Last updated on 23 July 2018

SUMMARY

Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Trachurus murphyi

SPECIES NAME(s)

Chilean jack mackerel

COMMON NAMES

Jurel (Spanish)

Chilean Jack mackerel is widespread throughout the South Pacific. Stock structure in the SE Pacific is not clear. Research based on genetic and otolith analysis supports the existence of a single trans-zonal population (SPRFMO, 2013a,b). A recent analysis using a biophysical model indicates high dispersion range and spatial overlap of modelled recruitments, which support the hypothesis of a single panmictic population in the SE Pacific. There are numerous and competing hypothesis considered with no definitive structure; five stocks were already described but research and analysis are still being conducted. The SPRFMO considers 2 working hypothesis until further conclusions are agreed and both are used for assessment purposes: hypothesis 1) Jack mackerel caught off the coasts of Peru and Chile each constitute separate stocks (Peruvian or northern and Chilean or southern stocks) which straddle the high seas; and hypothesis 2) Jack mackerel caught off the coasts of Peru and Chile constitute a single shared stock that straddles the high seas. Given the uncertainties around the stock structure, an assessment unit is considered according to the second hypothesis (single shared stock). Five managements unit are considered within (SPRFMO 2016)

  • The 1) Ecuadorian fishery, managed as part of a more general pelagic fishery within the Ecuadorian EEZ (used only for human consumption) (GdE 2014);
  • The 2) Peruvian fishery, which is managed as part of a Jack mackerel, mackerel and sardine fishery directed exclusively for direct human consumption taking place almost entirely within the Peruvian EEZ (El Peruano 2017);  
  • The 3) northern (XV-II regions) and 4) the central-southern Chilean (III-X regions) fisheries (mainly to produce fishmeal) managed as separate management units, being the northern fishery mostly within the Chilean EEZ and the central-southern Chilean fishery within the Chilean EEZ and straddling the adjacent high sea (Quiroz 2017);     
  • The purely 5) high seas fishery (all pelagic trawlers for human consumption only), a multinational fishery managed entirely within the context of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) by the member countries and non-contracting parties.

ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Since 2010, the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization is conducting a joint jack mackerel assessment and since 2013, global catch limits are agreed for the high seas in accordance with scientific recommendations.
  • A recovery plan has been adopted in 2014.
  • The stock assessment model continues to be revised and improved. Data, information and decisions from all fishing countries are integrated in the assessment process.
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing and is well below the target level.
  • The spawning stock increased around 25% comparing to last years and is now above the MSY level. 
  • A project is underway to advance toward an Ecosystem-Based Approach.
  • Joint efforts are in place to control illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – list of IUU vessels, a Commission Vessel Monitoring System is being implemented and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program .
  • Bycatch rates of commercial species appear to be low in most fleets, but comprehensive lists of bycatch species are not known to be produced.
  • No interactions of the fishery with protected species are reported but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.
Weaknesses
  • Although efforts have continued to elucidate the stock structure, conclusive evidence is not available and further research is required, e.g. tagging experiments. Uncertainties on stock assessment are as well related to data ageing and recruitment estimates.
  • The Peruvian TAC (for national waters) summed up to the Convention Area TAC slightly overpasses what was agreed as a limit under the SPRFMO for the whole assessment unit.
  • The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation or defined TAC for the national fishery could not be located. 
  • Reference points are provisional and a harvest control rule is not yet in place.
  • Important environmental events, such as the strong 2015-2016 El Niño, influences the spatial distribution of Jack mackerel, but effects on the overall population productivity is unclear.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

8.1

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with scientists to support the continuous improvements underway in stock assessment and research on stock structure and especially the effects of environmental variability on the population.
  • Encourage the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to set biological reference points and harvest control rules that consider the species role in the ecosystem.
  • Encourage SPRFMO members and cooperating non-members to fully implement and comply with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures.
  • Push the Government of Peru to set their domestic TAC within the agreed catch limit for coastal countries.
  • Encourage the Government of Ecuador to publish their scientific advice.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Chile Purse Seine jack mackerel jurel:

    MSC Full Assessment

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
SE Pacific Central-southern Chile EEZ and high seas Chile Purse seines
Ecuador EEZ Ecuador Purse seines
Northern Chile EEZ Chile Purse seines
Peru EEZ Peru Purse seines
SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
China Midwater trawls
Peru Midwater trawls
Vanuatu Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Strengths
  • Since 2010, the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization is conducting a joint jack mackerel assessment and since 2013, global catch limits are agreed for the high seas in accordance with scientific recommendations.
  • A recovery plan has been adopted in 2014.
  • The stock assessment model continues to be revised and improved. Data, information and decisions from all fishing countries are integrated in the assessment process.
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing and is well below the target level.
  • The spawning stock increased around 25% comparing to last years and is now above the MSY level. 
  • A project is underway to advance toward an Ecosystem-Based Approach.
  • Joint efforts are in place to control illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – list of IUU vessels, a Commission Vessel Monitoring System is being implemented and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program .
  • Bycatch rates of commercial species appear to be low in most fleets, but comprehensive lists of bycatch species are not known to be produced.
  • No interactions of the fishery with protected species are reported but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.
Weaknesses
  • Although efforts have continued to elucidate the stock structure, conclusive evidence is not available and further research is required, e.g. tagging experiments. Uncertainties on stock assessment are as well related to data ageing and recruitment estimates.
  • The Peruvian TAC (for national waters) summed up to the Convention Area TAC slightly overpasses what was agreed as a limit under the SPRFMO for the whole assessment unit.
  • The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation or defined TAC for the national fishery could not be located. 
  • Reference points are provisional and a harvest control rule is not yet in place.
  • Important environmental events, such as the strong 2015-2016 El Niño, influences the spatial distribution of Jack mackerel, but effects on the overall population productivity is unclear.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 7 August 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with scientists to support the continuous improvements underway in stock assessment and research on stock structure and especially the effects of environmental variability on the population.
  • Encourage the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to set biological reference points and harvest control rules that consider the species role in the ecosystem.
  • Encourage SPRFMO members and cooperating non-members to fully implement and comply with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures.
  • Push the Government of Peru to set their domestic TAC within the agreed catch limit for coastal countries.
  • Encourage the Government of Ecuador to publish their scientific advice.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Since 2010, a joint Jack mackerel stock assessment has been conducted, including fisheries independent and dependent data from each fishing country in a statistical catch-at-age model performed by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO)’s Scientific Committee (SC). The models run consider the two working hypotheses on stock structure: 1) two separate stocks, Peruvian/northern stock and Chilean/southern stock that straddle the high seas; 2) a single shared stock that straddles the high seas. Hypothesis 2 has been used as the basis for the advice, as it provides a more precautionary biomass estimate.  There are recent concerns, based on the evidence of life history stage differences, of the possible existence of different stocks so further research including more and broader samples is recommended to be conducted (SPRFMO 2017)

A complete assessment will only be performed in 2018, benchmarks are realized every two years. In 2017 an update was pursued while “adding in new information without extensive model re-specifications” and evaluating past year’s recommendations. Similar trends in biomass have been resulted while using both 1-stock and 2-stock models (SPRFMO 2017). Input data included updates catches for each country (2016 and preliminary 2017); acoustic survey results from Chile (north and central-southern) and Peru; Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) from Chile, Peru, China and EU; other indices from Chile and Russia (Quiroz 2017)

Peru and Chile have adopted the stock assessment model used by the SPRFMO to assess Jack mackerel within their jurisdictional waters:

  • Peru’s Marine Institute (IMARPE) has not made publicly available the last two years' assessment reports but the current status of the resource is available (IMARPE 2017);
  • Chile’s Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP) reports are available upon request (IFOP 2016; PRODUCE 2017;(SPRFMO 2017) (Quiroz 2017)
  • It is not known if Ecuador’s Fisheries National Institue (INP) conducts any stock assessment and any annual report summary was provided by the country to the Scientific Committee (SPRFMO 2017).

Besides the population structure, the main source of uncertainty is ageing estimates of Jack mackerel (SPRFMO 2016). Lack of independent abundance indicators has become a necessity, since the evaluation model is mainly based on the CPUE of the south central Chile fleet and the Chinese vessels CPUE (IFOP 2016). As an alternative approach, an analysis of Peruvian acoustic activities aboard fishing vessels was conducted. The acoustic data is useful to assessment data of several species of fish and squids, and of macro zooplankton; as well to detect the upper limit of minimum oxygen zone; internal waves and other physical structures; the vertical migration of fish and plankton; and calculate the volume of the pelagic habitat. The goal of this project is to advance towards an Ecosystem-Based Approach (SPRFMO 2016). Current uncertainties in the assessment are associated with recruitment estimates but are not fully described. Variability is found in age-determination methods (SPRFMO 2017)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The Scientific Committee (SC) of the SPRFMO meets yearly in the annual meeting. Scientific recommendations combine data and decisions of experts of each fishing country, based on the joint assessment results. Since 2011, two advised Total Allowable Catch (TAC) have been proposed: one for the whole stock and another for the SPRFMO Convention area (where members and non-contracting parties operate) (SPRFMO 2017).

Medium and long-term projections were run from the selected model under varying recruitment (average from 1970-2013 or from 2000-2013) and productivity scenarios. Based on the rebuilding plan for Jack mackerel and given the stock status, catches could be potentially increased but considering the uncertainties in the assessment and under the one stock hypothesis, the SC adopted the precautionary approach and recommended catches for 2018 at or below 576,000 tonnes for the entire range of the stock and at 517,782 tonnes under the SPRFMO convention area and Chilean fisheries operating in their national waters (SPRFMO 2017). Catch proportions for each of the members and CNPs are agreed. 

The SC recommended that age validation work continue to be pursued, as analysis and validation of juvenile growth is a key information gap; for this a tagging experiment was suggested. As well, the SC recommended supporting the Fishery dependent acoustic initiative and suggested the design of a joint synoptic survey using data collected along the normal tracks of properly equipped and calibrated fishing vessels (SPRFMO 2016). Exchange of samples among countries are as well recommended by the SC to determine differences in growth curves and ageing techniques. Sampling of data was agreed to be improved to help to determine the stock structure (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The Scientific Committee for the Pelagic Jack mackerel fishery (Comité Científico de Pesquería Pelágica de Jurel, CCT-J) did not agree on the results presented by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee (SC) given uncertainties associated with spawning biomass and resilience of the resource. Some of the participant scientists (3) argue that the results do not represent the current status of the stock and defend an over-exploitation condition while the majority of the scientists (4) agree with the SC and the fully exploited status. In line with the voting results of the CCT-J and the Chilean law, the precautionary advised TAC for the entire stock is between 460,800 - 576,000 tonnes (CCT-J 2017)

Last updated on 10 July 2018

The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation for the national fishery could not be located. 

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The Scientific Committee for the Pelagic Jack mackerel fishery (Comité Científico de Pesquería Pelágica de Jurel, CCT-J) did not agree on the results presented by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee (SC) given uncertainties associated with spawning biomass and resilience of the resource. Some of the participant scientists (3) argue that the results do not represent the current status of the stock and defend an over-exploitation condition while the majority of the scientists (4) agree with the SC and the fully exploited status. In line with the voting results of the CCT-J and the Chilean law, the precautionary advised TAC for the entire stock is between 460,800 - 576,000 tonnes (CCT-J 2017).

Last updated on 28 June 2018

IMARPE, basing the advice in the same statistical model used by SPRFMO and in the MSY approach, recommended to maintain F at 0.0134 (average applied in F2015-2017) and to not overpass the reference of doubling this average F (F=0.0270); however no absolute landings values were made available (IMARPE 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Medium and long-term projections were run from the selected model under varying recruitment (average from 1970-2013 or from 2000-2013) and productivity scenarios. Based on the rebuilding plan for Jack mackerel and given the stock status, catches could be potentially increased but considering the uncertainties in the assessment and under the one stock hypothesis, the SC adopted the precautionary approach and recommended catches for 2018 at or below 576,000 tonnes for the entire range of the stock and at 517,782 tonnes under the SPRFMO Convention area and Chilean fisheries operating in their national waters (SPRFMO 2017). Catch proportions for each of the members and CNPs are agreed. 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Conditions for the jack mackerel stock in its entire distribution range in the SE Pacific shows a continued recovery in 2017, since the time-series low in 2010.

  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing since 2011. Like in 2016, current F (=0.073) is estimated to be well below the dynamic estimated FMSY level, at 0.197 in 2017.
  • Spawning biomass has been increasing gradually in the last 10 years. It is estimated at 5,294 tonnes in 2017, being at or just above the interim dynamic BMSY reference point estimated at 5,198 tonnes.
  • Despite high uncertainty, recruitment in the most recent years has been showing signs of stronger incoming year-classes but indicators of 2017 recruitment continues to be positive (Quiroz 2017)(SPRFMO 2017). 
  • Total landings in 2017 for the entire stock area are preliminary estimated at 402,051 tonnes (SPRFMO 2017), above the previous year's level. 

Environmental conditions (e.g., strong El Niño 2015-2016) likely affect Jack mackerel distribution and thus age-specific vulnerability to surveys and fisheries. This may have affected the Chilean northern acoustic survey and those conducted in Peruvian waters.The effect of such environmental changes in the overall population productivity is unclear (SPRFMO 2016; SPRFMO 2016) (Quiroz 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Central-southern Chile catches (fleet 2; purse seines operating in national and high seas waters) are preliminary estimated at 311,863 tonnes in 2017 (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Ecuadorian catches (fleet 3; coastal purse seines operating in Ecuadorian and Peruvian waters) have been oscillating in the past years and were zero in 2016 and 2017 (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Northern Chile catches (fleet 1; coastal purse seines operating in national waters) are preliminary estimated at 35,000 tonnes in 2017 (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Peru operates within 2 fleets (fleet 3; coastal purse seines operating in Peruvian and Ecuadorian waters and fleet 4; offshore trawl fleet operating solely in the SPRFMO area). Catches in national waters are preliminary estimated at 5,186 tonnes in 2017 and at zero tones within the SPRFMO area (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Total catches within the SPRFMO area are preliminary at 402,051 tonnes in 2017 (SPRFMO 2017)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Management of Jack mackerel at the high seas is officially organized through the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization since 2013 (SPRFMO, 2015d). Currently an overall TAC is agreed by the SPRFMO for the whole stock, with part of that bound under a Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) applying to the international waters under SPRFMO’s jurisdiction and also to Chilean national waters due to its express consent (SPRFMO, 2015a). Catch limits can be transferred between countries.

Overall catches for the entire stock were agreed to not exceed 576,000 tonnes (SPRFMO 2018), in line with the Scientific Committee’s recommendation (SPRFMO 2017); catch percentages are established for each member/CNCP (SPRFMO 2018).

The Peruvian TAC (75,000 t), when added to the Convention Area TAC (517,582 t), slightly overpasses what was agreed under the SPRFMO for the whole stock (SPRFMO 2018)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Chile set firstly a quota in 1999. The Chilean total TAC for 2018 was set at 371,887 tonnes and the partial quota for the industrial fishery operating in the central-southern area (III-X regions) has been increasing and was defined at 278,538 tonnes (MEFT 2017). This global Chilean TAC is within what was recommended by the Scientific Committee of the SPRFMO (SPRFMO 2017), IFOP (Quiroz 2017) and CCT-J (CCT-J 2017). SPRFMO established a proportion of the global TAC for Chile at 64.5638% (SPRFMO 2017) which is coincident with the mentioned catch limit defined by the Chilean government. 

A management plan was officially approved in December 2017, aiming to "recover and maintain the biological jack mackerel fishery, economically, socially and ecologically at sustainable levels", in line with the Chilean General Fisheries and Aquaculture law. Based in the precautionary approach, goals and milestones in each dimension are strategically defined, as well as indicators and correspondent management measures and actions. The discarding reduction plan specific for the fishery is likely to be published in 2019 as a research program is in progress to identify and quantify discards of the fishery. The fishery is deeply described. Catch composition, interactions with the ecosystem and trophic relationships are identified as priorities to be studied (SUBPESCA 2017). But there is no harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit biomass reference point.

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Ecuador was a Cooperating Non-Contracting Party (CNCPs) and became a member of the SPRFMO in May 2015. Both Ecuador and Peru implicitly agreed that the sum of their national catch limits within their own jurisdiction not exceed 50,000 tonnes for 2017. No information could be located on whether Ecuador sets a national quota.

Ecuador decided in 2014 that Jack mackerel catches can only be used for human consumption. Other technical measures are described (GdE 2014)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Chile set firstly a quota in 1999. The Chilean total TAC for 2018 was set at 371,887 tonnes and the partial quota for the industrial fishery operating in the northern area (XV-II regions) has been increasing and was defined at 51,884 tonnes (MEFT 2017). This global Chilean TAC is within what was recommended by the Scientific Committee of the SPRFMO (SPRFMO 2017), IFOP (Quiroz 2017) and CCT-J (CCT-J 2017). SPRFMO established a proportion of the global TAC for Chile at 64.5638% (SPRFMO 2017) which is coincident with the mentioned catch limit defined by the Chilean government. 

A management plan was officially approved in December 2017, aiming to "recover and maintain the biological jack mackerel fishery, economically, socially and ecologically at sustainable levels", in line with the Chilean General Fisheries and Aquaculture law. Based in the precautionary approach, goals and milestones in each dimension are strategically defined, as well as indicators and correspondent management measures and actions. The discarding reduction plan specific for the fishery is likely to be published in 2019 as a research program is in progress to identify and quantify discards of the fishery. The fishery is deeply described. Catch composition, interactions with the ecosystem and trophic relationships are identified as priorities to be studied (SUBPESCA 2017). But there is no harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit biomass reference point.

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Peru first set a quota for jack mackerel in 1995. The country was a Cooperating Non-Contracting Party (CNCPs) and became a member of the SPRFMO in January 2016. Both Ecuador and Peru implicitly agreed that the sum of their national catch limits within their own jurisdiction not exceed 50,000 tonnes in 2017. However, Peru set a national TAC of 100,000 tonnes for 2017, reportedly in line with IMARPE’s recommendation (PRODUCE 2017). The 2018 unilateral quota for the fishery operating within national waters was defined by PRODUCE at 75,000 tonnes (El Peruano 2017).

The Peruvian fishery of Jack mackerel is managed as part of a small pelagics fishery jointly with mackerel and sardine fishery directed exclusively for direct human consumption taking place almost entirely within the Peruvian EEZ (El Peruano 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

An agreed catch limit was set at 517,582 tonnes for 2018, applicable to the Convention Area (outside the coastal states’ EEZ) and to Chilean fisheries within the Chilean EEZ; a tonnage is assigned to each member/CNCP as in this table (SPRFMO 2018).

There are some mandatory measures for members and CNCPs, agreed by the SPRFMO:

  • Monthly catches per fishing gear need to be reported within 20 days of the end of the month in an appropriate template;
  • Annual reports should also be submitted;
  • A vessel monitoring system (VMS) should be implement in all member and non-contracting parties fleets;
  • Authorized and active vessels need to be reported;
  • Stock assessments and any research related to the stock should be shared;
  • Until the implementation of an Observer programme each country should cover 10% of the fleet by scientific observers using Data standards methodology. 

A Rebuilding and Conservation plan was adopted in 2014 with an interim objective of reaching 80% of BMSY and a long-term objective of achieving BMSY (SPRFMO, 2014a,b). This included a preliminary set of guidelines for defining a default harvest control rule (HCR) and for quota definition in the meanwhile. Different HCR were tested under a range of population and stock structure hypotheses and results have been under discussion (SPRFMO, 2015d), but no update was reported on this issue in the last scientific committee meeting nor commission meeting (SPRFMO 2016) (SPRFMO 2017). Still, advised TAC is based on the rebuilding plan guidelines (SPRFMO 2017)

Ecuador claimed an increase (to 6,500 tonnes) of the partial quota established under the CCM at 0.2391% (of 576,000 tonnes) (SPRFMO 2018) arguing the intention to increase the fishery. The SPRFMO did not agree with this request but the Permanent Court of Arbitration presented 4 alternatives, favoring this increase (Permanent Court of Arbitration 2018). Ecuadorian catches are only used for direct human consumption, as defined by a national law (GdE 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 28 June 2018

Landings have decreased significantly in recent years. Proposals of the European Commission (EC) were used by the SPRFMO to diminish IUU fishing (EC, 2013). The Commission Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) is being implemented (SPRFMO 2017) and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program (SPRFMO 2016)(SPRFMO 2017).

There are some instances of non-compliance with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures, particularly as to timely reporting. There has been an improvement in compliance across all but one measure, the reporting of vessels which have participated in fishing activities in the Convention Area. Measures for which compliance has significantly improved are the ones related to Chilean jack mackerel quota, data standards and seabird mitigation (SPRFMO 2017).

A list of vessels conducting Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) activities was adopted at the 3rd SPRFMO Commission meeting in 2015 and has been published since then. Inclusion in the list refer in all cases to fishing in the SPRFMO Convention Area without authorisation (SPRFMO, 2016a; SPRFMO 2017). In 2016 catches were at 388 thousand tonnes, below the TAC defined at 460 thousand tonnes. Preliminary 2017 catches were at 402 thousand tonnes (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The jack mackerel fishery management plan established 2 specific compliance goals to be monitored in 2017: quotas and access to the fishery (SUBPESCA 2017)

In 2017 the Chilean total TAC was defined at 320,450 tonnes (MEFT 2016), slightly above SPRFMO’s recommendation and agreement at 317,300 tonnes (SPRFMO 2017). A 2017 partial quota for the central-southern unit (III-X regions) was set at 239,990 tonnes (MEFT 2016) and reported landings are preliminary above, at 311,863 tonnes (SPRFMO 2017)

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The jack mackerel fishery management plan established 2 specific compliance goals to be monitored in 2017: cuotas and access to the fishery (SUBPESCA 2017)

In 2017 the Chilean total TAC was defined at 320,450 tonnes (MEFT 2016), slightly above SPRFMO’s recommendation and agreement at 317,300 tonnes (SPRFMO 2017). A 2017 partial quota for the northern unit (XV-II regions) was set at 44,704 tonnes (MEFT 2016) and reported landings are preliminary below, at 35,002 tonnes (SPRFMO 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 8 March 2015

The level of interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species appears to be low but it is unclear if reporting is adequate. Observers collected data on seabird sightings from an EU vessel in 2014 – over 5900 birds were sighted from 12 taxa, but no catches were observed, as was reported for 2013 (Corten, 2014). The standards for collecting observer coverage are to undergo revision, including reporting of oceanic shark bycatch but no reports of seabird, mammal, reptile or oceanic shark bycatch have been associated with jack mackerel fisheries (SPRFMO, 2014h).

The SPRFMO Scientific Committee recommended the use of a recently approved protocol (SPRFMO, 2015d). Guidelines to seabird bycatch mitigation measures were issued in April 2016 (SPRFMO, 2016b): members and CNCPs shall record data on all interactions with seabirds through existing observer programs and report these data annually to the Secretariat, report annually seabird mitigation measures used by each vessel as well as level of observer coverage focused on recording seabird bycatch. These data recording requirements were also added into the standard management measure for the Collection, Reporting, Verification and Exchange of Data (SPRFMO, 2016c).

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In Chile, sightings of seabird species present in samples on board purse seine boats have been recorded by Fisheries Research Fund projects; seabird bycatch statistics for many fisheries are also reported to the ACAP Data Portal but no information is available for the jack mackerel fisheries, and mitigation measures for purse seine fleets are under-researched (Garcia, 2014). Unlike purse-seine fishing in other regions, the incidence of dolphins in jack mackerel catches is infrequent. Notwithstanding this, existing regulations restrict the use of trawl nets of any size and regulate the use of purse seines (height and mesh size) and large gillnets in coastal areas as specified in decrees N° 48/1986 and N° 45/1990 and in Article 49 of the Fisheries Act.

The level of interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species appears to be low but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In Chile, sightings of seabird species present in samples on board purse seine boats have been recorded by Fisheries Research Fund projects; seabird bycatch statistics for many fisheries are also reported to the ACAP Data Portal but no information is available for the jack mackerel fisheries, and mitigation measures for purse seine fleets are under-researched (Garcia, 2014). Unlike purse-seine fishing in other regions, the incidence of dolphins in jack mackerel catches is infrequent. Notwithstanding this, existing regulations restrict the use of trawl nets of any size and regulate the use of purse seines (height and mesh size) and large gillnets in coastal areas as specified in decrees N° 48/1986 and N° 45/1990 and in Article 49 of the Fisheries Act.

The level of interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species appears to be low but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.

Other Species

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The fishery for jack mackerel is generally a monospecific fishery. In the offshore fishery the catch consists for 90 – 98% of jack mackerel, with minor by-catches of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and Southern rays bream (Brama australis) (SPRFMO, 2015c).

An Assessment of the Impact of Fishing on Non-target, Associated or Dependent Species is being undertaken for all fishing fleets operating in the Convention area, including an observers’ program and ecological risk assessments (ERAs) to determine the impact of the fishery on bycatch species (SPRFMO, 2013a). No progress on this project was found in SPRFMO website.

Most countries list bycatch of other commercial species caught in their fisheries but complete bycatch lists are not known to exist (SPRFMO, 2016c). Peruvian fleets report minor bycatches of chub mackerel in the high seas.

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In the south, chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is the main bycatch of the jack mackerel fishery, constituting around 1% of catches (national reports can be found here) (MEFT, 2016b). More complete lists of bycatch species, including non-commercial species, could not be located.

Ecuador
Purse seines

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The small pelagic purse seine fishery in Ecuador also targets thread herring (Opisthonema spp.), chub mackerel, Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus), Frigate tuna (Auxis spp.), Round herring (Etrumeus teres), sardine (Sardinops sagax) and anchovy (Engraulis ringens).

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In order to reduce and/or mitigate interference among fisheries and/or discards, an annual decree regarding the TAC establishes the bycatch allowance for this resource throughout the fishery unit, generally at 5% per trip (SUBPESCA, 2015a; 2015b).

The northern Chilean fleets mainly caught jack mackerel as bycatch in the fishery targeting anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) in 2014. The anchoveta artisanal fishery has a limit of 5% in catch of jack mackerel bycatch (MEFT, 2016b). 

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 March 2015

Purse-seines and pelagic trawls are not expected to interact with the seabed ecosystem (SPRFMO, 2013d). Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) are being identified and mapped according to indicator species such as stony corals, gorgonians, soft corals and sponges (SPRFMO, 2013a). Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) have been identified within the convention area and may require conservation measures (SPRFMO, 2014b).

No conservation measure on EBSAs was issued regarding purse seine and pelagic trawl fisheries, however a wide ban for large-scale pelagic driftnets and all deepwater gillnets in the Convention Area is in force since 2013 and guidelines for bottom trawl were recently agreed to identify and avoid VMEs (SPRFMO, 2016e,f).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 08 Mar 2015

Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are implemented at the country level. No closures of VMEs or EBSAs have yet been implemented in the SPRFMO convention area (SPRFMO, 2014b), but studies focused on bottom trawl fisheries are in progress (SPRFMO, 2015d; 2016f) .

As of December 2009, there are two marine reserves in Peru: Paracas Marine Reserve – extension of 335,000 ha of which 65% correspond to sea waters, created to protect wildlife, especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin; the National Reserve of Islands, Islets and Guano Headlands System – contains 22 islands and islets and 11 headlands (140,833 ha) and was created to preserve the continuity of the biological cycle of species that inhabit it and to help preserve fish stocks which straddle its vicinity (Cedepesca, 2010; CPPS, 2010).

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In Chile, purse seines can reach dimensions of 173 m depth by 1760 m length. In general, the impact of this fishing gear on the seafloor is not a subject under technical or scientific debate, since these nets are usually deployed at greater depths, where bottom contact does not occur. However, there is no consensus about the selectivity of this gear for smaller-size individuals of the same jack mackerel target resource or the incidence or incidental catch of other fish species. This debate has raised mainly among artisanal and industrial stakeholders and has been tackled by the authority after the industrial fleet was excluded from the 5-mile artisanal reserve zone, and supplemented with on-board use of the positioning device.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 28 Jun 2018

In 1991, a reserve zone for artisanal fishing was established by law in Chile, consisting of a 5-nautical-mile zone measured from the coast and spanning from the I Region in the North to the X Region in the South and around the oceanic islands and inland waters. However, since 2006 the industrial fleet has been granted permission to fish jack mackerel and small pelagics for fishmeal production with purse seine gear within the artisanal reserve zone of the III and IV Regions.

There are five marine reserves established in Chile: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Puliinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

Last updated on 28 June 2018

In Chile, purse seines can reach dimensions of 173 m depth by 1760 m length. In general, the impact of this fishing gear on the seafloor is not a subject under technical or scientific debate, since these nets are usually deployed at greater depths, where bottom contact does not occur. However, there is no consensus about the selectivity of this gear for smaller-size individuals of the same jack mackerel target resource or the incidence or incidental catch of other fish species. This debate has raised mainly among artisanal and industrial stakeholders and has been tackled by the authority after the industrial fleet was excluded from the 5-mile artisanal reserve zone, and supplemented with on-board use of the positioning device.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 28 Jun 2018

In 1991, a reserve zone for artisanal fishing was established by law in Chile, consisting of a 5-nautical-mile zone measured from the coast and spanning from the I Region in the North to the X Region in the South and around the oceanic islands and inland waters. However, since 2006 the industrial fleet has been granted permission to fish jack mackerel and small pelagics for fishmeal production with purse seine gear within the artisanal reserve zone of the III and IV Regions.

There are five marine reserves established in Chile: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Puliinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 12 July 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The precautionary approach is assumed by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO), which has started to conduct joint assessments, pooling data and expertise from all countries fishing the resource in the assessment unit area. The fishery is regulated by a global agreed catch limit for high seas and the Chilean EEZ, and by a Peruvian unilateral quota within its EEZ; a quota for the Ecuadorian EEZ could not be located. A recovery plan was adopted in 2014 but reference points are still provisional and the proposed harvest control rules are under discussion (SPRFMO, 2015d).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

The stock assessment considers the whole assessment unit, as well as catches from all fishing countries operating for this resource. Under the SPRFMO, two TACs are recommended for 2018 (as in previous years): one for the whole assessment unit (576,000 t) and a second one for the SPRFMO Convention Area (at 517,582 t; excluding both Peruvian and Ecuadorian EEZ that unilaterally define their own TACs). Two set TACs are agreed under the SPRFMO as well, one for each of the areas. The Peruvian TAC (75,000 t) was added to the Convention Area TAC (517,582 t) and this sum slightly overpasses (by 3%) what was agreed under the SPRFMO for the whole stock (SPRFMO, 2018). It is not known if there is a national quota established for Ecuador, but reported catches have been minimal or zero in the last years (SPRFMO 2017b).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Reported landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Reported landings is 402 (' 000 t). The Set TAC is 543 ('000 t) .

The underlying Reported landings/Set TAC for this index is 74.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 8.1.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the Bmsy.

The SSB is 5290 ('000 t). The Bmsy is 5200 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/Bmsy for this index is 102%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the Fmsy.

The F is 0.0730 (age-averaged). The Fmsy is 0.197 .

The underlying F/Fmsy for this index is 37.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Score about the Management strategy has been determined qualitatively based on available information, as a harvest control rule has not been adopted yet.
  2. The stock assessment considers the whole assessment unit, as well as catches from all fishing countries operating for this resource. Under the SPRFMO, two TACs are recommended for 2018 (as in previous years): one for the whole assessment unit (576,000 t) and a second one for the SPRFMO Convention Area (at 517,582 t; excluding both Peruvian and Ecuadorian EEZ that unilaterally define their own TACs). As agreed by the members and the Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties (CNCPs) the global TAC for 2018 was set at 576,000 tonnes for the entire stock and catches should not overpass 517,582 tonnes within the SPRFMO convention area (SPRFMO 2018). Given the Ecuadorian TAC for national waters could not be located and the Peruvian advised TAC is a qualitative recommendation for 2018, a qualitative score for Managers Compliance was determined.
  3. Catch data are from the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO) report and combine data from the 4 fleets that operate for the resource and are considered in the assessment. Fleet 1: coastal purse seine fishery in northern Chile (XV-II regions); fleet 2: purse seine fishery in central-south Chile that extends into the high seas (III-X regions); fleet 3: the far-north coastal purse seine fisheries occurring in the EEZ’s and Territorial waters of Ecuador and Peru (Cook Islands, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Russia Federation); fleet 4: the offshore trawl fleet operating solely in the SPRFMO area (Belize, China, Cuba, European Union with Netherlands, Germany and Lithuania, Faroe Islands, Japan, Korea, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Vanuatu). The value for 2017 catch is preliminary (SPRFMO 2017) but was used for the stock assessment thus was included in the data sheet, making score about Fishers compliance correspondent to 2017.
  4. Fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB) and respective FMSY and SSBMSY reference points time-series are from the 2017 IFOP report (Quiroz 2017) since these were not available in any of the SPRFMO documents but only as graphs. These are coincident with those from the SPRFMO’s Scientific Committee, which uses data, information and expertise from all fishing countries (SPRFMO 2017)(SPRFMO 2017)(SPRFMO 2017)
  5. In line with the assessment model and methods agreed under the SPRFMO, F and SSB reference points are considered as dynamic and determined each year according to exploitation patterns and average weight (Quiroz 2017)

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Chile Purse Seine jack mackerel jurel

STATUS

MSC Full Assessment

Sources

Credits
  1. Ashford, J., Serra, R., Saavedra, J.C., Letelier, J. 2011. Otolith chemistry indicates large-scale connectivity in Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), a highly mobile species in the Southern Pacific Ocean, Fisheries Research 107(1–3): 291–299http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783610002973
  2. Canales, 2014. Harvest control rule for Jack mackerel rebuilding: a preliminary evaluation.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-JM-09-Harvest-control-rule-for-Jack-mackerel-rebuilding-a-preliminary-evaluation.pdf
  3. Canales, C., 2012a. Puntos Biológicos de Referencia (PBR) del jurel. Reunion CC jurel. 21, 22 August 2012. 16 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sitios.ifop.cl/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=35dc4ea0-b0c3-468a-9d6d-15295117269b&groupId=35476
  4. Canales, C. 2013. Harvest control rule for the recovery of the jack mackerel stock at the South Eastern Pacific (SC-01-05), 1st Meeting of the Scientific Committee, La Jolla, United States of America, 21-27 October 2013, 10 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Scientific-Committee-1st-2/Plenary/SC-01-05-Harvest-control-rule-for-the-recovery-of-the-jack-mackerel-stock-at-the-South-Eastern-Pacific.pdf
  5. Cárdenas, L., Silva, A. X., Magoulas, A., Cabezas, J., Poulin, E., Ojeda, F.P. Genetic population structure in the Chilean jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi (Nichols) across the South-eastern Pacific Ocean, Fisheries Research 100: 109–115http://www.captura.uchile.cl/bitstream/handle/2250/132070/Cardenas_Leyla.pdf?sequence=1
  6. CCL, 2012. Informe de la 2ra. Reunión del Comité Científico de Jurel (CCJ). Report no. CCJ_2012-02. November 2012. Viña de Mar, Chile. 7 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sitios.ifop.cl/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=59c8aeb5-b32e-4fb6-81d6-28a7e107ee2e&groupId=35476
  7. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010. Anchoveta (sur del Perú/norte de Chile) Engraulis ringens: Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería [in spanish]. Mar del Plata, Argentina, December 2010, 20 pp.http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/anchoveta_stock_sur_Peru-norte_Chile_Informe_CeDePesca_diciembre_2010.pdf
  8. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2013. CEDEPESCA’s considerations about the management of the Chilean Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) FISHERY IN 2013: Efforts to ensure recovery in 10 years must continue. Report no. COMM-01-OBS-01. 1st Commission Meeting of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation. 28 January - 1 February 2013. Auckland, New Zealand. 4 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Commission-Meeting-1st/COMM-01-OBS-01-CeDePescaTrachurusmurphyi2013-management-considerations.pdf
  9. Chilean Fisheries General Office websitehttp://www.subpesca.cl/
  10. Chilean Fisheries National Service websitehttp://www.sernapesca.cl/
  11. Chilean Fisheries Research Institute websitehttp://www.inpesca.cl/
  12. Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur (CPPS), 2010. Red Nacional de Áreas marinas y costeras protegidas del Pacífico Sudeste, Secretaría Ejectuva del Plan de Acción para la protección del Medio Marino y Áreas Costeras del Pacífico Sudeste (Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru), Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, 26 p. http://www.cpps-int.org/spanish/planaccion/docs2010/Red.regional.AMCP.PSE.version2010.pdf
  13. Corten, A., 2014. 2nd Meeting of the Scientific Committee Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 1-7 October 2014 SC-02-04. European Union Annual National Report.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-04-EU-Annual-Report.pdf
  14. DRNRB, 2011. Las Áreas Protegidas de Chile: Antecedentes, Institucionalidad, Estadísticas y Desafíos. División de Recursos Naturales Renovables y Biodiversidad (DRNRB). Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. May 2011. Chile. 35 pp. (In Spanish).http://www.mma.gob.cl/1304/articles-50613_pdf.pdf
  15. Dto. Extento. N° 1925/2009. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2010. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. 24 December 2009. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=8506
  16. European Commission (EC), 2013. Fisheries: The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO), a new organisation responsible for managing straddling stocks, kicks off in Auckland [Accessed 17 March 2014]http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/mare/itemdetail.cfm?item_id=9560
  17. European Commission (EC), 2014. SPRFMO strengthens commitment to sustainability with measures on Jack Mackerel and bottom fishing [Accessed 17 March 2014] http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/mare/itemdetail.cfm?item_id=14168
  18. Garcia, M., 2014. Overview of the fisheries and seabird bycatch in Chile. 2nd Meeting of the Scientific Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 1-7 October 2014. SC-02-19_rev1 https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-19-rev1-Overview-of-the-fisheries-and-seabird-bycatch-in-Chile.pdf
  19. Gerlotto, F., Gutérrez, M., Bertrand, A. 2012. Insight on population structure of the Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), Aquatic Living Resources 25: 341–355http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FALR%2FALR25_04%2FS0990744012000368a.pdf&code=abd9bf1f5757ce565e74d9e8bd98cb77
  20. Hintzen, N.T., T. Brunel, M.-E. Guele, 2014. Management Plan evaluations for Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyii) – evaluating the adopted rebuilding plan.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-JM-04-Evaluating-the-adopted-Jack-mackerel-rebuilding-plan.pdf
  21. IFOP, 2015. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2016. Jurel, 2016 August 2015. 81 pp. Available upon request in http://www.portaltransparencia.cl/PortalPdT/ingreso-sai-v2?idOrg=843
  22. IMARPE, 2014. Desarollo de le pesquería de jurel durante el 2013, situación actual del recurso y perspectivas de explotación para el 2014.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_jure_2014_perspe.pdf
  23. Instituto Nacional de Pesca (INP), 2011. Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) in Ecuadorian waters, Small Pelagics Fisheries Program, Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuacultura y Pesca, 10 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/11th-SWG-and-10th-DIWG-meetings/SWG-11/SWG-11-11-Ecuador-ed.pdf
  24. International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN), 2012b. Proceedings of the Members’ Assembly of the World Conservation Congress, 6-15 September, Korea. 77pp.https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/2012_iucn_members__assembly_proceedings.pdf
  25. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2013. Decreto Exento nº 1413 establece cuota anual de captura para unidades de pesquería de jurel regiones XV-II, III-IV, V-IX, XIV-X sometidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2014, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 3 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82137_documento.pdf
  26. MEFT, 2013. Fija el texto refundido, coordinado y sistematizado de la Ley N° 18.892, de 1989 y sus modificaciones, Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (texto actualizado incorpora modificación Ley N°20.657). Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso, Chile. 186 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-516_documento.pdf
  27. MEFT, 2014. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Resolución Exenta N° 946. Establece programa de investigación del descarte para pesquerías de anchoveta, sardina común y su fauna acompañante. Valparaíso, 3 Abril 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82860_documento.pdf
  28. MEFT, 2015a. Dec. Ex. N° 1142-2015 Establece Cuota Anual de Captura recurso Jurel XV-II, III-IV, V-IX y XIV-X, Sometidas a Licencias Transables de Pesca 2015. December 2015.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-91814_documento.pdf
  29. MEFT, 2015b. R EX N° 524-2015 Autoriza Programa de Investigación del Descarte para Pesquerías Industriales de Jurel y su Fauna Acompañante, V-X Regiones y aguas Internacionales. February 2015. 3 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-87044_documento.pdf
  30. MEFT, 2016a. Dec. Ex. N° 121-2016 Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Modifica Dec. Ex. N° 1142-2015 Establece Cuota Anual de Captura recurso Jurel XV-II, III-IV, V-IX y XIV-X, Sometidas a Licencias Transables de Pesca 2015. 10 March 2016. 2 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-92520_documento.pdf
  31. MEFT, 2016b. Dec. Ex. Nº 22-2016 Establece Porcentaje de Desembarque de Especies como Fauna Acompañante de Pesquerías Artesanales que Indica, Año 2016. January 2016. 3 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-92110_documento.pdf
  32. Ministerio de la Producción/IMARPE, 2013. Desarrollo de la pesquería de jurel durante el 2013, situación actual del recurso y perspectivas de explotación para el 2014, 7 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_jure_2014_perspe.pdf
  33. PRODUCE, 2015a. RESOLUCIÓN MINISTERIAL Nº 003-2015-PRODUCE. Establecen límite de captura del recurso jurel y del recurso caballa durante el año 2015 para todo el litoral peruano.http://www.supnep.com.pe/assets/rm_n_003_2015_produce.pdf
  34. PRODUCE, 2015b. Resolución Ministerial N° 427-2015. Establece límite de captura del recurso jurel y del recurso caballa durante el año 2016 para todo el litoral peruano. December 2015. http://busquedas.elperuano.com.pe/download/url/establecen-limites-de-captura-del-recurso-jurel-y-del-recurs-resolucion-ministerial-no-427-2015-produce-1329222-3
  35. Ramírez, C.C., 2013. Segundo informe final, Convenio II: Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2014. Proyecto 2.1: Investigación del estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables en Jurel, año 2014: Jurel. Subsecretaría de Economia, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, 145 pp.http://www.ifop.cl/wp-content/uploads/jurel.pdf
  36. South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO), 2012a. Report of the Jack Mackerel Subgroup. Annex SWG-03 (revised). Eleventh meeting of the Scientific Working Group. Lima, Peru. October 2012. 69 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/11th-SWG-and-10th-DIWG-meetings/SWG-11/SWG-JM-report-with-TechAttachments.pdf
  37. SPRFMO, 2013a. Report of the 1st Scientific Committee, La Jolla, USA: 21-27 October 2013, Amendment Dec 2013, 45 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Scientific-Committee-1st-2/Report/SC-01-2013-Report-amended-16-Dec-13-a.pdf
  38. SPRFMO, 2013b. CMM 1.01 Conservation and Management Measure for Trachurus murphyi (Annex G), 8 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Commission-Meeting-1st/Report/Annex-G-CMM-1.01-Conservation-and-management-measures-for-Trachurus-murphyi.pdf
  39. SPRFMO, 2013c. 2013 jack mackerel stock assessment, Annex 05 – Jack Mackerel Assessment (amended), 56 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Scientific-Committee-1st-2/Report/SC-01-2013-Annex-5-CJM-Assessment-Amended-16-Dec-13-a.pdf
  40. SPRFMO, 2013d. Information describing Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fisheries relating to the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation, 1st Meeting of the Scientific Committee, La Jolla, United States of America, 21-27 October 2013, SC-01-23, Revisions to Jack Mackerel Species Profile, 42 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Scientific-Committee-1st-2/Plenary/SC-01-23-Revisions-to-Jack-Mackere-species-profile-a.pdf
  41. SPRFMO, 2014a. Report of 2nd report of the Scientific Committee Meeting. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 1-7 October 2014. Annex 04: 2014 jack mackerel stock assessment.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Report/SC-02-Annex-4-Assessment-final3Nov.pdf
  42. SPRFMO, 2014b. Report of 2nd report of the Scientific Committee Meeting. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 1-7 October 2014.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Report/SC-02-Final-Report-21Oct-accepted.pdf
  43. SPRFMO, 2014c. 2nd Meeting of the Compliance and Technical Committee, Auckland, New Zealand: 30-31 January 2015. CTC-02-02 Assessment of Compliance of Members and CNCPs.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Commission-Meeting-3rd/CTC-02/CTC-02-02-Assessement-of-Compliance-of-Members-and-CNCPs.pdf
  44. SPRFMO, 2014d. Second Meeting of the Commission of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation, Manta, Ecuador 27–31 January 2014. Annex K: Proposed Jack Mackerel rebuilding plan. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Commission-Meeting-2nd/Comm-02-report/Annex-K-Proposed-Jack-Mackerel-Rebuilding-Plan.pdf
  45. SPRFMO, 2014e. 2nd Meeting of the Scientific Committee Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 1-7 October 2014. SC-02-15 Chile Annual report, Undersecretariat for Fisheries and Aquaculture.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-15-Chile-Annual-Report.pdf
  46. SPRFMO, 2014f. Report of the Jack Mackerel Subgroup, Annex SWG‐10‐03, 60 pp.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/0-Archive/Meetings-before-2013/Scientific-Working-Group/SWG-10-2011/Annex-SWG-03-Jack-Mackerel-SubGroup-Report-SWG10-final-.pdf
  47. SPRFMO, 2014h. 2nd Meeting of the Scientific Committee Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 1-7 October 2014. SC-02-23. A summary of current SPRFMO bycatch records (including Seabird and Oceanic shark captures).https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Scientific-Committee-2nd/SC-02-Papers/SC-02-23-Summary-of-current-SPRFMO-by-catch-records.pdf
  48. SPRFMO, 2015a. SPRFMO-COMM-03 (2015) ANNEX HCMM3.01 Conservation and Management Measure for Trachurus murphyi.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Commission-Meeting-3rd/Final-reports/Annex-H-CMM-3.-01-for-Trachurus-Murphyi-rev2.pdf
  49. SPRFMO, 2015b. Third Meeting of the Commission of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation. Auckland, New Zealand 2–6 February 2015. Commission Report Annex E: Final IUU Listhttps://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Commission-Meeting-3rd/Final-reports/Annex-E-SPRFMO-Final-IUU-list-2015-rev1.pdf
  50. SPRFMO, 2015c. Report of the 3rd Scientific Committee Meeting Port Vila, Vanuatu. 28 September - 3 October 2015. Annex 8: Jack mackerel stock assessment. 50pp. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Meetings/Meetings-2013-plus/SC-Meetings/3rd-SC-Meeting-2015/Report/SC-03-Annex-8-Jack-mackerel-stock-assessment.pdf
  51. SPRFMO, 2015d. Final Report of the 3rd Scientific Committee Meeting Port Vila, Vanuatu. 28 September - 3 October 2015. 44pp. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Meetings/Meetings-2013-plus/SC-Meetings/3rd-SC-Meeting-2015/Report/SC-03-Final-report-14Oct15-A1-7.pdf
  52. SPRFMO, 2015e. Conservation and Management Measure for Trachurus murphyi - CMM 4.01. 5 pp. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Fisheries/Conservation-and-Management-Measures/CMM-4.01-T-murphyi-2016-4Mar2016.pdf
  53. SPRFMO, 2016a. 2016 IUU List - COMM-04 ANNEX J. 2 pp. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Meetings/Meetings-2013-plus/Commission-Meetings/4th-Commission-Meeting-2016-Valdivia-Chile/Final-Report-and-Annexes/Annex-J-2016-IUU-LIST.pdf
  54. SPRFMO, 2016b. Conservation and Management Measure CMM 4.09 for minimising bycatch of seabirds in the SPRFMO Convention Area. March 2016. 9 pp.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Fisheries/Conservation-and-Management-Measures/CMM-4.09-Seabirds-2016-4Mar2016.pdf
  55. SPRFMO, 2016c. Conservation and Management Measure CMM 4.02 on Standards for the Collection, Reporting, Verification and Exchange of Data. March 2016. 43 pp.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Fisheries/Conservation-and-Management-Measures/CMM-4.02-Data-Standards-2016-4Mar2016.pdf
  56. SPRFMO, 2016d. Data submitted to the SPRFMO Secretariat (as at 7 December 2015) 4 th Meeting of the Commission Valdivia, Chile, 25 to 29 January 2016. 25 pp.https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Meetings/Meetings-2013-plus/Commission-Meetings/4th-Commission-Meeting-2016-Valdivia-Chile/COMM-04-INF-01-Data-Submitted-to-the-Secretariat.pdf
  57. SPRFMO, 2016e. Conservation and Management Measure CMM 1.02 for Gillnets in the SPRFMO Convention Area. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Fisheries/Conservation-and-Management-Measures/CMM-1.02-Gillnetting-2013-4Mar2016.pdf
  58. SPRFMO, 2016f. Conservation and Management Measure CMM 4.03 for the Management of Bottom Fishing in the SPRFMO Convention Area. https://www.sprfmo.int/assets/Fisheries/Conservation-and-Management-Measures/CMM-4.03-Bottom-Fishing-2016-4Mar2016.pdf
  59. SUBPESCA, 2010a. Informe sectorial de pesca y acuicultura. Deciembre 2010. Subsecretaria de Pesca, Gobierno de Chile. Chile. 24 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=12268
  60. SUBPESCA, 2010b. Estado de las principales pesquerias nacionales- aspectos biologico-pesqueros: Pesqueria de jurel xv -x regiones. Pdf Presentation (slides 5-15). Subsecretaria de Pesca, Gobierno de Chile. Chile. (In Spanish.)http://www.greenpeace.org/chile/Global/chile/Documentos/Oceanos/2010/estado-pesquerias-nacionales.pdf
  61. SUBPESCA, 2010c. Extended news, 09.12.2010. National Fisheries Council Approves Jack Mackerel Quota. Link accessed on March 23, 2011.http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch902/neochn902.aspx
  62. SUBPESCA, 2011a. Cuota Global Anual De Captura de Jurel , Para Las Unidades de Pesquería De La XV - II, III - IV, V - IX y XIV-X Regiones, Año 2012. Informe Tecnico (R. Pesq.) N° 129/2011. December 2011. 74 pp. (In Spanish.)http://ciperchile.cl/wp-content/uploads/Informe-final-de-Subpesca-para-determinar-cuota-de-jurel-2012.pdf
  63. SUBPESCA, 2011b. Informe sectorial de pesca y acuicultura. Deciembre 2011. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA), Gobierno de Chile. Chile. 26 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=13565
  64. SUBPESCA, 2011c. Cuotas Anuales de Captura año 2012. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA) - Consejo Nacional de Pesca (CNP). 1 p. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch868/appinstances/media1020/Cuotas_2012.pdf
  65. SUBPESCA, 2012a. Cuota Global Anual De Captura de Jurel , Para Las Unidades de Pesquería De La XV - II, III - IV, V - IX y XIV-X Regiones, Año 2013. Informe Tecnico (R. Pesq.) N° 211/2012. December 2012. 62 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ_211-2012_Cuota_jurel_2013.pdf.
  66. SUBPESCA, 2012b. Res. Ex. No. 1665/2012. Establece tamaño mínimo de extracción del recurso jurel entre la xv a la x regiones en cumplimiento a la ley 20.485. Establece margen de tolerancia para area que indica. 19 June 2012. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch1123/appinstances/media1354/1665-12.pdf
  67. UBPESCA, 2013a. Chilean compliance of interim measure for pelagic fisheries. Report no. COMM-01-INF-06. 1st Commission Meeting of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation. 28 January - 1 February 2013. Auckland, New Zealand. 6 pp.http://www.southpacificrfmo.org/assets/Commission-Meeting-1st/COMM-01-INF-06-Chiles-Report-on-the-Implementation-of-the-2012-Interim-Measures-for-Pelagic-Fisheries.pdf
  68. SUBPESCA, 2015a. D EX N° 24-2015 Rectifica D EX N° 956-2014 Establece Cuota Anual de Captura recurso Jurel XV-II, III-IV, V-IX y XIV-X, Sometidas a Licencias Transables de Pesca 2015. (Publicado en Diario Oficial 21-01-2015)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86721_documento.pdf
  69. SUBPESCA, 2015b. D EX Nº 39-2015 Establece Porcentaje de desembarque de especies como Fauna acompañante de Recursos que indica, año 2015. (Publicado en Diario Oficial 24-01-2015).http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86767_documento.pdf
  70. Subsecretario de recursos pesqueros, 2014. Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acualcultura y Pesca. Acuerdo ministerial nº163 reforma el 081 jurel.http://www.viceministerioap.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Acuerdo-163-reforma-el-081-Jurel-copy.pdf
  71. Wilson, A.M. (undated). Fijación de cuotas globales anuales de pesca: deficiencias normativas, responsabilidades institucionales y propuestas de mejoramiento. OCEANA. Pdf presentation. 11 slides. (In Spanish.)http://www.documentos.derecho.ucv.cl/exposicionmunoz.pdf

Additional sources:

  1. Chuenpagdee, R., Morgan, L.E., Maxwell, S.M., Norse, E.A. and Pauly, D., 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 10: 517-524.
  2. IFOP. 2008. Investigación, Evaluación del Stock y CTP de jurel, 2008. 88 pp. (In Spanish.)
  3. IFOP. 2009. Investigación, Evaluación del Stock y CTP de jurel, 2009. 96 pp. (In Spanish.)
  4. Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (In Spanish.)
  5. SPRFMO. 2009. Report of the Science Working Group VIII. Auckland, New Zealand. November 2-6, 2009. 62 pp.
  6. SUBPESCA. 2007. Cuota global anual de captura de jurel, año 2008. Technical Report N° 86 – November, 2007. 54 pp. (In Spanish.)
  7. SUBPESCA. 2008. Cuota global anual de captura de jurel, entre la XV y X Regiones, año 2009. Technical Report N° 101 – November, 2008. 49 pp. (In Spanish.)
  8. SUBPESCA. 2012. Informe sectorial de pesca y acuicultura 2012. December 2012. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Chile. 22 pp. (In Spanish.)
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Chilean jack mackerel - SE Pacific

    comments powered by Disqus