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Profile updated on 18 July 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sardina pilchardus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European pilchard, Sardine, European sardine

Many studies have investigated the stock structure of the European pilchard (or commonly, "sardine") population widely distributed in the Northeast and Eastern Central Atlantic, and the Mediterranean and Black Sea (e.g. (Spanakis et al. 1989)(Tinti et al. 2002)(Atarhouch et al. 2005)(Chlaida et al. 2006)(Silva et al. 2006)(Laurent et al. 2007)(Chlaida et al. 2009)(Antonakakis et al. 2011). However, some uncertainty remains (Kasapidis et al. 2012), and further research into regional stock subunits is needed (ICES 2014)(ICES 2017). The West African European pilchard profiles presented on FishSource reflect two assessment units delineated by the FAO Working Group on Small Pelagic Fish in Northwest Africa, (FAO 2018): one in zones "A + B" (Central) and another in zone "C" (Southern), The recent work of (Shukhgalter 2013) supports the distinction of these two stock units.

The Southern stock unit, considered here, reflects the population occurring in the waters of Morocco and countries south, between Cap Blanc at 26ºN through the southern limit of the species extent; while the Central stock unit reflects an entirely Moroccan population from Cap Blanc north to Cap Boujdour at 32ºN.

In addition to the West African stocks, FishSource considers the following assessment units throughout the species’ distribution:

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) stock assessment units:
- Iberian (ICES Divisions 8.c and 9.a) and Bay of Biscay, Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel (ICES Divisions 8.a,b,d and Subarea 7).

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM and FAO 2015) (GFCM/FAO) stock assessment units - of the 8 stock assessment units assumed (Kasapidis et al. 2012)(FAO and GFCM 2017), these 2 are already covered in profiles:
- Northern Adriatic Sea (GSA17) and Northern Alboran Sea (GSA01).

The West African stocks are captured in industrial and artisanal small pelagic fisheries in Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, and the Gambia that also target European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, sardinella Sardinella spp., horse mackerel Trachurus spp. and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The stock is regularly surveyed; in 2017, however, only the Russian and Moroccan acoustic surveys were conducted.
  • Stock status is regularly assessed by both the FAO and the INRH; the FAO provides annual scientific advice.
  • Scientists with both the INRH and the FAO found the stock in 2017 to be in relatively good health with respect to biomass reference points.
  • There is a Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (Commission Sous-Régionale des Pêches, CSRP; that includes Mauritania and Senegal) that has conducted efforts to assess and manage the transboundary small pelagic stocks shared within the countries of the region, jointly with Morocco.
  • There is a national small pelagic TAC in Morocco, and catch ceilings for foreign fleets operating under legal agreements in Morocco and Mauritania.
  • Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems throughout the region have undergone improvements in the recent decade.
  • Bycatch limits are defined for each of the Moroccan and Mauritanian fisheries.
  • Purse-seining and pelagic trawling are not expected to have significant effects on the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • There is some misalignment between the INRH and the FAO regarding the exploited status of the stock; some methods by INRH yield conflicting results.
  • Some species in the mixed stock fishery are overexploited - including Atlantic and Cunene horse mackerel, and round and Madeiran sardinella.
  • Stock assessment advice by the FAO is not released in a timely manner; and the connection between stock assessments, advice, and harvest limits is not clear.
  • The stock is highly dependent on environmental dynamics, and the degree to which management adapts to these factors with respect to catch limits is unclear.
  • Quantification of discarding is limited, particularly in Mauritania.
  • ETP interaction is poorly documented, and indicated to be a possible concern based on past studies (sharks, mammals and turtles).
  • A variety of IUU fishing activities are indicated to be persistent, but are poorly documented in the region; complex foreign fishing arrangements add ambiguity.
  • The stock structure remains somewhat uncertain.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6 to ≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Support the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission and Morocco in their efforts to develop a strategic plan for management of the small pelagics fisheries in the region. The management plan should include species specific TACs, joint setting of TACs, and consideration of how environmental variability may affect stocks.
  • Work with scientists to understand the uncertainties in the stock assessment and improve the different assessment models and input data (catches, discards, biological data) to reduce the level of uncertainty in the assessment and to work towards resolving the differences between the models.
  • Encourage management authorities to release stock assessment results sooner and improve transparency of subsequent management actions, including the setting of catch or effort limits.
  • Ask the government/regional authorities to continue to improve catch and discard reporting and to publish fishery compliance information, especially for Mauritania.
  • Work with scientists to conduct studies to clarify the stock structure of northwest African pilchard/sardine.
  • Press managers to implement a recovery strategy for other target species in this multi-species fishery to ensure that all such species are at least above biologically-based limit reference points (or proxies for the point of recruitment impairment), especially for Cunene and Atlantic horse mackerels, and round and Madeiran sardinellas.
  • Work with scientists and managers to expand the at–sea observer programme to provide representational coverage of all components of the fishery to better understand catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

FIPS

  • Morocco sardine - pelagic trawl and seine / Maroc sardine - chalut pélagique et senne:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NW Africa southern Mauritania Latvia Midwater trawls
Lithuania Midwater trawls
Mauritania Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Poland Midwater trawls
Russian Federation Midwater trawls
Turkey Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Morocco Morocco Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Russian Federation Midwater trawls
Spain Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Senegal Senegal Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Strengths
  • The stock is regularly surveyed; in 2017, however, only the Russian and Moroccan acoustic surveys were conducted.
  • Stock status is regularly assessed by both the FAO and the INRH; the FAO provides annual scientific advice.
  • Scientists with both the INRH and the FAO found the stock in 2017 to be in relatively good health with respect to biomass reference points.
  • There is a Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (Commission Sous-Régionale des Pêches, CSRP; that includes Mauritania and Senegal) that has conducted efforts to assess and manage the transboundary small pelagic stocks shared within the countries of the region, jointly with Morocco.
  • There is a national small pelagic TAC in Morocco, and catch ceilings for foreign fleets operating under legal agreements in Morocco and Mauritania.
  • Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems throughout the region have undergone improvements in the recent decade.
  • Bycatch limits are defined for each of the Moroccan and Mauritanian fisheries.
  • Purse-seining and pelagic trawling are not expected to have significant effects on the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • There is some misalignment between the INRH and the FAO regarding the exploited status of the stock; some methods by INRH yield conflicting results.
  • Some species in the mixed stock fishery are overexploited - including Atlantic and Cunene horse mackerel, and round and Madeiran sardinella.
  • Stock assessment advice by the FAO is not released in a timely manner; and the connection between stock assessments, advice, and harvest limits is not clear.
  • The stock is highly dependent on environmental dynamics, and the degree to which management adapts to these factors with respect to catch limits is unclear.
  • Quantification of discarding is limited, particularly in Mauritania.
  • ETP interaction is poorly documented, and indicated to be a possible concern based on past studies (sharks, mammals and turtles).
  • A variety of IUU fishing activities are indicated to be persistent, but are poorly documented in the region; complex foreign fishing arrangements add ambiguity.
  • The stock structure remains somewhat uncertain.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 8 August 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission and Morocco in their efforts to develop a strategic plan for management of the small pelagics fisheries in the region. The management plan should include species specific TACs, joint setting of TACs, and consideration of how environmental variability may affect stocks.
  • Work with scientists to understand the uncertainties in the stock assessment and improve the different assessment models and input data (catches, discards, biological data) to reduce the level of uncertainty in the assessment and to work towards resolving the differences between the models.
  • Encourage management authorities to release stock assessment results sooner and improve transparency of subsequent management actions, including the setting of catch or effort limits.
  • Ask the government/regional authorities to continue to improve catch and discard reporting and to publish fishery compliance information, especially for Mauritania.
  • Work with scientists to conduct studies to clarify the stock structure of northwest African pilchard/sardine.
  • Press managers to implement a recovery strategy for other target species in this multi-species fishery to ensure that all such species are at least above biologically-based limit reference points (or proxies for the point of recruitment impairment), especially for Cunene and Atlantic horse mackerels, and round and Madeiran sardinellas.
  • Work with scientists and managers to expand the at–sea observer programme to provide representational coverage of all components of the fishery to better understand catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 July 2019

There are various stock monitoring activities conducted throughout the Southern Zone, including national and international surveys, and biological sampling (FAO 2019). Research vessels from a number of nations have conducted acoustic surveys in the region in the past (Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, Russia and Norway) (FAO 2016; FAO 2018; FAO 2018; FAO 2019); but in recent years, these surveys have only been conducted by Morocco. Recruitment surveys have been carried out since 2003 by Russian researchers, who also perform age reading. There is biological sampling in Moroccan ports, as well as aboard the EU fleet operating in Mauritania.

Annual stock assessments are conducted separately by the FAO’s Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa, and Morocco’s Institut National de Recherche Halieutique, (INRH). Publication timing is somewhat variable. The latest published reports assess the stock’s status using data through 2017 (INRH 2018; FAO 2019).

Approaches used to assess 2017 stock status relative to biological reference points were consistent with prior years, with both the INRH and the FAO working group using forms of the Schaefer(Schaefer 1954) global production model. The INRH applied two versions of the model: 1) a biomass dynamic (BIODYN) model developed by CECAF, and 2) a Stock-Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC) model, known for its integration of variability and uncertainty (INRH 2016; INRH 2018). Their methods use total catches adjusted by abundance indices from acoustic surveys and fisheries, though the ASPIC model is statistically more reliant on catches (INRH 2016). The fit of the Biodyn model was “satisfactory” (R2=0.82), but the ASPIC model did not yield conclusive results. A third approach, a virtual population method known as “extended survivors analysis” (XSA), was also carried out. Meanwhile, the FAO Working Group also implemented a dynamic version of the Schaefer model, with total catches adjusted from survey abundance indices, and the model was fit using Excel non-linear optimization software; the fit was considered satisfactory (FAO 2019). A length cohort analysis (LCA) model applied by the FAO working group, gave inconclusive results.

Last updated on 18 July 2019

The Mauritanian Institute of Oceanographic Research and Fisheries (Institut Mauritanien de Recherches Océanographiques et des Pêches (IMROP)) performs scientific campaigns to assess the status of the exploited stocks in the country (Sidi et al. 2012). However, acoustic surveys for small pelagics have been inconsistent in recent years, and were not conducted by Mauritania in 2017 (FAO 2019). Russian and Mauritanian observers conduct commercial sampling of the Russian and EU fleets in Mauritania; however, neither Mauritanian coastal seiner nor Russian catches were sampled in 2017 (FAO 2019).

Last updated on 18 July 2019

The Moroccan National Fisheries Research Institute (Institut National de Recherche Halieutique (INRH)) conducts regular monitoring and research on the status of Morocco’s exploited marine resources. Annual stock assessments for small pelagics have been carried out consistently in recent years, but publication timing can be variable.

In recent years, only Morocco has consistently conducted acoustic surveys of the stock in the southern region (FAO 2016; FAO 2018; FAO 2018; FAO 2019). Morocco's port sampling program is less intensive in the Southern Zone than in other areas. In 2017, surveys were conducted only by Moroccan and Russia (recruitment surveys).  On board sampling was conducted for the Russian and Moroccan fleets, but sampling of European vessels is unknown.  Age reading for sardine in the southern zone is frequently carried out by Russian scientists.

Last updated on 18 July 2019

The marine research entity in Senegal is the Oceanographic Research Center of Dakar-Thiaroye -CRODT. Acoustic surveys are sometimes conducted by the research vessel Itaf Deme; the last survey was in  2015; no sardine were detected (FAO 2018). Senegalese artisinal catches have not been sampled in recent years (FAO 2018)(FAO 2019). Catches in this sector are incidental to other species; effort in this sector has showed a marked decline between 2016-2017.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Since 2001, scientific advice for small pelagic resources in NW Africa has been provided annually by an international working group under the FAO's Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF) (Garcia et al. 2012; FAO 2018; FAO 2019). In line with CECAF's overarching mission (FAO 2019), the group of scientists is tasked with assessing stock status and recommending management options geared towards optimal and sustainable exploitation for the benefit of coastal countries. Reports are usually released with a significant time-lag. The INRH also assesses the stock, and includes general management recommendations (INRH 2018).

Relative biological reference points are used for the stock due to the uncertainty in estimating absolute values (FAO 2006; INRH 2016; FAO 2018; FAO 2019). Advice is given in relation to agreed target reference points – e.g. B/B0.1 and F/F0.1. Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) indices F/FMSY and B/BMSY are used as the relative limit reference points.

As has been typical, specific catch limits were not recommended for the Southern pilchard stock. Rather, given the stock’s propensity for large fluctuations in biomass, which cannot be attributed to effects of fishing alone, the FAO working group advises that the stock should be monitored by fishery-independent means, e.g. acoustic surveys throughout the range of the species (FAO 2019). The INRH, in their recent assessment, likewise advocated for a vigilant and adaptive management approach (INRH 2018). Noting a pattern of rising catches with coincident static biomass levels in recent years, they further advised that measures to reduce mortality are needed for small pelagic stocks in order to assure exploitation levels continue to be sustainable.

A CECAF expert panel review of the FAO working group’s methods used to assess the status of the stock in 2012 recommended that inclusion of sea surface temperature in the model would improve it’s usefulness with regard to management advice (FAO 2018). The FAO working group has also made a number of recommendations related to improving stock assessments for sardines in the northwest African region (general to all zones), including: relaunching coordinated regional surveys to estimate abundance throughout the species' distribution, undertaking recruitment surveys along the species' range, strengthening of age reading and validation methods, continuation of size frequency analysis, and more comprehensive fishing effort series and biosampling programs (FAO 2019). A fleetwide analysis of catch and fishing effort series relative to climate indices was also recommended. 

Last updated on 18 July 2019

A Joint Scientific Committee (Comité Scientifique Cojoint RIM-UE; CSC), created with the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) between Mauritania-European Union (EU), has advised that lack of reliable and representative data for small pelagics is a problem (Cervantes et al. 2017). Catch sampling of the artisanal and coastal fleet was highlighted as a particular area of weakness. Ineffective implementation of the on-board observer program was also highlighted. They further recommend that catch sampling be extended to the fishmeal plants.  

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Overall, the stock is deemed to be healthy and not experiencing overfishing. Considering their 2018 assessment results collectively, the INRH interpreted the stock status of sardines in the Southern Zone in 2017 to be "fully exploited", while the FAO Working Group concluded the stock was "not fully exploited". The FAO's projections showed that if effort levels were maintained, the stock would be expected to remain stable at levels above the target biomass. Fishery-independent factors ( e.g. hydroclimatic dynamics, to which the stock is very sensitive) have the potential to greatly influence outcomes. As such, the working group advised that projections be interpreted with caution. 

Direct assessment methods (acoustic survey indices) show the biomass of small pelagics in the North, Central and South Atlantic coasts (66% of which is comprised of sardine) to have increased slightly from 2016-2017 (by 4.3%) (INRH 2018). A significant increase in the acoustic biomass of sardine in the Southern Zone was observed (FAO 2019). In addition to management measures, a state of favorable hydrological conditions has been credited for an increase in the overall biomass of small pelagic stocks in the Moroccan zones (INRH 2018)

Dynamic production models, applied by the INRH and the FAO working group to estimate stock status relative to target and limit reference point estimates, produced identical or very similar results, indicating a stock in good condition and not fully exploited (INRH: B2017/B0.1=1.47, B2017/BMSY=1.62, F2017/F0.1=0.43, and F2017/FMSY=0.39; FAO: B2017/B0.1=1.47, and B2017/BMSY = 1.62, F2017/F0.1= 0.46, and F2017/FMSY=0.41)(INRH 2018)(FAO 2019). Both the INRH and the FAO working group reported that their applications of these models produced satisfactory fits. Comparing these results to those produced from the same models in the previous year, biomass in 2017 shows an increase relative to reference points, while F shows a decrease. Meanwhile, the INRH’s XSA model results show a general increase in F since 2010 and a corresponding decrease in spawning stock biomass (SSB). The analysis estimated the current exploitation rate on the stock to be 0.71 – well above 0.4, the rate considered to be an appropriate limit reference point for small pelagic species based on the work of (Patterson 1992). Current F was also estimated to be well over F0.1, but below Fmsy

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Management of transboundary small pelagic stocks in Northwest Africa is administered at the country level. The Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (Commission Sous-Régionale des Pêches, CSRP) that includes Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal and Sierra Leone has led efforts to assess and manage the small pelagic stocks in the region jointly with Morocco. An advisory committee for the small pelagic was created under the CSRP; and a project was in place to characterize, monitor and develop a strategic plan for the mentioned fisheries and resources (Sidi et al. 2012; Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC) 2013). However, the degree to which these efforts have progressed is unclear.

There are a variety of technical measures in place in the different countries. Only Morocco (where the species is most abundant and consistently present) is known to have a comprehensive national total allowable catch (TAC). Quotas and TACs that are in place are applicable to pelagic species generally, and not individual species.

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Mauritanian Fisheries Code (Republique Islamique de Mauritanie 2015) directs for the implementation of precautionary, sector-specific fishery management plans including catch limits. Management of small pelagics is specifically addressed in the national fishery management strategy outlined for 2015-2019 (Republique Islamique de Mauritanie 2015). A draft management plan for small pelagics has been under development since at least 2015 (FAO 2016).  Strategies including a potential shift from effort to quota control, as well as better definition of the non-industrial fishery segments (e.g. small purse seine and purse seine canoes), were reported to be under consideration (FisheryProgress.org 2018). However, there remains no applicable fishery management plan or harvest strategy – multispecies or specific to sardine in effect at this time (as of Julne 24, 2019); and progress is unclear. While the Mauritanian government has reportedly also set a TAC for national catches for each small pelagic species (Cervantes et al. 2017), official documentation of these limits does not appear to be available. A system of collective and individual quotas for different fishery sectors is also reportedly in place since 2016 (Marti 2018), but details are not available.

The only known TAC in Mauritania applies to the European Union (EU) trawl sector fishing under EU-Mauritania Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA), most recently negotiated for the 2015-2019 period (European Union and Mauritania 2015). The current limit is 225,000 tonnes, including 15,000 tonnes for non-freezer pelagic trawls. The TAC is a multispecies limit for small pelagics, not specific to sardines. Additional quotas or catch limits covering the remaining fishery sectors are unclear.  A portion of 3% of the total catch is allowed for non-target species by the industrial fleet in the Mauritanian EEZ (Comité Scientifique Conjoint 2014). There is an offshore boundary limit for trawlers (20 nm), but no apparent spatial-temporal measures (Iborra Martin 2010). There is a minimum mesh size for nets and trawls (40 mm), and a minimum size limit for sardine (16 cm) (Sidi et al. 2012). There are licensing requirements, but the artisanal fleet is open access (Corten et al. 2012). Vessel monitoring system (VMS) and satellite control measures were introduced within the last decade to further improve compliance (FAO 2011).

Last updated on 18 July 2019

The Halieutis strategy, in place since 2009, for fisheries management and development comprises three pillars: sustainability of the resources, performance of the sector and competitiveness (National Aquaculture Development Agency (NADA) 2018). According to the management indicators, one of the main goals is that by 2020, 90% of the resources are sustainably managed. In late 2014, 85% of the Moroccan resources had a management plan (Hassouni 2015).

Within the Southern Zone (Zone C), a management plan has been in place since 2010 for the Moroccan small pelagic fishery (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2010). A multispecies national TAC was also established at this time, but there is still no harvest control rule to limit fishing mortality. Fishing licenses, TACs and bycatch limits as well as gear characteristics, species restrictions, spatial zoning and closed areas are officially set by Decrees (a synopsis of management and legislation relating to Morocco's small pelagic species can be found at the Ministre de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) websight). Annual review of TACS, following scientific advice and the precautionary principle, is required according to the management plan. The process for setting of management guidelines was formally defined in 2018 (Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la pêche martime (MAPM) 2018; fisheryprogress 2019).

Species targeted under the Moroccan TAC include European pilchard (sardine) Sardina pilchardus, sardinellas Sardinella spp., jack and horse mackerels Trachurus spp., European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2008). Given the continued overexploited status of sardinella and horse mackerel stocks (FAO 2019), the suitability of the multispecies TAC is a concern (Gascoigne 2017). The initial TAC of 1,093,000 tonnes, established in 2010 (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2010), was reduced in 2013 to 1,000,000 tonnes (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime).

There are also catch ceilings for foreign freezer trawlers operating in Moroccan waters under Fisheries Partnership Agreements (FPAs) with the Kingdom of Morocco, set for 4-year periods (Caillart et al. 2017); catches under these agreements count toward the overall TAC (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2013). Renewal of an EU-Morocco FPA with an 80,000 tonne quota allowance, effective from 2014-2018 (European Union and Morocco 2014), had been stalled due to controversy regarding the legality Morocco’s fishing rights in the waters of Western Sahara (Eljechtimi 2018; Popescu 2019). Reports through June 24, 2019 indicate a new deal will be formalized imminently (European Council (EU) 2019; Morocco World News 2019); however new quota amounts have not been reported. An agreed 140,000 tonnes was reportedly authorized to Russia under a new agreement signed in January (Morocco World News 2019).

Other fishery controls are outlined in regulations defined mainly in arrêté 3279-10 of December 2010, and later amendments  (e.g. arrêté 1175-13 of 8 April 2013) (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2010)(Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2013). Regulations include time and area restriction (including locations important to reproduction and juvenile rearing), a per trip catch limit for pelagic trawlers and an annual small pelagic limit for purse seiners (INRH 2016)(FAO 2018).  There are zoning restrictions for Russian and EU trawlers, and the refrigerated (RSW) trawlers (varying from 8-15 nm from shore) (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2015)(FAO 2018). Purse-seiners of 2-150 gross tonnage are permitted only within 2 miles, and seiners and trawls exceeding 150 gross tonnes cannot operate within 5 miles (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2010). An area to protect sardine juveniles is established within 15 miles in the Bay of Dakhla (24 – 25ºN) where fishing is not allowed (Gascoigne 2017). In 2017, additional measures were implemented for closed areas beyond 15 nautical miles from shore: a reserve area covering 24-25 degrees N was renewed for an additional 5 years; and a new closure zone between the 22nd and 23rd parallels during May-June was added (FAO 2019). A bycatch ceiling is defined at 2% by volume per trip and at 5% for smaller vessels; allowed species are pre-defined in two lists for the two groups of vessels. All landings are to be reported and recorded in logbooks. A vessel monitoring system (VMS) has been implemented since 2011 with spatial, terrestrial and legal components for both inshore and offshore fleets (Gascoigne 2017)(Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2015).

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Senegal captures only a tiny fraction of the sardine harvest in the Northwest Africa region. The fleet is artisanal and catches are incidental to other species (FAO 2019). During 2013-2016 catches comprised less than 1% of the total, based on estimates derived from FAO statistics (FAO 2018). A dramatic drop in fishing effort was observed between 2016 and 2017 (FAO 2019).

The fishery sector in Senegal is under the authority of the Ministry of Fisheries and Maritime Economy (MFME). There are six subdivisions under the MFME responsible for various aspects of management (CSRP/SRFC 2016). Senegal has no specific management plan or harvest strategy in effect for small pelagics (CSRP/SRFC 2017).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 18 July 2019

During 2013-2016, based on estimates derived from FAO statistics (FAO 2018), portions of the catch relative to the total catch in the region ranged from 82-96% in Morocco, 3-18% in Mauritania, and less than 1% in Senegal. Catches of small pelagics in the Moroccan Southern Zone and the EU fleet in Mauritania have been consistently below respective TACs, according to available data (Indrajaya 2015; INRH 2015; INRH 2016; INRH 2016; INRH 2018; Marti 2018). Analysis suggests discard rates in the Moroccan fishery are relatively low (INRH 2017). There are mandatory observer requirements throughout the region, primarily for foreign vessels. Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is punishable by law, though enforcement varies. 

Evidence of an array of non-compliant fishing activities, generally, and associated with the small pelagic fishery specifically, has been widely reported on in the West African region (Belhabib et al. 2013)(INTERPOL 2014)(Daniels et al. 2016)(Standing 2017); however official fishery specific data on compliance is not available, and the relative impact of non-compliance among countries and fishing sectors is difficult to assess. A recent retrospective analysis of measures to combat illegal fishing in six West African countries (Doumbouya et al. 2017), found that Mauritania and Senegal had the highest amount of illegal catch in the region during 2010-2015 (268,000 and 261,000 tonnes of fish respectively), the result attributed mainly to Eastern European pelagic trawlers targeting large amounts of small-pelagic fish. Another study suggests China’s illegal activity in the region is on par with that of European fleets (Belhabib et al. 2015). In terms of landed value, the study estimated that 87% of China’s illegal fishing activities in West Africa appear to be concentrated in Morocco, Nigeria, and to a lesser degree Mauritania.

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Estimates of annual small pelagic catches during 2012-2017 by the EU fleet were well under applicable TAC limits (Marti 2018). However, the EU catch component is a fraction of the overall small pelagic catch in Mauritania (FAO 2018); limits and compliance pertaining to the rest of the fleet fishing in Mauritania are unclear. 

There are advanced monitoring systems and a legal framework in place to enable surveillance and enforcement of fisheries regulations (Republique Islamique de Mauritanie 2015)(Republique Islamique de Mauritanie 2015). While improved monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) capabilities are considered to have been effective in reducing illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Mauritania (Corten et al. 2012)(Belhabib et al. 2015)(Failler and El Ayoubi 2015), there is poor quantification of current levels. Regardless, a body of evidence suggests that IUU activity is a persistent and significant problem in Mauritania (Agnew et al. 2010)(Failler and El Ayoubi 2015)(Belhabib et al. 2015)(Doumbouya et al. 2017). Lack of financial and technical resources may be a factor (Failler and El Ayoubi 2015).

Reported catches of non-target species caught by the industrial fleet in the Mauritanian EEZ have tended to be within the legal limit at 3%; however there are indications of underreporting – an observers’ program, conducted in 2009-2010 by IMROP detected capture of 10-20% of non-target species depending on both fishing season and area (Comité Scientifique Conjoint APP RIM-UE 2014). The problem may be more significant for pelagic trawl fisheries (Bouzouma et al. 2016). Discards of bycatch species are not counted in catch reports (Comité Scientifique Conjoint APP RIM-UE 2014). Observers are required on board chartered vessels fishing in Mauritania (Sidi et al. 2012). Refusal of EU and non-EU pelagic ship owners to carry IMROP scientific observers has been reported (Cervantes 2017). Foreign vessels under charter do not always comply with reporting requirements (Standing 2017). There are also concerns regarding lack of transparency surrounding complex foreign fishing arrangements (AU-IBAR 2015)(Belhabib et al. 2015)(Standing 2017), and signs of misreporting of catches by the fishmeal industry (species may be misidentified to avoid exceeding volume limits on restricted species) (FAO 2019). The EU-Mauritania Joint Scientific Committee has recommended that fishmeal plants be required to allow access to IMROP investigators so they may conduct catch sampling (Marti 2018).

Last updated on 18 July 2019

Catches of small pelagics in the Moroccan Southern Zone are consistently below the multispecies TAC (Indrajaya 2015; INRH 2015; INRH 2016; INRH 2016; INRH 2018). Analysis suggests discard rates in the fishery are relatively low  (INRH 2017)

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is punishable by law (Gascoigne 2017); and under the strategy HALIEUTIS, Morocco has implemented a number of policies and strategies to combat it, including legislative and procedural measures, VMS technologies, and a national control plan (COMHAFAT/ATLAFCO 2015). Relative to parts further south in the region, IUU impacts appear to be somewhat less of a concern in Morocco; however, the degree is unclear. In 2010, an estimate of the 10-year average unreported catch rate was reported to be 10% in the demersal and pelagic fisheries combined (Belhabib et al. 2015).

Fishery observers are required onboard foreign vessels, and in recent years were placed aboard Moroccan vessels as part of a study on discards and ETP species interactions (Gascoigne 2017). Past studies found low discard rates occurring in the coastal purse seine fishery, and somewhat higher in the midwater trawl fishery, but still low (Kelleher 2005)(Belhabib et al. 2013). The recent analyses by the INRH also found low overall rates in the trawl sectors - preliminary results found average rates less than 2% for the RSW and EU freezer trawl sectors during the study period (2014-2017) (INRH 2017). Discarding and underreporting by smaller vessels may occur (Gascoigne 2017), but sardine catches in this sector are considered negligible.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Sharks are commonly reported bycatch species in fisheries off Northwest Africa, and sea turtles including green and loggerhead turtles, manta rays, sun fish, and dolphins are also reported (Zeeberg et al. 2006)(Lopes et al. 2016). Interaction of the Moroccan and Mauritanian small pelagic fisheries with protected species is poorly documented, and further study is needed. While limited study suggests interaction is likely, particularly by the trawl fleets, preliminary evidence from a study looking at observer data from the Moroccan trawl fleet has not shown significant interaction (Gascoigne 2014)(Gascoigne 2017).

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Interaction of Mauritanian fisheries with protected species is not well documented. Based on observer data during 2001-2004, bycatch of non-target species, including species of turtles, cetaceans, and elasmobranchs, can be significant in the small pelagic trawl fisheries of Mauritania (Zeeberg et al. 2006). Most commonly reported species were larger predatory fishes, including the larger shark species; also reported were sea turtles, manta rays, sun fish, and dolphins. 

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Interaction of Moroccan fisheries with protected species is not well documented. The INRH is conducting work in this area under the Moroccan sardine fishery improvement project (FIP). Preliminary analysis of observer data from the Moroccan RSW trawl and EU and Russian freezer trawl sectors has shown no interaction with ETP species (Gascoigne 2017).  Work on this study is still underway. There is little information on the purse seine fishery, but interactions are considered less likely in this sector (Gascoigne 2014) . 

A protection area for monk seals Monachus monachus (Endangered in the IUCN Red list (Karamandlidis and Dendrionos 2015)) where no fishing is allowed is established within 12 miles between 21º23’ 00’’ and 20º54’40’’N (MAPM, 2009;(Gascoigne 2017)). In accordance with commitments and recommendations made by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) (Moroccan Département de la Pêche Maritime (MDPM) 2016), the 2012-2017 ban on capture of sharks including hammerhead Sphyrna spp. (except bonnethead S. tiburo), oceanic whitetip Carcharhinus longimanus (Vulnerable on IUCN Red list (Baum et al. 2015)) and bigeye thresher Alopias superciliosus (Vulnerable on IUCN Red list (Amorim et al. 2009)(Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2012), looks to have been renewed through 2022 (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2017). A summary of conservation measures pertaining to sharks is available at the MAPM websight.

Other Species

Last updated on 12 August 2018

According to catch data in (FAO 2018), sardine varied between 3% and 19% of the annual small pelagic catch in Mauritania between 2010-2016 and would not be considered a main retained species based on 2016 catches (only 3% of total small pelagic catch). In 2015 and 2016, the primary retained species in the Mauritanian small pelagic catch were round sardinella Sardinella aurita (35% in 2016), Cunene horse mackerel Trachurus tracae (22.2% in 2016) and Madeiran sardinella Sardinella maderensis (10.3% in 2016). Other main retained species (>5% of total catch) were Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (9%), and chub mackerel Scomber japonicas (14%).  Catches of sardine, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, false scad Caranx Rhoncus and bonga shad Ethmalosa fimbriata were less than 5% of the total small pelagic catch in 2016. Both T. trecae and T. trachurus, and E. fimbriata are over-exploited at the regional level (FAO 2018). Stock status for  S. aurita and S. maderensis is undeterminable for 2016, but both have been considered overexploited in the region consistently in previous years (FAO 2016)(FAO 2018)(FAO 2018).

Quantification and identification of non-target catches in Mauritania appears lacking. It is reported that the Mauritanian Institute of oceanographic research and fisheries (IMROP) has stated that bycatch is a “major problem” in the small pelagic fishery; and there are indications that unreported catches are occurring in the trawl sector (Gorez 2016).  Efforts to increase selectivity are needed. 

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Preliminary results from an ongoing study by the INRH on discards and ETP interactions show small pelagic species make up the vast majority of the catch (91.6%-94.4% by the RSW trawl fleet between 2015-2017) (INRH 2017).  Discarded species are not fully identified or quantified yet but this ongoing study indicates discard rates are low across sectors.  There are catch thresholds for bycatch species (INRH 2016)

Sardine in 2015 was the main species caught (63%) in this multi-species fishery in Zone C, while mackerel and horse mackerel species. represented 25% and 10% respectively of the total catch (INRH 2016). Both cunene horse mackerel, Trachurus trecae and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus are over-exploited at the regional level (FAO 2018).  Stock status for round sardinella Sardinella aurita and Madeiran sardinella Sardinella maderensis was undeterminable for 2016; but both have been considered overexploited in the region consistently in previous years (FAO 2016)(FAO 2018)(FAO 2018). It is unclear whether T. trachurus consistently comprises enough of the total catch to be considered a main retained species (i.e. as per MSC standards, >5% of total catch). Neither T. Trecae nor S. maderensis would likely be considered main retained species, but S. aurita is indicated to comprise >5% of the catch in the Southern Zone based on historical catches (Gascoigne et al. 2017). It does not appear that any other species would be considered main retained species, and other than those already mentioned, no other retained species were considered overexploited as of 2016 (FAO 2018)

Non-targeted catch in the Moroccan coastal purse seine fishery in Zone C in 2016 was comprised almost entirely of mullet (98%), followed by rubberlip grunt Plectorhinchus Mediterraneus and zebra seabream Diplodus Cervinus (INRH 2016).

In the Moroccan RSW trawl fleet in 2016, non-target catch constituted approximately 6.5% of catches per tide, according to INRH observers, (INRH 2016). Primary species reported were common dentex Dentex dentex (42%), black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus (26%), and bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (20%). Also captured were bogue Boops boops, rubberlip grunt Plectorhinchus Mediterraneus, species of bonito, white seabream Diplodus sargus and others.

Species reported by the Russian trawl fleet between 2011-2013 included largehead hairtail (sabre) Trichiurus lepturus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis and swordfish Xiphias gladius were also caught in <2% of landings. Capture of small tunas and swordfish are considered as misidentification errors. None of the allowed bycatch species is threatened (Gascoigne 2014).

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Sardine make up less than 5% of the annual small pelagic catch in Senegal based on data from 1991 through 2016, and have comprised less than 1% since 2011 (FAO 2018) .

HABITAT

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Mid-water trawl and purse seine, the main gears used in the fishery, are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem, and the possibility of ghost fishing is extremely low when nets are lost (FAO 2002). MPAs established along the NW African coast do not contribute directly to the stock but indirectly to the protection of the ecosystems. 

Last updated on 12 August 2018

There are four marine protected areas (MPAs) in Mauritania– Ras Nouadhibouand Banc d’Arguin on the north coast, and Diawling and Chat Tboul on the south coast near Senegal (Marti 2018). Industrial vessels and outboard engines are not permitted in the Banc d’Aguin Park and access is restricted except for the inhabitants of the Imraguentribe, who also retain the right to fish in the MPA, and the transit of caravans. It is not clear if fishing regulations apply in the other MPAs.

It has been noted with respect to foreign fishing arrangements that challenges to limiting access to fishery resources have lowered the capacity to protect the marine environment, particularly in Mauritania (Failler and El Ayoubi 2015).

Last updated on 12 August 2018

The fleet in this stock area consists of traditional coastal purse seiners, larger purse seiners and pelagic trawlers, with the two latter restricted to the south by various boundaries (FAO 2008)(FAO 2018)(INRH 2016). The foreign trawl fleets are restricted to 15 nm offshore, and to south of the 28°00 parallel for the Russian fleet, and south of 29°00 latitude North for the European fleet (FAO 2018). The Moroccan RSW trawl fleet is restricted to between Cape Boujdour and Cap Blanc (26 ° 07'N-20 ° 46'N) (i.e. Zone C), and beyond 8 nm. The Spanish coastal purse seine fleet is limited to south by parallel 34 ° 18'N and to beyond 2 nm from shore (INRH 2016). See more detailed vessel limits in the "Management" section.

While Morocco has three MPAs - Al hoceima National Park National Park (Parc National), Cap des 3, Fourches Nature reserve (Réserve Naturelle) and Sous Massa National Park National Park (Parc National) (Marine Conservation Institute (MCI) 2018); none are in Zone C. There are an additional 22 “Marine Managed Areas” throughout Morocco, some in Zone C, with various conservation measures; though limits on fishing are unclear. In the Bay of Dakhla, the Moroccan government has reserved a closed area for juveniles inside 15 miles (24-25ºN), and a monk seal protection zone inside 12 miles between 21º23' and 20º54'40''N, where fishing is prohibited (Gascoigne 2017).

Last updated on 12 August 2018

Three marine reserves – Langue de Barbarie, Gueumbeul Special and Iles de la Madeleine - are established on Senegal’s region of distribution of the southern stock (Wood, 2007).
ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 12 August 2018

European pilchard and some of the other species captured represent a key trophic role in the ecosystem (Gascoigne 2014). Small pelagic species are an important forage source for many other species.  There is some ambiguity, however, as to whether sardine qualify as a“key” lower trophic level (LTL) species according to MSC standards (Gascoigne 2017). The small pelagic species in this fishery are highly dependent on oceanographic conditions, namely on the upwelling of the NW Africa zone (e.g. (Larissi et al. 2013) Alheit et al., 2014).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 18 July 2019

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Schaefer dynamic production models (applied by the INRH and FAO) estimated biomass to be well above target and limit reference points, and slightly higher than for the previous year (INRH 2018; FAO 2019b). Meanwhile “extended survivors analysis” (XSA), showed SSB to be in decline since 2005, but at an abundance similar to pre-year 2000 levels (INRH 2018). The FAO’s interpretation of the stock’s condition 2017 is that it was “not fully exploited”, while based on their assessment the INRH considered the stock to be “fully exploited” (INRH 2018; FAO 2019b).

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Schaefer dynamic production models applied by the FAO working group and the INRH indicated fishing mortality (F) in 2017 was well below target and limit reference points (INRH 2018; FAO 2019b). The INRH’s application of an “extended survivors analysis" (XSA) model, meanwhile, estimated F was higher than F0.1, but below Fmsy. The exploitation rate on the stock was estimated to be well above what is considered an appropriate limit reference point (0.4) for small pelagic species based on the work of Patterson (1992). Stock projections need to be taken with caution. The stock is very reactive to climate dynamics, necessitating an adaptive management strategy (INRH 2018; FAO 2019b).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. 2009-2016 Fishing mortality and biomass estimates are expressed here as the relative rate F/F0.1 and B/B0.1, respectively. B0.1 and F0.1 were adopted as target reference points and FMSY and BMSY as limit reference points (INRH 2018; FAO 2019).
  2. The biomass (B) and fishing mortality (F) ratios presented since 2013 are the FAO’s Schaefer Global Dynamic model results corresponding to their management recommendations. Results from this approach do not closely align with (are typically more optimistic than) results from other methods (e.g. ASPIC) (Indrajaya 2015; INRH 2015; INRH 2016; INRH 2016; INRH 2018). Qualitative interpretations, rather than computed scores, for Stock Status and Future Health, reflect the lack of consensus among model results.
  3. No harvest control rule reducing F at low biomass values is known to exist, and no explicit advised TAC is available (at the assessment unit or management unit level); so scoring of Management Strategy and Managers Compliance has been qualitatively interpreted, rather than computed. 
  4. Fishers’ compliance scores for the Moroccan and Mauritanian management units have also been interpreted qualitatively, due to lack of a comprehensive, species-specific TAC, and reports of IUU fishing activities (please mouse-over for further details). 
  5. Landings of S. pilchardus shown for the NW Africa Southern assessment unit for the period 1995-2016, are as reported in (FAO 2019), and summed across all fleets (national and foreign, artisanal and industrial, trawler and purse-seine) operating in Zone C.
  6. The TAC for Morocco (Ministre de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2013) applies to species designated as small pelagics in décret 2008, (Ministre de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime (MAPM) 2008): sardines, sardinella, horse mackerel, mackerel and anchovy.
  7. Last known official catch ceilings established for the foreign freezer trawlers operating under the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPAs) with Morocco were 80,000 tonnes for the EU fleet and 140,000 tonnes for the Russian fleet (Moroccan Département de la Pêche Maritime (MDPM) 2016). These look to have been renewed in 2019 (Morocco World News 2019; Morocco World News 2019).
  8. For Mauritania, EU allowed catches are limited under the  2015-2019 FPA between the EU-Mauritania at 225,000 tonnes for pelagic freezer trawler, including 15,000 tonnes for non-freezer pelagic trawls (European Union and Mauritania 2015).
  9. Because sardine catches in Senegal comprise less than 1% of overall sardine catch in zone C, the Senegal management unit has not been scored.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Dec 2014
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating remains A for stage 4/5 progress in the past 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Sep 15
2.
FIP Launch
Apr 15
Jan 19
3.
FIP Implementation
Jul 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Aug 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Feb 19
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

ACPFISH, 2012. Rapport Technique Final: Mise En Place D’un Processus De Concertation Sous-Regional Pour La Gestion Concertee Des Petits Pelagiques. PROJET CU/PE1/SN/10/010. http://acpfish2-eu.org/uploads/projects/id58/RTF%20version%20finale.pdf

Aguilar, A. and Lowry, L. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2013. Monachus monachus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 27 February 2015] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13653/0

Alheit, J., Licandro, P., Coombs, S., Garcia, A., Giráldez, A., Santamaría, M. T. G., Slotte, A., Tsikliras, A. C. 2014. Reprint of “Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic”, Journal of Marine Systems 133: 88–102 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924796314000347

Alverson DL, Murawski SA, Pope JG, 1994. A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 339. Rome, FAO. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T4890E/T4890E00.htm

Anon, 2003. Workshop on the fisheries sector tax system and its role as a management tool: Mauritania. Workshop on Fiscal Reform in Fisheries, FAO, Rome, 13 to 15 October 2003. http://www.onefish.org/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND0xNjg2MjYuMTg4NjQ3JjY9ZW4mMzM9ZG9jdW1lbnRzJjM3PWluZm8~#koinfo

Bjordal, Å., 2002. The use of technical measures in responsible fisheries: regulation of fishing gear. In: Cochrane, K.L. (ed.), 2002. A fishery manager’s guidebook. Management measures and their application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 424. Rome, FAO.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3427e/y3427e00.pdf

Comite consultatif regional sur les petits pelagiques (CCRPP), 2013. Premiere reunion du Comite consultatif regional sur les petits pelagiques, Projet de Plan d’Aménagement des Pêcheries de Petits Pélagiques (PAP-PP), Setembre 2013, 36pp.http://spcsrp.org/medias/csrp/projets/pelagics/CCR/Presentation_PAP-PP_LC.pdf

Comité Scientifique Conjoint APP RIM-EU (CSC), 2014. Rapport de la septième réunion du Comité Scientifique Conjoint de l'Accord signé entre la République Islamique de Mauritanie et l'Union européenne. Madrid, 27 pp + Annexes.http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/joint-scientific-committee-eu-mauritania-2014/report-jsc-2014_fr.pdf

Lazraq, S. 2012. The valorization of Small Pelagics Fish in the Moroccan “Halieutis” Strategy, Department of Marine Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture and Marine Fisheries. The North Atlantic Seafood Conférence, 21pp.http://prod.dfox.com/public/images/0000438021/000/059/0000595625.pdf

Lenselink NM, 2002. Participation in Artisanal Fisheries Management for Improved Livelihoods in West Africa – A Synthesis of Interviews and Cases from Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea and Ghana. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.432.http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4281e/y4281e00.htm#Contents

Moore, J, undated. Project Global: Global Bycatch Assessment of Long-lived species, Regional Assessment- West Africa. Duke Center for Marine Conservation, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, USA. 27 pp.http://bycatch.nicholas.duke.edu/regions/WestAfrica/W%20Africa.pdf

Moroccan National Fisheries Research Institute (Institut National de Recherche Halieutique, INRH), 2015. Etat des Stocks et des Pêcheries Marocaines 2014, 319pp. http://www.inrh.ma/sites/default/files/rapport_etat_des_stocks_2014.pdf

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), 2012. Review of scientific advice for 2013, Part 3 (STECF 12-17), 290 p.http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/466189/2012-11_STECF+12-17+-+Review+of+advice+for+2013+-+part+3_JRC76743.pdf

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), 2013. Review of scientific advice for 2014 – part 3 (STECF-13-26), Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, EUR 26324 EN, JRC 86110, 297 pp.http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/648827/2013-11_STECF+13-26+-+Review+of+advice+for+2014_part3_JRC86110.pdf

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), 2014. Review of scientific advice for 2015 – Part 3 (STECF-14-22), Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, EUR 26942 EN, JRC 92955, 404 pp.http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/861036/2014-11_STECF+14-22+-+Review+of+advice+for+2015+-+part+3_JRC92955.pdf

Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC), 2013. Strategic directions for promoting the sustainable exploitation and cooperative management of the small pelagics fishery of Northwest Africa, 9pp. http://spcsrp.org/medias/csrp/projets/pelagics/CCR/abstract.pdf

Ter Hofstede, R. and Dickey-Collas, M., 2006. An investigation of seasonal and annual catches and discards of the Dutch pelagic freezer-trawlers in Mauritania, Northwest Africa. Fisheries Research, 77: 184-191. http://www.accordsdepeche.com/fichiers/docs/bibli_08/818.pdf

UNEP, 2004. Policy Implementation and Fishery Resource Management: Lessons from Senegal. Fisheries and the Environment. United Nations Environment Programme. http://www.unep.ch/etu/Fisheries%20Meeting/SENEGAL132004ENGLISH.pdf

Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org

References

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