Profile updated on 2 July 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Trachurus murphyi

SPECIES NAME(s)

Chilean jack mackerel

COMMON NAMES

Jurel (Spanish)

Chilean jack mackerel is widespread throughout the South Pacific and the stock structure is not clear. Research based on genetic and otolith analysis supports the existence of a single population (SPRFMO, 2013a,b), as well as a recent analysis using a biophysical model, that indicates high dispersion range and spatial overlap of modeled recruitments, which supports the existence of a single panmictic population in the SE Pacific (SPRFMO 2016). A single assessment unit is here considered given the uncertainties.

Of the existing five management units, the Ecuadorian (GdE 2014), the Peruvian (El Peruano 2017) and the high seas fisheries (the SPRFMO Convention area; all pelagic trawlers) are exclusively for direct human consumption; Chilean fisheries operating (the northern, XV-II regions and the central-southern Chilean, III-X regions) are mainly used for fishmeal (Quiroz 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Since 2010, the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization conducts a joint jack mackerel assessment and since 2013, catch limits are agreed for the assessment unit area and for the Convention area, in accordance with scientific recommendations.
  • A recovery plan (harvest control rule) has been adopted in 2014.
  • The assessment model continues to be revised and improved. Data, information, and decisions from all fishing countries are integrated into the assessment process.
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing and is well below the target level.
  • Joint efforts are in place to control illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – list of IUU vessels, a Commission Vessel Monitoring System is being implemented and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program.
  • Bycatch rates of commercial species appear to be low in most fleets, but comprehensive lists of bycatch species are not known to be produced.
  • No interactions of the fishery with protected species are reported but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.
  • A Chilean management plan was recently published for the fishery but does not include a harvest control, which is pointed out by the SPRFMO.
Weaknesses
  • Although efforts have continued to elucidate the stock structure, conclusive evidence is not available and further research is required, e.g. tagging experiments. There are also uncertainties in the assessment related to natural mortality, input data quality, and growth.
  • The spawning stock increased comparing to last years but is still below the MSY target. 
  • The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation or defined TAC for the national fishery has not been available in the last years. 
  • Reference points are provisional and uncertainties were raised by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee about the discontinuities in the fishing mortality to be applied under the harvest control rule and the constraints in the interannual TAC variability.
  • Important environmental events, such as the strong 2015-2016 El Niño, influence the spatial distribution of jack mackerel, but effects on the overall population productivity are unclear.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.5

Future Health:

9.2


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with scientists to support the continuous improvements underway in stock assessment and research on stock structure and especially the effects of environmental variability on the population.
  • Encourage the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to set biological reference points and harvest control rules that consider the species role in the ecosystem and shifts in environmental conditions.
  • Encourage SPRFMO members and cooperating non-members to fully implement and comply with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures.
  • Encourage the Government of Peru to continue setting their domestic TAC so as to not exceed the total stock catch limit advised by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee.
  • Encourage the Government of Ecuador to publish their scientific advice.
  • Support the fishery to implement measures to address conditions in the MSC certification, especially to minimize fishing-related mortality of associated fish species and  ETP species.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
SE Pacific Central-southern Chile EEZ and high seas Chile Purse seines
Ecuador EEZ Ecuador Purse seines
Northern Chile EEZ Chile Purse seines
Peru EEZ Peru Purse seines
SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
China Midwater trawls
Netherlands Midwater trawls
Peru Midwater trawls
Vanuatu Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Strengths
  • Since 2010, the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization conducts a joint jack mackerel assessment and since 2013, catch limits are agreed for the assessment unit area and for the Convention area, in accordance with scientific recommendations.
  • A recovery plan (harvest control rule) has been adopted in 2014.
  • The assessment model continues to be revised and improved. Data, information, and decisions from all fishing countries are integrated into the assessment process.
  • Fishing mortality has been decreasing and is well below the target level.
  • Joint efforts are in place to control illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – list of IUU vessels, a Commission Vessel Monitoring System is being implemented and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program.
  • Bycatch rates of commercial species appear to be low in most fleets, but comprehensive lists of bycatch species are not known to be produced.
  • No interactions of the fishery with protected species are reported but it is unclear if reporting is adequate.
  • A Chilean management plan was recently published for the fishery but does not include a harvest control, which is pointed out by the SPRFMO.
Weaknesses
  • Although efforts have continued to elucidate the stock structure, conclusive evidence is not available and further research is required, e.g. tagging experiments. There are also uncertainties in the assessment related to natural mortality, input data quality, and growth.
  • The spawning stock increased comparing to last years but is still below the MSY target. 
  • The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation or defined TAC for the national fishery has not been available in the last years. 
  • Reference points are provisional and uncertainties were raised by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee about the discontinuities in the fishing mortality to be applied under the harvest control rule and the constraints in the interannual TAC variability.
  • Important environmental events, such as the strong 2015-2016 El Niño, influence the spatial distribution of jack mackerel, but effects on the overall population productivity are unclear.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 9 August 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with scientists to support the continuous improvements underway in stock assessment and research on stock structure and especially the effects of environmental variability on the population.
  • Encourage the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation (SPRFMO) to set biological reference points and harvest control rules that consider the species role in the ecosystem and shifts in environmental conditions.
  • Encourage SPRFMO members and cooperating non-members to fully implement and comply with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures.
  • Encourage the Government of Peru to continue setting their domestic TAC so as to not exceed the total stock catch limit advised by the SPRFMO Scientific Committee.
  • Encourage the Government of Ecuador to publish their scientific advice.
  • Support the fishery to implement measures to address conditions in the MSC certification, especially to minimize fishing-related mortality of associated fish species and  ETP species.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Since 2010, a joint jack mackerel stock assessment has been conducted, including fisheries independent and dependent data from each fishing country in a statistical catch-at-age model performed by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO)’s Scientific Committee (SC). The models run consider the two working hypotheses on stock structure: 1) two separate stocks, Peruvian/northern stock and Chilean/southern stock that straddle the high seas; 2) a single shared stock that straddles the high seas. Hypothesis 2 has been used as the basis for the advice, as it provides a more precautionary biomass estimate (SPRFMO 2017)(SPRFMO 2018). Benchmarks are conducted every two years, with a "full" assessment having been performed in 2018. Uncertainties raised in the 2018 report relate to the stock structure, natural mortality, input data quality, and growth and besides, analysis shows a trend to overestimate the stock size on the assessment (SPRFMO 2018).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 2 July 2019

The Scientific Committee (SC) of the SPRFMO meets yearly. Scientific recommendations combine data and decisions of experts of each fishing country, based on the joint assessment results. From 2011-2017, two advised Total Allowable Catch (TAC) have been proposed: one for the whole assessment unit (relative to stock structure not yet defined) and another for the SPRFMO Convention area (where members and non-contracting parties operate; localized in the high seas) (SPRFMO 2017).

For 2019, only the advice for the whole assessment unit was provided. The SC preferred the "one-stock model", as in previous years. Considering the overestimation trend in the stock size and underestimation of the species' growth and that the assessment is on the "second tier" of the rebuilding plan in place (at >80% of BMSY), 591,000 tonnes are the advised catches for the entire assessment unit (SPRFMO 2018).

In 2016, the SC recommended that age validation work continue to be pursued, as analysis and validation of juvenile growth is a key information gap; for this a tagging experiment was suggested. The SC also recommended supporting the Fishery dependent acoustic initiative and suggested the design of a joint synoptic survey using data collected along the normal tracks of properly equipped and calibrated fishing vessels (SPRFMO 2016). Exchange of samples among countries are also recommended by the SC to determine differences in growth curves and ageing techniques. Sampling of data was agreed to be improved to help to determine the stock structure (SPRFMO 2017). In 2018, the SC provided recommendations regarding the design of the harvest control rule and raised the need to review the management plan, which is already foreseen in the SC multiannual workplan. On the other hand, based on the information brought by the EU, members are encouraged to implement self-sampling programmes, which can be a valuable complement to the observer programme, as well explore the use of electronic monitoring as verification tools (SPRFMO 2018)(SPRFMO 2018)

Ecuador EEZ

Last updated on 2 July 2019

The Ecuadorian scientific recommendation for the national fishery could not be located.  

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Reference points remain as in the last year: BMSY is temporarily fixed at 5,500,000 tonnes and is used to determine the status of the stock; another BMSY (identified as SSBMSY in the SPRFMO report), dynamic and estimated annually, is at 4,514,000 tonnes and FMSY, also dynamic, is at 0.13. The estimated increase in biomass to 90% of the interim BMSY, resulted from the fishing mortality rates decreasing in the past three years to 0.09 in 2018 and well below FMSY, along with the slight recruitment improvement. Catches are preliminarily reported at 472,966 tonnes in 2018 for the whole assessment unit, rising in the last four years (SPRFMO 2018).

Environmental conditions (e.g., strong El Niño 2015-2016) likely affect jack mackerel's distribution and thus age-specific vulnerability to surveys and fisheries. This may have affected the Chilean northern acoustic survey and those conducted in Peruvian waters. The effect of such environmental changes in the overall population productivity is unclear (SPRFMO 2016; SPRFMO 2016)(Quiroz 2017). Currently "several members (of the SC) noted concerns about the suitability of the El Niño index used in the analysis" (SPRFMO 2018). A Habitat Monitoring working group was created, to assess the influence of the environmental conditions and habitat on the assessment unit (SPRFMO 2018).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Management of jack mackerel in the high seas is officially organized through the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO) since 2013 (SPRFMO, 2015d). Currently, an overall TAC is agreed by the SPRFMO for the whole assessment unit, with part of that bound under a Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) applying to the international waters under SPRFMO’s jurisdiction and also to Chilean national waters due to its express consent since 2014 (SPRFMO, 2015a)(MFA 2019). Catch limits can be transferred among countries and catch allocations transferred in 2018 are available here.

A preliminary proposal of a Harvest Control Rule (HCR) was submitted by (Canales 2014) and in the same year (Hintzen et al. 2014) presented evaluations of the HCR proposed. A rebuilding plan was adopted and is being currently used to establish the TAC (Scarcella et al. 2019) but uncertainties were raised in the last Scientific Committee report about the discontinuities in the F to be applied and the constraints in the interannual TAC variability. The discussion presented by (Hintzen et al. 2014) should be revisited to further improve the HCR in place (SPRFMO 2018).

In line with the Scientific Committee’s recommendation (SPRFMO 2018), overall catches for the entire assessment unit were agreed to not exceed 591,000 tonnes in 2019; the TAC for the Convention area is defined at 531,061 tonnes (SPRFMO 2019). Catch percentages are established for each member/CNCP and apply during 2018-2021. Countries submit their reports according to specific guidelines. Until an Observer program is officially implemented, countries have to "ensure a minimum of 10% scientific observer coverage of trips for trawlers and purse seiners flying their flag and ensure that such observers collect and report data as described in CMM 02-2018 (Data Standards)" (SPRFMO 2019).

Ecuador EEZ

Last updated on 2 July 2019

The fishery in Ecuadorian waters is quite new, as probably due to climatic changes, the species' distribution now includes this region. These changes made the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture, and Fisheries lift the ban in place to capture small pelagics and establish measures for the jack mackerel fishery. No information could be located on whether Ecuador sets a national quota. Ecuador decided in 2014 that jack mackerel catches can only be used for human consumption. Other technical measures are described (GdE 2014)

Ecuador was a Cooperating Non-Contracting Party (CNCP) and became a member of the SPRFMO in May 2015. In 2018, Ecuador claimed an increase (to 6,500 tonnes) of the partial quota established under the CCM at 0.2391% (of 576,000 tonnes) (SPRFMO 2018) arguing the intention to increase the fishery. The SPRFMO did not agree with this request but the Permanent Court of Arbitration presented four alternatives, favoring this increase (Permanent Court of Arbitration 2018). Ecuadorian catches are only used for direct human consumption, as defined by national law (GdE 2014).

Being recognized as a "developing coastal state", Ecuador proposed again to increase its quota allocation in 2019 and the Commission agreed to add 11,523 tonnes to the existing 1,377 tonnes (0.2% of 591,000 tonnes set for 2019), summing 12,900 tonnes. In return, Ecuador intended to open its waters to the Convention, possessing, therefore, the same rights and obligations of the remaining members (SPRFMO 2018). Notwithstanding, it was not included in the 2019 Conservation Management Measure (SPRFMO 2019)​ therefore it is assumed as not yet in place for 2019.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 2 July 2019

Catches have decreased significantly in recent years and have generally been under the set TAC. The preliminary value for 2018 global catches (used for assessment purposes) is at 472,966 tonnes (SPRFMO 2018), below the TAC set for the year at 576,000 tonnes (SPRFMO 2018).

Proposals of the European Commission (EC) were used by the SPRFMO to diminish IUU fishing (EC, 2013). The Commission Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) is being implemented (SPRFMO 2017) and work is in progress to set up an SPRFMO observer program (SPRFMO 2016)(SPRFMO 2017)(SPRFMO 2018). There are some instances of non-compliance with SPRFMO’s Conservation and Management Measures, particularly as to timely reporting. Ecuador and the Russian Federation are mentioned due to distinct reasons, explained in detail in the report (SPRFMO 2019).

A list of vessels conducting Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) activities was adopted at the 3rd SPRFMO Commission meeting in 2015 and has been published since then. Inclusion in the list refers in all cases to fishing in the SPRFMO Convention Area without authorization (SPRFMO, 2016a; SPRFMO 2017)(SPRFMO 2019)

Ecuador EEZ

Last updated on 2 July 2019

No information could be located on whether Ecuador sets a national quota. Catches in the last years have been negligible (0.028 tonnes in 2018) (SPRFMO 2018).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
Other Species

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The fishery for jack mackerel is generally a monospecific fishery. In the offshore fishery the catch consists for 90 – 98% of jack mackerel, with minor by-catches of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and Southern rays bream (Brama australis) (SPRFMO, 2015c).

An Assessment of the Impact of Fishing on Non-target, Associated or Dependent Species is being undertaken for all fishing fleets operating in the Convention area, including an observers’ program and ecological risk assessments (ERAs) to determine the impact of the fishery on bycatch species (SPRFMO, 2013a). No progress on this project was found in SPRFMO website.

Most countries list bycatch of other commercial species caught in their fisheries but complete bycatch lists are not known to exist (SPRFMO, 2016c). Peruvian fleets report minor bycatches of chub mackerel in the high seas.

Ecuador EEZ
Ecuador
Purse seines

Last updated on 28 June 2018

The small pelagic purse seine fishery in Ecuador also targets thread herring (Opisthonema spp.), chub mackerel, Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus), Frigate tuna (Auxis spp.), Round herring (Etrumeus teres), sardine (Sardinops sagax) and anchovy (Engraulis ringens).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 March 2015

Marine Protected Areas are implemented at the country level. No closures of VMEs or EBSAs have yet been implemented in the SPRFMO convention area (SPRFMO, 2014b), but studies focused on bottom trawl fisheries are in progress (SPRFMO, 2015d; 2016f).

As of December 2009, there are two marine reserves in Peru: Paracas Marine Reserve – extension of 335,000 ha of which 65% correspond to sea waters, created to protect wildlife, especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin; the National Reserve of Islands, Islets and Guano Headlands System – contains 22 islands and islets and 11 headlands (140,833 ha) and was created to preserve the continuity of the biological cycle of species that inhabit it and to help preserve fish stocks which straddle its vicinity (Cedepesca, 2010; CPPS, 2010).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 16 July 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The precautionary approach is assumed by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO), which conducts joint assessments, pooling data and expertise from all countries fishing the resource in the assessment unit area. The fishery is regulated by a global agreed catch limit for the high seas and the Chilean EEZ, and by a Peruvian unilateral quota within its EEZ; a quota for the Ecuadorian EEZ could not be located. A rebuilding plan was adopted in 2014 but reference points are still provisional and the proposed harvest control rule (Canales, 2014) and its evaluation (Hintzen et al., 2014) is not yet concluded. Uncertainties were raised in the last Scientific Committee report about the discontinuities in the F to be applied and the constraints in the interannual TAC variability (SPRFMO, 2018a).

As determined for 2019.

No information could be found about a scientific advice or establishment of catch limits for the Ecuadorian waters. At the beginning of 2019, Ecuador made a proposal to the SPRFMO to increase its quota allocation and open its national waters to the SPRFMO Members and Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties (SPRFMO 2018) but it was not yet included in the 2019 Conservation Management Measure (SPRFMO 2019)​ so we assume it is not yet in place for 2019. 

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Reported catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Reported catch is 473 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 576 ('000 t) .

The underlying Reported catch/Set TAC for this index is 82.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 7.5.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The SSB is 4780 ('000 t). The SSBmsy is 5500 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBmsy for this index is 86.9%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.2.

This measures the F as a percentage of the Fmsy.

The F is 0.0900 (age-averaged). The Fmsy is 0.130 .

The underlying F/Fmsy for this index is 69.2%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Score about the Management strategy has been determined qualitatively based on the available information, as a harvest control rule (rebuilding plan) has been proposed (Canales 2014) and is officially adopted even if uncertainties were recently raised by the Scientific Committee (SPRFMO 2018).
  • The assessment model considers the whole assessment unit, as well as catches from all fishing countries operating on this resource. Under the SPRFMO, a TAC is recommended for 2019 for the whole assessment unit (591,000 tonnes) (SPRFMO 2018). As agreed by the members and the Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties (CNCPs) the overall TAC for 2019 was set at 591,000 tonnes for the entire assessment unit and catches should not overpass 531,061 tonnes within the SPRFMO convention area (SPRFMO 2019). Partial scores are made available for both Chilean management units, and Ecuadorian and Peruvian national waters (MU). 
  • Catch time-series is from the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO) report and combine data of the four fleets operating for the resource and considered in the assessment. Fleet 1: coastal purse seine fishery in northern Chile (XV-II regions); fleet 2: purse seine fishery in central-south Chile that extends into the high seas (III-X regions); fleet 3: the far-north coastal purse seine fisheries occurring in the EEZ’s and Territorial waters of Ecuador and Peru (Cook Islands, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Russian Federation); fleet 4: the offshore trawl fleet operating solely in the SPRFMO convention area (Belize, China, Cuba, European Union with Netherlands, Faroe Islands, Japan, Korea, Peru, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Vanuatu). The value for 2018 catch is preliminary (SPRFMO 2018) but was used for the stock assessment thus was included in the datasheet, meaning the score for Fishers' compliance relates to 2018.
  • Fishing mortality (F), spawning stock biomass (SSB) and FMSY time-series are from the 2018 SC-SPRFMO report. BMSY is the temporary target reference point fixed at 5,500,000 tonnes (identified as BMSY in the SPRFMO report). A dynamic BMSY (identified as SSBMSY in the SPRFMO report) is besides determined yearly but was not considered in the datasheet because only the fixed reference point is used to determine the stock status. 80% of SSBMSY triggers Flow according to the harvest control rule (rebuilding plan) in place (Canales 2014)(SPRFMO 2018). The reference points considered by the Chilean entities were not included in the datasheet; only the information made available by SPRFMO is assumed (SPRFMO 2018)
  • Ecosystem impact scores and narratives were not updated in 2019.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the Global Sustainable Supply Chains for Marine Commodities (GMC) project for contributing to the development of this profile. GMC is an interregional initiative implemented by Ministries and Bureaus of Fisheries and Planning of Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines, with technical support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), facilitated by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).​

References

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    Chilean jack mackerel - SE Pacific, Ecuador EEZ, Ecuador, Purse seines

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