfish Consultative Council was created in 2011 as an instrument for the public and private sectors to discuss matters related to dolphinfish and support the Ministry in the formation of policies.
  • There is an annual seasonal closure of the fishery to minimize catch of sublegal fish and a minimum catch size is in place.
  • The impact on bottom habitats is non-existent.
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
  • No reference points have been established for dolphinfish in Ecuador and management doesn't include a harvest control rule.
  • The magnitude of IUU fishing is unknown.
  • ​There is no information on the bycatch and degree of compliance of this fishery.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Conduct outreach to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) requesting the immediate adoption of formal target and limit reference points and harvest control rules. Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the IATTC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual nations. Press individual nations to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Resolutions in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
  • Assure full compliance of current observer coverage with an aim to increase longline observer coverage rates from the current 5% to a minimum of 20% with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers).
  •  Adopt at the national level shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the IATTC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks. 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Request systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage in the fisheries from which you source and ensure this data is provided to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC).
2. Encourage the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request countries from which you source to implement national management plans for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support one of the existing mahi mahi fishery improvement projects (FIPs), or start one of their own if there is no FIP in their region.

1. Congratulate the Ecuadorian government on the implementation of the mahi mahi National Plan of Action.
2. Thank the Ecuadorian government for pushing the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request the continued expansion of the national observer program and dockside monitoring program to all gear types, especially to ports that are not yet subject to dockside monitoring.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support the existing Ecuador mahi mahi fishery improvement project: https://sites.google.com/site/fisheryimprovementprojects/home/ecuador-mahi.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Eastern Pacific Ocean IATTC Costa Rica Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Ecuador Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Guatemala Drifting longlines
Nicaragua Drifting longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Panama Drifting longlines
Longlines
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Peru Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • Mahi mahi are fast growing and tend to be resilient to fishing pressure.
  • The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has started a collaborative research plan for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO).
  • Some information on catch rate trends for mahi mahi in the EPO is available.
  • The IATTC has conducted a stock assessment and Management Strategy Evaluation on mahi mahi in the EPO.
IATTC
Ecuador
  • A National Plan of Action of Dolphinfish was implemented in Ecuador in 2011 including short and long term objectives for the fishery of this resource.
  • The Dolphinfish Consultative Council was created in 2011 as an instrument for the public and private sectors to discuss matters related to dolphinfish and support the Ministry in the formation of policies.
  • There is an annual seasonal closure of the fishery to minimize catch of sublegal fish and a minimum catch size is in place.
  • The impact on bottom habitats is non-existent.
Weaknesses
  • There are few to no management regulations at international or national levels.
  • There are no reference points in place so the status of mahi mahi in the EPO is currently unknown.
  • Longlines, which are used to target mahi mahi in the EPO, can have negative interactions with protected, endangered, or threatened (PET) species and information on these interactions and their impacts is limited.
  • IATTC requires only 5% observer coverage in the longline fleet. Mahi mahi are also incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries operating in EPO.
IATTC
Ecuador
  • No reference points have been established for dolphinfish in Ecuador and management doesn't include a harvest control rule.
  • The magnitude of IUU fishing is unknown.
Mechanized lines

Last updated on 2 May 2018

  • ​There is no information on the bycatch and degree of compliance of this fishery.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 September 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Conduct outreach to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) requesting the immediate adoption of formal target and limit reference points and harvest control rules. Support continued work towards a full stock assessment of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the IATTC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual nations. Press individual nations to provide evidence of compliance with all IATTC Resolutions in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.
  • Assure full compliance of current observer coverage with an aim to increase longline observer coverage rates from the current 5% to a minimum of 20% with a long-term goal of 100% (which could include electronic and human observers).
  •  Adopt at the national level shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the IATTC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks. 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Request systematic harvest and bycatch data collection and on-board observer coverage in the fisheries from which you source and ensure this data is provided to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC).
2. Encourage the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request countries from which you source to implement national management plans for their mahi mahi fisheries.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support one of the existing mahi mahi fishery improvement projects (FIPs), or start one of their own if there is no FIP in their region.

IATTC
Ecuador

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Congratulate the Ecuadorian government on the implementation of the mahi mahi National Plan of Action.
2. Thank the Ecuadorian government for pushing the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) to perform an Eastern Pacific mahi stock assessment and implement an international harvest strategy.
3. Request the continued expansion of the national observer program and dockside monitoring program to all gear types, especially to ports that are not yet subject to dockside monitoring.
4. Encourage your supply chain to support the existing Ecuador mahi mahi fishery improvement project: https://sites.google.com/site/fisheryimprovementprojects/home/ecuador-mahi.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) conducted an exploratory stock assessment of mahi mahi in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2016 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). The assessment was conducted using the Stock Synthesis model. The model assumed monthly time steps between 2007 and 2014 and included length specific information and catch data from Peru and Ecuador and catch rate series from Ecuador (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because there are no reference points in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against sustainable levels (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016). Scientific advice related to management has not been provided.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 July 2018

The current status of mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean is uncertain because reference points are not in place to assess the current biomass and fishing mortality rates against. There are yearly fluctuations in biomass of mahi mahi in the south eastern Pacific Ocean. Peaks in biomass are typically seen in fall and winter, declining to lower levels during May and June. Overall, the biomass of mahi mahi has remained stable during the modeled time period (2007-2014). Recruitment shows inter-annual variability. Fishing mortality estimates ranged from 0.53 to 0.85 between 2007 and 2014 (Aires-da-Silva et al. 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
IATTC

There are curretly no management measures in place for mahi mahi in the eastern Pacific Ocean through the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). The status of mahi mahi is unknown in the eastern Pacific Ocean and therefore it is unknown if any recovery plans are needed. No recovery plans are in place.

Ecuador

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAGAP) is the entity resposible for the management of the Ecuadorian fisheries.

There are not quotas for this stock. Reference points have not been set as the state of the stock has not been determined. At present there are no clear guidelines on the actions to be taken in case of decline of the stock (Trumble 2015).

At the national (Ecuadorian) level, the main regulations established to manage dolphinfish are:

  • Ministerial Agreement 023 of February 14th 2011 (MAGAP 2011) establishing the Dolphinfish National Plan of Action (NPOA) as an organizing tool for the conservation, management and eco-certification of dolphinfish (see objectives below).
  • Ministerial Agreement 055 of April 16th 2011 (MAGAP 2011), articles 1 and 2 of which establish the Dolphinfish Consultative Council " as an instrument for the public and private sectors to discuss matters related to dolphinfish, to support the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fishing in the formation of strategies and policies to strengthen the management, sustainable use, production and competitiveness of the dolphinfish value chain" (MAGAP-SRP 2013). The Council will review the progress of the NPOA on an annual basis.
  • Ministerial Agreement 070 of May 19th 2011 (MAGAP 2011), which establishes a total seasonal closure for the targeted dolphinfish fishery from July 1st to October 7th each year and ratifies a previously established minimum catch size of 80 cm total length for dolphinfish. During the ban season, however, up to 2% and 8% of dolphinfish caught as bycatch can be landed by industrial and artisanal fishing vessels, respectively.
  • Additional measures implemented by Ecuadorian authorities are the use of VMS, voluntary logbooks and a policy to change from J-hooks to circle hooks (Trumble 2015).

The Second edition of the NPOA for the Management and Conservation of Dolphinfish was published in 2013 and provides explicit short-term and long-term objectives for the Ecuadorian dolphinfish fishery. However, “it is not clear that the objectives for dolphinfish have been developed within the IATTC” (Trumble 2015). The Undersecretariat of Fishing Resources is the key institution responsible for the implementation of the NPOA. The specific objectives of the NPOA are:

  1. Establish regulation measures based on scientific evidence in order to improve management conservation of dolphinfish,
  2. Establish a control system which facilitates the traceability of the resource,
  3. Involve, train and raise awareness among the members of the community in matters related to the management and conservation of the resource,
  4. Generate scientific information that can inform management and
  5. Reduce bycatch of the fishery.
COMPLIANCE
IATTC

There are no catch limits, quotas etc and no management measure to determine compliance with.

Ecuador

There are not set quotas for this stock in Ecuador. The magnitude of IUU fishing is unknown.

Since 2009 the number of enforcement agents has increased and enforcement has extended nationwide. They have the role of monitoring offloading from vessels, overseeing compliance of the closed seasons and minimum legal sizes, inspecting distributions centers and managing complaints (Trumble 2015).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 28 June 2018

There is no specific data on the degree of compliance of this fishery.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

The longline fisheries operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) that capture mahi mahi likely have incidental interactions with sea turtles.

Green, hawksbill, leatherback, loggerhead and olive ridley sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in longline fisheries operating in the EPO. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies green, leatherback and loggerhead turtles as Endangered, hawksbill as Critically Endangered, and olive ridley as Vulnerable (www.iucn.org).

Marine mammal interactions are not common bycatch species in this fishery.

Several species of seabirds, including black-footed, laysan and waved albatross. Black-footed, laysan albatross are considered Near Threatened by the IUCN and waved albatross as Critically Endangered and may also be incidentally captured.

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has put several management measures aimed at bycatch species into place. IATTC member countries are to implement an International Plan of Action for Seabirds. Two seabird mitigation methods are required on vessels larger than 20 m fishing in specific areas. A 3 year program to reduce the impact of fishing on sea turtles has been put into place. This plan requires reporting of any interaction and carrying of proper handling and release gears. Shark finning is banned (5% rule) and oceanic whitetip sharks are prohibited from being retained (IATTC 2011b)(IATTC 2011c)(IATTC 2005)(IAC 2012). 

IATTC
Ecuador

Last updated on 30 August 2018

Five species of sea turtles inhabit Ecuadorian waters: olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea; “vulnerable” according to IUCN), green (Chelonias mydas agassiz; “endangered”), loggerhear (Caretta caretta, “endangered”), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea, “critically endangered”) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbrincata, “critically endangered”). Their conservation is managed through the National Plan for Sea Turtles of Ecuador (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2014).

The dolphinfish fishery in Ecuador has some incidental catches and entanglements of marine turtles, but the rate of successful liberation is very high (MAGAP-SRP 2013). However, incorrect handling of animals within fishing vessels seems to be a cause of mortality (MAGAP-SRP 2013).

Retained sharks are managed through the National Plan of Action for Sharks (CONAPESCA-INP 2004). .

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 3 August 2018

Specific information on the bycatch of ETP species in this fishery is not available but it is believed that the pole and line fishery doesn't impact ETP species such as sharks and sea turtles in Ecuador (INP 2014). Other pole and line fisheries for which ETP interactions have been evaluated (e.g. Maldives) revealed almost negligible severe interactions with ETP species (Miller et al. 2016).

Other Species

Last updated on 7 April 2015

Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) longlines fisheries that capture mahi mahi tuna also likely capture a number of other species of fish, including billfish and other tuna species, and sharks.

Other common bycatch species in the longline fishery include blue and silky sharks, indo-Pacific sailfish, tuna and swordfish. Blue shark populations are currently healthy in the north Pacific region of the EPO but populations in the south Pacific appear to be in much worse condition. The current status of silky sharks, despite an assessment being conducted, is unknown in this region. The status of indo-Pacific sailfish is also uncertain. Swordfish populations are healthy in both the northern and southern region of the EPO {IATTC 2014b}.

IATTC
Ecuador

The dolphinfish fishery is highly selective with over 95% of the individuals caught belonging to the target species group (MAGAP-SRP 2013)(Trumble 2015).

Mechanized lines

Last updated on 3 August 2018

There is no specific information on the bycatch of this fishery, but pole-and-line fisheries are widely considered to have little bycatch (Miller et al. 2017)

However, other pole and line fisheries in Ecuador (e.g. tuna) raised concern about the use of bait fish (mainly chuhueco Cetengraulis mysticetus and chumumo Anchoa spp.) as populations of small pelagic fish in Ecuador are unassessed and lack a management plan (IPNLF 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2013

Pelagic gear used to target dolphinfish does not come in contact with sea floor and has nominal effects on coastal and marine habitats. 

IATTC
Ecuador

There is very detailed information on seafloor types (Terán, 2006) off Ecuador and most priority habitats such as coral reefs or mangrove swamps have been identified and mapped by the Ministry of the Environment and made available through the Environmental Interactive Map in 2015. There is no habitat management strategy for seafloor habitats in Ecuador, and management is limited to some opportunistic measures. For instance, the first mile from coast is closed to fishing to protect the reproduction of species and indirectly the bottom habitats. The first eight miles from coast are reserved for artisanal fishing and industrial activities are prohibited (MAP 1990). A network of 21 Coastal and Marine Natural Protected Areas (AMCPs) were created in 2017 (Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador 2017). The Ministry of Environment is the entity responsible for controlling  fisheries into these marine protected areas. However, it is expected that dolphinfish do not benefit from the existence of these marine reserves due to its highly migratory and pelagic nature.

The fishing gears used in this fishery do not contact the bottom and as such do not represent a thread or have any impact on benthic habitats.

ECOSYSTEM
IATTC
Ecuador

Dolphinfish are considered to be a mid-trophic level species (Froese and Pauly 2017). The pelagic ecosystem in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean has been object of research and it is well described. Models have been developed to describe the ecosystem dynamics, structure and functioning (Olson and Watters 2003) but the impact of the dolphinfish fishery on the whole ecosystem has not been assessed.

The NPOA (MAGAP-SRP 2013) incorporates an ecosystem-based fishery management element. However, the NPOA does not include any specific management measure to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystem (MAGAP-SRP 2013).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 9 August 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are explicit short- and long-term objectives for mahi mahi in Ecuador in the National Plan of Action of Dolphinfish (Trumble, 2015). However, there are not set quotas and reference points have not been established, so there is no harvest control rule in place for this fishery (Trumble, 2015).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A National Plan of Action of Dolphinfish was implemented in 2011 in Ecuador (MAGAP, 2011). Other management measures such as closed seasons and minimum sizes have been implemented. However reference points have not been established and quotas have not been set.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The stock is not managed through quotas or TACs, but catches have been declining in recent years.

STOCK HEALTH:

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES

Scores 1-5 were scored qualitatively because there are no set TAC's and no reference points in place.

IATTC
Ecuador
  • ​Scores about management strategy and managers compliance to scientific advice are provided in a qualitative way as there is not enough information to provide quantitative scores.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Coryphaena hippurus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.

IATTC. 2014a. Preliminary results from IATTC collaborative research activities on dorado in the EPO and future research plan. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Document SAC-05-aab. http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2014/MAYSAC/PDFs/presentations/SAC-05-11b-Dorado.pdf

IATTC. 2014b. Fishery status report No. 12. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport12.pdf

  1. IATTC. 2012. Fishery Status Report No. 10, Tunas and Billfishes in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2011, IATTC, La Jolla, California, 2012, 166 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/FisheryStatusReports/FisheryStatusReport10ENG.pdf
  2. Patterson, K. R., and J. Martinez. 1991. Exploitation of the dolphin-fish Coryphaena hippurus L. off Ecuador: analysis by length-based virtual population analysis. Fishbyte 9: 21-23.http://www.worldcat.org/title/fishbyte-newsletter-of-the-network-of-tropical-fisheries-scientists/oclc/22920190
  1. FAO. 2004. Republic of Costa Rica, Fishery Country Profile, FAO of the United Nations, April 2004..http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/FCP/en/CRI/profile.htm
  1. FAO. 2006. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. Nicaragua. Perfiles sobre la pesca y la acuicultura por países. In: Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura de la FAO [en línea]. Rome.http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_NI/es
  2. IATTC. 2004. IATTC Resolution C-04-07 on a three year program to mitigate the impact of tuna fishing on Sea turtles, 72nd meeting, Lima, Peru, 14-18 June 2004, IATTC, 2 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-07-Sea-turtle-program.pdf
  3. IATTC. 2006. Resolution C-04-05 – Consolidated Resolution on Bycatch, 74th Meeting, 26-30 June 2006, IATTC, 3 pages.http://www.iattc.org/PDFFiles2/Resolutions/C-04-05-REV-2-Bycatch-Jun-2006.pdf
References

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