Last updated on 14 December 2015

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sardina pilchardus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European pilchard, Sardine, European sardine

Several studies have been conducted to understand European pilchard stock structure widely distributed in the Northeast and Eastern Central Atlantic, and the Mediterranean and Black Sea (e.g. Spanakis et al., 1989; Tinti et al., 2002; Kasapidis et al., 2004; Atarhouch et al., 2006; Chlaida et al., 2006; Silva et al., 2006; Laurent et al., 2007; Chlaida et al., 2009; Antonakakis et al., 2011). However further research is needed considering uncertainties (Kasapidis et al., 2012; ICES, 2014b). Thus here we consider the following assessment units along the European pilchard distribution:
By the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES):
- Iberian (ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa) and Bay of Biscay, Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel (ICES Divisions VIIIa,b,d and Subarea VII)
By the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM; FAO) of the 8 stock assessment units assumed (FAO, 2009; Kasapidis et al., 2012; GFCM, 2014) these 2 are already covered in profiles:
- Northern Adriatic Sea (GSA 17) and Northern Alboran Sea (GSA 01)
By the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (FAO, 2013a,b):
- NW Africa central (zones A+B; 32ºN – 26ºN) and NW Africa southern (zone C; 26ºN – the southern extent of the species distribution).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

For the first time, ICES provided a qualitative advice for data-limited stocks based on combined abundance indicators. The stock is not managed through international TACs but some measures are defined at the national level, like quotas, number of days at sea, minimum landing size. Fishing mortality is considered as sustainable, below Natural mortality and close to FMSY. Recruitment in 2012 is the higher in the time-series. Fishers’ compliance is deemed to be strong. The impact of purse-seines on the seabed is little.

Weaknesses

No analytical stock assessment is conducted by ICES due to short time-series of age-structure data from ICES area VIIIa,b,d and absent from ICES area VII. The qualitative advice is based on the information from the Bay of Biscay – abundance indicators are only available for a part of the stock (for ICES areas VIIIa,b,d) and catches are only available for some countries in ICES area VII. The combined biomass indices (acoustic and egg surveys) shows a decreasing trend to below the long-term average, of around 27% comparing to the 2008/2010 period. Specific harvest control rules or biological reference points have not been developed yet. Bycatch and discards are considered to be minimal but quantitative data is not available and the impacts on habitats are not truly understood. Recruitment of the species is highly dependent of environmental variables. The stock structure is identified and based on genetic results but further research is needed to take into account migration to the Iberian pilchard stock.

Options

A specific management strategy, with adequate reference points, should be developed. Data collection on bycatch species should include all fleet operating in the certified fishing area. A sampling program should be conducted in ICES area VII and catches from all countries made available in order to improve the stock assessment. The stock structure is identified and based on genetic results but further research is needed to take into account migration to the Iberian pilchard stock.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6 to ≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6 to ≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6 to ≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Advocate and support scientific institutions on establishing reference points.
  • Regulators to develop and adopt a management strategy with specific harvest control rules
  • All countries involved in the fishery should provide catch data, including on bycatch and discards.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Contact your national fisheries administration, refer them to the FishSource profile findings, and request that they submit catch data to ICES.
  • Contact your national fisheries research institute, refer them to the FishSource profile findings, asking them to provide feedback and request that they collaboratively establish reference points.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Bay of Biscay purse seine sardine:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • Cornwall Sardine, UK:

    MSC Certified

  • CSHMAC Celtic Sea herring, sprat & sardine Trawl:

    Withdrawn

  • South Brittany Sardine Purse Seine:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Bay of Biscay, Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel France/EU France Purse seines
Ring nets
Ireland /EU Ireland Midwater pair trawls
Spain/EU Spain Purse seines
United Kingdom/EU United Kingdom Drift gillnets
Ring nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

For the first time, ICES provided a qualitative advice for data-limited stocks based on combined abundance indicators. The stock is not managed through international TACs but some measures are defined at the national level, like quotas, number of days at sea, minimum landing size. Fishing mortality is considered as sustainable, below Natural mortality and close to FMSY. Recruitment in 2012 is the higher in the time-series. Fishers’ compliance is deemed to be strong. The impact of purse-seines on the seabed is little.

Weaknesses

No analytical stock assessment is conducted by ICES due to short time-series of age-structure data from ICES area VIIIa,b,d and absent from ICES area VII. The qualitative advice is based on the information from the Bay of Biscay – abundance indicators are only available for a part of the stock (for ICES areas VIIIa,b,d) and catches are only available for some countries in ICES area VII. The combined biomass indices (acoustic and egg surveys) shows a decreasing trend to below the long-term average, of around 27% comparing to the 2008/2010 period. Specific harvest control rules or biological reference points have not been developed yet. Bycatch and discards are considered to be minimal but quantitative data is not available and the impacts on habitats are not truly understood. Recruitment of the species is highly dependent of environmental variables. The stock structure is identified and based on genetic results but further research is needed to take into account migration to the Iberian pilchard stock.

Options

A specific management strategy, with adequate reference points, should be developed. Data collection on bycatch species should include all fleet operating in the certified fishing area. A sampling program should be conducted in ICES area VII and catches from all countries made available in order to improve the stock assessment. The stock structure is identified and based on genetic results but further research is needed to take into account migration to the Iberian pilchard stock.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 December 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Advocate and support scientific institutions on establishing reference points.
  • Regulators to develop and adopt a management strategy with specific harvest control rules
  • All countries involved in the fishery should provide catch data, including on bycatch and discards.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Contact your national fisheries administration, refer them to the FishSource profile findings, and request that they submit catch data to ICES.
  • Contact your national fisheries research institute, refer them to the FishSource profile findings, asking them to provide feedback and request that they collaboratively establish reference points.
France
Purse seines

Last updated on 30 December 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.

Last updated on 30 December 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 26 September 2013

European pilchard comprises a single genetic stock in the Celtic Sea, English Channel and Bay of Biscay but further research is needed to take into account migration to the Iberian pilchard stock (ICES, 2013b,c).
No analytical stock assessment is performed, since the time-series of age-structure data from ICES area VIIIa,b,d is too short and absent from ICES area VII. The assessment is based on trends of commercial catches, acoustic and egg survey indices (PELGAS and BIOMAN) that are only available for Divisions VIIIa,b,d and a constant Natural mortality (M). Discards are not included and are considered as minimal. Uncertainties regard the lack of abundance indices and length and age composition of catches from Division VII (ICES, 2013a,b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 29 June 2012

For the first time, ICES performed a qualitative advice for data-limited stocks. The decrease of 20% of combined biomass indices in relation to previous years implies a reduction of catches in 20% and total catches are recommended to be no more than 27,554 t in 2014 and 2015 (ICES, 2013a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 29 Jun 2012

No reference points have been defined for this stock.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 24 September 2013

No reference points have been defined, thus the stock status is unknown; besides, abundance indices are only available for Divisions VIIIa,b,d but considered to represent the whole stock unit. In 2011/2012, combined biomass indices (acoustic and egg surveys; absolute value not available) show a decreasing trend to below the long-term average, of around 27% comparing to the 2008/2010 period; however recruitment in 2012 is the higher in the time series. F is considered to be sustainable, below Natural Mortality (M) and close to FMSY (which absolute value is not available). Landings are at 37,210 t in 2012 although data is unavailable from some countries, especially from ICES area VII (ICES, 2013a,b).

Trends

Last updated on 24 Sep 2013

PELGAS and BIOMAN results (from acoustic and egg surveys, respectively) have been oscillating in the same trend, with maximum values around 2004/2005 and 2008/2010. However in the last years the trend is opposite: egg index increased and the acoustic index decreased slightly. Landings increased gradually until 2003 with 42,470 t, decreased to around 30,000 t and attained again 42,110 t in 2009 (ICES, 2013a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 29 June 2012

Management at the international level is not defined. As this fishery is exclusively conducted in territorial waters (within 12 nm) it is managed by national authorities. Several control measures are in use such as daily quotas for purse seiners, restrictions in the number of fishing days and licenses, minimum landing sizes, national quotas. The fishery is not subject to TACs or quotas, and there is no management plan in place (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010; ICES, 2013a).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 29 Jun 2012

Not applicable.

United Kingdom
Drift gillnets

Last updated on 13 August 2009

The Cornish Sardine Management Association (CSMA) operates inside the 6 nautical mile limit and is managed under the Cornwall Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority (CIFCA): total length of ringnets is limited to 18,23m. An electronic logbook was developed. A harvest control rule (HCR) for the South Brittany sardine purse seine fishery (which includes the Cornwall fishery) was defined, limiting the number of boats to 27 and daily catches to 20,000 t. The limits are based on scientific evaluation of the stock (Gascoigne and Tindall, 2013).

Six conditions were raised in order to improve the fishery regarding all Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) principles (Parkes et al, 2010).
The Cornwall sardine fishery takes a small proportion of catches of the South Brittany sardine purse seine fishery, but was responsible to directly promote and support the elaboration of a Harvest strategy and control rules (MSC Condition 1 closed), and to explicitly incorporate the precautionary approach in the HCR and both in the decision-making process (MSC Condition 5). A HCR is agreed and is being implemented. The development of the Fishery specific objectives (MSC Condition 4), consistent with MSC principles and the UK National policy, is in progress as also the definition of the respective Research plan to meet the defined objectives, including CEFAS surveys (MSC Condition 6) (Gascoigne and Tindall, 2013).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 26 September 2013

Fishers’ compliance with regulations is deemed to be good in both French and English fisheries (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010). No information is available from other countries (e.g., Netherlands, Ireland and Germany) fishing from this stock.

United Kingdom
Ring nets

Last updated on 26 September 2013

A comprehensive monitoring control and surveillance system is in place. Fishers’ compliance is considered to be strong (Parke et al., 2010). A number of non-CSMA vessels operate in the area and not all CSMA members complete logbooks, preventing the full evaluation of retained species in the fishery (Gascoigne and Tindall, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 10 July 2012

This purse seine fishery may interact with PET species such as marine mammals (porpoises and dolphins) and some amphihaline fish such as shads (Alosa alosa and Alosa fallax) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However interactions (captures) are considered very rare and not likely to cause any significant impacts on PET species (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010).

United Kingdom
Ring nets

Last updated on 26 September 2013

The impact of the fishery on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is negligible, given the selectivity of the fishing gears and operation in soft-bottom habitats (Parkes et al, 2010).
PET species comprise Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Vulnerable; 2005 IUCN Redlist), Blue shark Prionace glauca (Near Threatened; 2009 IUCN Redlist), Porbeagle Lamna nasus (Vulnerable; 2006 IUCN Red List), and Tope shark Galeorhinus galeus.
A Code of Practice is in place for setting nets around the coast of Cornwall to mitigate the accidental capture of cetaceans and every accidental capture should be reported (Parkes et al, 2010). Most common cetaceans are (all Least concern; 2008 IUCN Red list): Bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus, Common dolphin Delphinus delphis and Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena are the most abundant in the western English Channel; Grey seal Halichoerus grypus and Common seal Phoca vitulina are known to occur around the British Isles. Black-headed gull Larus ridibundus (Least concern), Lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus (Least concern) and Herring gulls as well as Guillemots also occur, being the last the most predominant species (Parkes et al, 2010). The gear type used in this fishery poses low risk to seabirds, so it is unlikely to cause any significant bycatch or mortality of PET seabirds.

Other Species

Last updated on 10 July 2012

Most of the catch is generally retained and bycatch is considered low in this fishery, although quantitative data are not available. Occasionally, discarding (or slippage) may occur if the catch is thought to be comprised mainly by unwanted species or undersized fish (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010).

France
Purse seines

Last updated on 24 June 2012

Sardine generally comprises almost 90% of the total catches. Other than sardine the main caught (and retained) species are horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Mullet (Mugil cephalus), and mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Bycatch of other species is generally low (Des Clers et al., 2010).

United Kingdom
Ring nets

Last updated on 26 September 2013

The proportion of retained non-target species (by species and weight) is negligible, <5% of total weight (MSC Condition 2; Gascoigne and Tindall, 2011). Species are being identified, quantified and monitored (MSC Condition 3). Non-target species comprise Herring Clupea harrengus (3%) and other species such as European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and Sprat Sprattus sprattus. In the last years, sprats and sardines were discarded but in 2012/2013 no discarding or slippage occurred (Gascoigne and Tindall, 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 10 July 2012

This fishery is pelagic. Although in inshore areas there might be some contact with the seafloor, fishing is generally conducted over sandy bottom, thus impact on seabed habitats is generally minimal (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010).

France
Purse seines

Last updated on 24 June 2012

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 24 Jun 2012

The fishery is closed from Fridays to Sundays. Fishing inside the Iroise Marine reserve and Bay of Douarnenez are subject to specific fishing effort restrictions (Des Clers et al., 2010).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Based on precautionary principles, for the first time ICES provided a quantitative advice for data-limited stocks (ICES, 2013a); no analytical assessment is currently conducted. Also, there is no harvest control rule nor reference points or management objectives for the stock if the stock becomes depleted. Several control measures have been developed by national authorities to manage territorial waters (e.g., minimum landing sizes, mesh sizes limits, fishing effort control) (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010; ICES 2013a), and overall fishing mortalities are considered sustainable (ICES, 2013a).

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

For UK and French fisheries, where information is available, managers take scientific advice into account in the decision making process (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010).

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

European pilchard is not managed through international TACs but some measures are defined at the national level, like quotas, number of days at sea, minimum landing size. The best available data suggests that the fishery is causing little impact on the stock. Fishers’ compliance with regulations is deemed to be good in both French and English fisheries (Des Clers et al., 2010; Parke et al., 2010).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

No analytical stock assessment is conducted, only abundance indices from PELGAS surveys are available from ICES areas VIIIa,b,d (Bay of Biscay) and considered to be representative of the whole stock. Combined abundance indices show a decrease in abundance in 2011/2012 compared with 2008/2010 years but recruitment in 2012 is the highest estimate in the time-series (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

According to ICES (2013a) the exploitation is considered as sustainable, to be close to the maximum sustainable yield and below the natural mortality. The qualitative assessment only includes data from ICES area VIIIa,b,d, which is considered to represent the whole stock, but it is important to note that ICES area VII is not included due to lack of data.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Notes:
1) Lack of TACs or quotas, formal stock assessments and biological reference points prevents the calculation of numerical scores, thus qualitative scores have been attributed (please mouse-over for further details).
2) The combined abundance survey indices, obtained from acoustic and egg surveys are only for Divisions VIIIa,b,d but considered to represent the whole stock unit; absolute values are not available (ICES, 2013a).
3) For the first time, ICES provided a qualitative advice for data-limited stocks for Divisions VIIIa,b,d and Subarea VII for 2014 and 2015, based on precautionary principles. Catches comprise Divisions VIIIa,b,d and Subarea VII (ICES, 2013a).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Bay of Biscay purse seine sardine

STATUS

MSC Full Assessment

SCORES

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits

Des Clers, S., Gascuel, D., Pape, O., Le Leseur, M. and Lagadec, X., 2010. Public Certification Report for the Southern Brittany’s Purse Seine Sardine Fishery Bureau Veritas Certification. July 2010. 139 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/south-brittany-sardine-purse-seine/assessment-downloads-1/29.06.2010-certification-report-south-brittany-purse-seine-sardine.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Tindall, C. 2011. Fisheries Annual Surveillance Report for the Cornwall Sardine Fishery (Sardina pilchardus) - Surveillance Year 1. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, September 2011. 27pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/20120514_SR.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Tindall, C. 2012. Surveillance Visit Report for the Cornish Sardine Fishery (Sardina pilchardus) - Surveillance Year 2. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, July 2012. 36pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/2438R02A_Cornish_sardine_Year_2_audit_report.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Tindall, C. 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for the Cornish Sardine Fishery (Sardina pilchardus) - Surveillance Year 3. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, August 2013. 43pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/20130820_SR_SAR031.pdf

Gascoigne, J., Tindall, T., 2014. Surveillance visit report for the Cornwall Sardine Fishery. Surveillance Year 4. MacAlister Elliott and Partners Ltd, November 2014. 48pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/20150106_SR_SAR031.pdf

Graeme Parkes, Graham Pilling, Robert Wakeford and Bob Trumble, 2010. . Public Certification Report for the Cornwall Sardine Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc. June 2010. 131 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/25.06.2010-cornish-sardine-public-certification-report.pdf

ICES, 2010. Report of the Working Group on Anchovy and Sardine (WGANSA), 24–28 June 2010, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:16). 290 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGHANSA/WGANSA%202010.pdf

ICES, 2011. Report of the Working Group on Anchovy and Sardine (WGANSA), 24–28 June 2011, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:16). 462 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGHANSA/WGANSA%202011%20.pdf

ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 7: Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters 7.4.20 Ecoregion: Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters. Stock: Sardine in Divisions VIIIa,b,d and Subarea VII. Advice summary for 2014 and 2015, 6 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/sar-78.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Report of the Working Group on Southern Horse Mackerel, Anchovy and Sardine (WGHANSA), 21 - 26 June 2013, Bilbao, Spain. ICES CM 013/ACOM:16, 85 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGHANSA/WGHANSA%202013.pdf

ICES, 2013c. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Pelagic Stocks (WKPELA 2013), 4–8 February 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:46, 483 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WKPELA%202013/combined%20WKPELA%202013.pdf

Parkes, G., Pilling, G., Wakeford, R., Trumble, B. 2010. MSC Public Certification Report for Cornwall Sardine Fishery, MRAG-MSC-7a-v2, MRAG Americas, Inc., 131 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/cornwall-sardine/assessment-downloads/25.06.2010-cornish-sardine-public-certification-report.pdf

Rolland, Séverine and Le Pape, Olivier, 2011. Surveillance Report 1 for the Southern Brittany’s Purse Seine Sardine Fishery Bureau Veritas Certification. September 2011. 41 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/south-brittany-sardine-purse-seine/assessment-downloads-1/Repport_MSC_Surv_1_Purse_seine_Sardine_South_Brittany-final200911EN.pdf

Rolland, S., Le Pape, O. 2012. South Brittany Sardine Purse Seine Fishery - MSC 2nd annual Surveillance Audit. Bureau Veritas Certification October, 2012. 46pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/south-brittany-sardine-purse-seine/assessment-downloads-1/MSC%20Surv%202%20Report-%20South%20Brittany%20Sardine%20Purse%20Seine%20EN.pdf

Rolland, S., Le Pape, O., 2013. MSC 3th Annual Surveillance Report For the South Brittany Sardine Purse Seine Fishery. Bureau Veritas Certification, July 2013. 24pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/south-brittany-sardine-purse-seine/assessment-downloads-1/20130820_SR_SAR109.pdf

Siva, A., 2003. Morphometric variation among sardine (Sardina pilchardus) populations from the northeastern Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 1352-1360.http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/6/1352.full.pdf+html

References

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    European pilchard - Bay of Biscay, Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel

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