Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 17 February 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Mallotus villosus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Capelin

COMMON NAMES

Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen Area

Capelin in the Iceland East Greenland-Jan Mayen area is considered to be a separate stock (ICES, 2015) for assessment purposes. Genetic studies were almost solely focused on large-scale differentiation between populations (Reiss et al., 2009). Some microsatellite data within Northeast Atlantic were less conclusive in differentiates populations (Praebel et al., 2008).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • Catches have been below the set TAC.
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The stock size is considered well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities
  • Some changes in the assessment now allow for a more precautionary advice due to better accounting of natural mortality
Weaknesses
  • Capelin is a key prey for cod, herring, seabirds and marine mammals. Collapses in capelin abundance in the past, when the fishery was closed, are known to have had adverse effects in the food web dynamics of this ecosystem. The assessment model and harvest control rule should account for the role of capelin as a key prey item explicitly.  
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.
  • It is not known if the harvest control rule is precautionary. ICES 2015 indicates some portions are precautionary, but not in it’s entirety.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.9

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Advocate that scientists and managers work together to establish biologically-based reference points.
  • Work with scientific institutions to continue and expand assessment of the environmental impact of the fishery.
  • Push managers to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based fisheries management and, in particular, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species when setting catch limits.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • ISF Iceland capelin:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic Iceland Iceland Midwater trawls
Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 May 2017

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • Catches have been below the set TAC.
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The stock size is considered well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities
  • Some changes in the assessment now allow for a more precautionary advice due to better accounting of natural mortality
Weaknesses
  • Capelin is a key prey for cod, herring, seabirds and marine mammals. Collapses in capelin abundance in the past, when the fishery was closed, are known to have had adverse effects in the food web dynamics of this ecosystem. The assessment model and harvest control rule should account for the role of capelin as a key prey item explicitly.  
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.
  • It is not known if the harvest control rule is precautionary. ICES 2015 indicates some portions are precautionary, but not in it’s entirety.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Advocate that scientists and managers work together to establish biologically-based reference points.
  • Work with scientific institutions to continue and expand assessment of the environmental impact of the fishery.
  • Push managers to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based fisheries management and, in particular, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species when setting catch limits.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 April 2017

An assessment benchmark was undertaken in late January 2015 and a new Harvest Control Rule (HCR) following the acoustic assessment surveys was proposed. This new approach is based on leaving more than 150 thousand tons for spawning with more than 95% probability.

Following acoustic survey in Autumn (September–October), an Intermediate TAC is set based on estimates (two fixed values) for the immature part of the stock for the next fishing season. The trigger is set at 50 billion (Utrigger) and cap on a preliminary TAC at 400,000 tons. A TAC is set =0 if the estimate of immatures (Uimm) is less than 50 billion; TAC is set at 400,000 tons if Uimm>127 billion. For Uimm estimates in the range 50–127 billion, TAC is set as 5.2x(Uimm – Utrigger) thousand tons. Following acoustic survey in Winter (January–February), a final TAC is set at a catch with a low <5% probability that Biomass will be less than Blim (ICES, 2015).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 3 May 2017

An initial TAC is set at the catch giving probability of SSB being below Blim (150 kt)of less than 5% based on the acoustic surveys in the previous year (Autumn).

To do so two fixed points were defined: Utrigger = 50 billion immature capelin and TACMAX = 400 kt for U >127 billion immature capelin. The agreed method for setting the initial/preliminary
TAC was:

  • TAC = 5.2x(Uimm–Utrigger) kt for Uimm in the range 50–127 billion.
  • TAC = 0 if Uimm <50 billion.
  • TAC = 400 kt if Uimm >127 billion.

The final TAC is likewise based on <5% probability of SSB> Blim this is accomplished by

1) bootstrapping the historical January acoustic estimate and finding the 95%
lower confident limit;
2) adding catches taken before the January survey;
3) subtracting 300 kt (Blim=150 kt and an allowance of 150 kt for predation, set
at the average model estimate from survey to spawning); and
4) setting up a regression model with this value vs. acoustic indices of immature
capelin. The slope of the regression line is 5.2.

In 2016 ICES and MRI advised that the initial quota for the 2016/2017 fishing year be set a zero as there was a > than 95% chance that the stock was below Blim (ICES 2016)(MRI 2016). In late 2016 and early 2017 a survey was conducted which indicated that the biomass could support a 57,000 t fishery(FiskerForum 2017), however this survey had numerous difficulties due to sea-ice, weather and other factors (Gíslason 2017) a second survey was undertaken in Feb 2017.  This survey indicated that a safe level of harvest was 299,000 t (FiskerForum 2017)(Gíslason 2017)

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

A new benchmark assessment was undertaken in late January 2015 and a biomass limit reference point was proposed at 150 thousand tons, at Bloss level (ICES, 2015). Exploitation estimates are not in use.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of Icelandic capelin is considered very variable, as it is mostly dependent on one age group (ICES, 2011b).

ICES (ICES 2016) indicates that the SSB in 2016 was 304,000 t. Though lower than previous years, ICES notes that the 2016 SSB is not comparable to other years as 2016 used a new methodology which had different assumptions of natural mortality

TRENDS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

Parental biomass (SSB) has oscillated roughly from 304,000 tons to 650,000 tons since 1999, showing no clear trend. ICES notes that the 2016 estimate of SSB assumes a different natural mortality, so the results are not comparable with past years (ICES 2016)

Recruitment estimates are lower over the recent past than historically, suggesting impending decline if accurate. Overall stock is experiencing lower recruitment than in previous decades (ICES 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 3 May 2017

According to ICES the fishery is managed in line with a two-step management plan which sets an initial quota based on acoustic surveys the previous year, and then sets a final quota which regulates harvest such that a minimum spawning-stock biomass of > 150 kt has less than a 5% probability of occurring (ICES, 2015).

In 2016 ICES and MRI advised that the initial quota for the 2016/2017 fishing year be set a zero as there was a > than 95% chance that the stock was below Blim (ICES 2016)(MRI 2016). This was later revised to 54,000 t and later 299,000 t based on new information (See Scientific Advice Section).  Managers have since set the quota at 299,000 based on this information and new advice (FiskerForum 2017).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

Given the short life cycle of the species, the fact that currently this stock is not overfished and is not experiencing overfishing, and a two-stage HCR that prevents a directed fishery if there is greater that a 5% probability that the stock will be below Blim, a recovery plan is not in effect.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 3 May 2017

Harvester compliance has been good. For 2013/2014 fishing season, total catches represented 89% of the total TAC (ICES, 2015). Additionally juvenile areas have been protected from midwater trawling and harvesters have complied with these measures as well. In Icelandic waters, only purse-seiners are allowed in these areas (ICES, 2014).In Icelandic waters, only purse-seiners are allowed to target capelin (ICES, 2014)

Discards are considered negligible; observers are frequently on board vessels during autumn fisheries in areas where juveniles are likely to occur. Temporary area closures are enforced in Icelandic waters when a high abundance of juveniles is measured in the catch (i.e. more than 20% of the catch is composed of fish less than 14 cm). Catches transfers are allowed between purse-seine boats to avoid slippage, if the catches are beyond the carrying capacity of the vessel. However, slippage has not been frequent in last years. Catch sensors are used to avoid too large catches (ICES, 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 13 June 2011

The seabird community in Icelandic waters is composed of relatively few but abundant species, accounting for roughly ¼ of total number and biomass of seabirds within the ICES area. At least 12 species of cetaceans occur regularly in Icelandic waters, and additional 10 species have been recorded more sporadically; the most abundant cetacean off the Icelandic continental shelf is the minke whale (IUCN status: “Least Concern”) (ICES, 2010b). Two species of seals, common seal (Phoca vitulina) and grey seal (Halicoerus grypus) breed in Icelandic waters, while 5 northern species of pinnipeds are also found in the area (ICES, 2010b).

There are no official reports of impacts of the Icelandic capelin fishery on PET species.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 3 May 2017

In the Icelandic pelagic fisheries, catch other than the targeted species is considered rare. Yet, in some cases, juveniles of capelin are caught and such areas are then closed to the fishery.Capelin plays an important role in the shelf food web being important in the diet of cod as well as a number of other fish stocks, marine mammals and seabirds.

Discarding is allowed when catches surpass the carrying capacity of the vessel, but discards are almost zero due to methods of transferring catches between purse-seiners. Catch sensors are used, which helps reduce the need to discard (ICES, 2010a,b; ICES, 2014).

 
HABITAT

Last updated on 3 May 2017

The sea bottom topography around Iceland is generally irregular, with hard rocky bottom prevailing in most areas; and in some cases the shelf around Iceland is cut by many sub‐sea canyons. At present considerably large coral areas exist on the Reykjanes Ridge and off SE-Iceland. Other known coral areas are small (Steingrímsson and Einarsson, 2004 in ICES, 2010b). Many of the cold-water coral areas that have been surveyed have already been destroyed. Currently, 5 areas with relatively undisturbed cold-water corals have received full protection and several other areas are under consideration for further protection. Gorgonian corals occur all around Iceland but these are relatively uncommon on the shelf (< 500 m depth) but can be found in relatively high numbers in deep waters (> 500 m) off south, west and north coasts of Iceland (ICES, 2012b).

As in other pelagic fisheries, no direct effects on the sea floor or benthic communities are known to occur in the Icelandic capelin fishery .

The spawning takes place in March-April. The main spawning grounds are shallow waters on the sea bed off the south and west coasts (ICES, 2012b). Capelin have shifted their larval drift and nursing areas west-wards to the colder waters off E-Greenland. Furthermore, the arrival of adult capelin to the overwintering grounds on the outer shelf off N-Iceland has been delayed and migration routes to the spawning grounds are currently located farther off N- and E-Iceland. These changes in the spatial distribution patterns of capelin may have had an effect on the growth rate of various predators (e.g.cod ) in recent years (ICES, 2012b).

Capelin is an important forage fish and a decline in the stock may be expected to have implications on the productivity of their predators (ICES, 2014).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 16 March 2015

Iceland anticipates three different types of area closures: Real Time, Permanent, and Temporary; still, the latter measure has not been related to the capelin fishery:

Real Time and Temporary area closure: A quick closure system has been in force since 1976 with the objective to protect juvenile fish. Fishing is prohibited for at least two weeks in areas where the number of small fish (< 13 cm) measured by inspectors exceeds 20% of the catch. If, in a given area, there are several consecutive quick closures the Minister of Fisheries can with regulations close the area for longer time forcing the fleet to operate in other areas. Inspectors from the Directorate of Fisheries supervise these closures in collaboration with the Marine Research Institute.

Permanent area closure: In addition to allocating quotas on each species, there are other measures in place to protect fish stocks. Based on knowledge on the biology of various stocks, many areas have been closed aiming at protecting juveniles. Some of them are temporary, but others have been closed for fishery for decades.

Seven designated Nature Reserves, established from 1974 to 1988, and one Conservation Area, designated in 1995, exist along the Icelandic coast and off Surtsey Island totaling 3,507 km2 (Wood, 2007). Iceland has 39 marine protected areas (in accordance with the OSPAR definition), including 11 relative large areas and 16 offshore areas, which are closed year-round or seasonally or have restricted access for fisheries management purposes (detailed information in Hoyt, 2005).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 3 May 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 6.0.

The fishery is managed according to a two-step management plan and a provisional TAC has been defined until further information on the stock sizes becomes available (MRI, 2015; ICES, 2014). It is not known if the harvest control rule is precautionary. ICES 2015 indicates using the 95% limit for stock size is precautionary but other aspects of the HCR are not.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TAC is 299 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 299 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 174 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 173 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 101%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 6.0.

SSB in 2016 cannot be compared with previous years due to changes in method

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 6.0.

The Marine Research Institute of Iceland has concluded that the fishable and spawning biomass of the capelin stock in Icelandic waters high enough to support a modest increase in the quota during 2017 vs 2016

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. Catches, biomass, and quotas are based on the fishing rather than the calendar year.
  2. SSB estimate in 2016 used a new method to better account for natural mortality. As such the estimates from 2016 are not comparable to previous years.
  3. Three surveys were conducted in 2016/2017 (see below) only the last one showed high biomass, the others did not cover the entire area due to ice, weather, and other factors.
  4. Estimates of stock relative to Blim in 2016 are not comparable with other years due to changes in estimates of natural mortality in the assessment

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

ISF Iceland capelin

STATUS

MSC Certified on 18 April 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 87.5
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 92.3
Principle 3 – Management System 92.9

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Astthorsson, O. S., and A. Gislason 1998. Short communication: environmental conditions, zooplankton and capelin in the waters north of Iceland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 808–810.
  2. Björnsson, H., Stefánsson, N., Sigurgeirsson, H., and Stefánsson, G. 1997. BORMICON. Líkan til könnunar á samspili fiskstofna í norðurhöfum (BORMICON; A BOReal MIgration and CONsumption model.) In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 379–411. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  3. Bogason, V. 1997. Fæða landsels (Phoca vitulina) við Ísland. (The food of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) at Iceland). In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 319–330. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  4. Directorate of Fisheries, 2015.Increased capelin quotas 2014/2015.Available online at 4th February 2015.http://www.fiskistofa.is/english/news/nr/1245
  5. Directorate of Fisheries. 2016. Capelin quotas for 2015/2016. Directorate of Fisheries. Icelandhttp://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
  6. Hoyt, E., 2005. Habitat protection for cetaceans around the world: status and prospects. In: Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises: A World Handbook for Cetacean Habitat Conservation (eds E. Hoyt), 1st Edn. Earthscan, Wiltshire, pp. 87-418 http://www.google.com/books?hl=pt-PT&lr=&id=k_vKoL6mKWcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=%22marine+protected+areas%22+iceland+2008&ots=RmXE67x8hW&sig=B2kDTxyiX5a013PPgAB3TjXAfZs#v=onepage&q=iceland&f=false
  7. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), 2012. Management, Total Allowable Catch. [Assessed on 22nd March 2012]http://www.fisheries.is/management/total-allowable-catch/
  8. ICES, 2008. Advice for Icelandic capelin in the Iceland East Greenland Jan Mayen area (Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W). Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee in the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2008. ICES Advice. Book 2, section 2.4.11. 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/cap-icel.pdf
  9. ICES, 2008. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 21 - 29 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2008 /ACOM:03. 604 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/NWWG/NWWG08.pdf
  10. ICES 2009a. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/cap-icel.pdf
  11. ICES 2009b. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen area. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2012%20-%20Capelin%20in%20the%20Iceland-East%20Greenland%20-%20Jan%20Mayen%20area.pdf
  12. ICES 2009c. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Overview on ecosystem, fisheries and their management in Icelandic waters. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2001%20-%20Introduction%20and%20Exec.%20Summary.pdf
  13. ICES, 2010b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April - 4 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:07). 751 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/NWWG/Exec.%20Summary%20and%20Sec%2001%20Introduction.pdf
  14. ICES 2010. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 4 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/cap-icel.pdf
  15. ICES, 2010c. ICES Advice 2010, Book 1. Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf
  16. ICES, 2010. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%202.pdf
  17. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.12 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland. Stock: Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Divison IIa west of 5ºW (Iceland-East Greenland-Jan Mayen area). Advice summary for 2012http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2011/ICES%20ADVICE%202011%20BOOK%202.pdf
  18. ICES, 2011b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:7). 975 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/NWWG/NWWG%20Report%202011.pdf
  19. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cap-icel.pdf
  20. ICES 2013 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). Advice February 2013http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cap-icel.pdf
  21. ICES, 2014. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.3.1 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cap-icel.pdf
  22. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic), excluding Division IIa west of 5°W (Barents Sea capelin)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  23. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland and Faroes grounds, East Greenland, Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  24. ICES, 2015. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Icelandic Stocks (WKICE), 26- 30 January 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2015/ACOM:31. 325 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2015/WKICE%202015/wkice_2015_final.pdf
  25. JEU 2014. REGULATIONS COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014. Official Journal of the European Unionhttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  26. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2014. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2013/2014 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2014/2015. 2.24 Capelin: 70-71 http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2014/english/24-capelin-14.pdf
  27. MRI, 2010. English summary of the State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2009/2010 –Prospects for the Quota Year 2010/2011.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2010/35-engl-sum.PDF
  28. MRI, 2011. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2010/2011 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2011/2012. Marine Research Institute. Reykjavik, Iceland. 185 pp.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2011/ASTANDSSKYRSLA_HAFRANNSOKNASTOFNUNARINNAR_2011.pdf
  29. MRI, 2012. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2011/2012 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2012/2013. Marine Research Institute nº 163. Reykjavik, Iceland.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2012/eng/22-capelin-12.PDF
  30. MRI. 2013 State of stocks 2012/2013 - Prospects 2013/2014 Capelin http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2013/english/22-capelin-13.pdf
  31. MRI, 2015. Commercial fish & fish stocks 2014/2015 2015/2016. 2:24 Capelin. Iceland http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2015/lodna_2015.pdf
  32. Nytjastofnar sjávar 2008/2009 og aflahorfur fiskveiðiárið 2009/2010. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2008/2009 Prospects for the Quota Year 2009/2010, 179 pp, In Icelandic/English summary, figure and table legends.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2009/Astandsskyrsla_2009.pdf
  33. Præbel, K., Westgaard, J. I., Fevolden, S. E., Christiansen, J. S., 2008. Circumpolar genetic population structure of capelin Mallotus villosus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360:189-199 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232703052_Circumpolar_genetic_population_structure_of_capelin_Mallotus_villosus._Mar_Ecol_Prog_Ser
  34. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  35. Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  36. Reiss, H., Hoarau, G., Dickey-Collas, M., Wolff, W.J., 2009. Genetic population structure of marine fish: mismatch between biological and fisheries management units. Fish and Fisheries, 2009, 10, 361–395. http://www.rug.nl/research/marine-benthic-ecology-and-evolution/publications/_pdf/2009/2009-reissfishfisheries.pdf
  37. Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWFhttp://www.mpaglobal.org
  38. World Fishing News. 2016. Institute recommends capelin TAC. http://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
References

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