Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 17 February 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Mallotus villosus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Capelin

COMMON NAMES

Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen Area

Capelin in the Iceland East Greenland-Jan Mayen area is considered to be a separate stock (ICES, 2015) for assessment purposes. Genetic studies were almost solely focused on large-scale differentiation between populations (Reiss et al., 2009). Some microsatellite data within Northeast Atlantic were less conclusive in differentiating populations (Praebel et al., 2008).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • The stock size has been well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The assessment model and harvest control rule consider the role of capelin as a key prey item.
  • Catches have been around the set Total Allowable Catch.
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities. The fishery does not interact with protected species. Temporary area closures are enforced in Icelandic waters to protect juveniles.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.The portion of immature capelin is in a very low abundance, at 9.4 billion in 2016, well below the trigger value of 50 billion.
  • ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole Harvest Control Rule.
  • Acoustic surveys to assess the stock are highly dependent on the weather conditions and contribute to the uncertainties in the determination of the stock status.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.9

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Advocate that scientists and managers work together to establish biologically-based reference points.
  • Work with scientific institutions to continue and expand assessment of the environmental impact of the fishery.
  • Push managers to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based fisheries management and, in particular, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species when setting catch limits.
  • Encourage the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to commission a peer review of the stock assessment, including evaluation of the current acoustic monitoring survey to ensure optimal coverage and minimization of uncertainty.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • ISF Iceland capelin:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic Iceland, Greenland and Norway Iceland Midwater trawls
Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 9 August 2017

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • The stock size has been well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The assessment model and harvest control rule consider the role of capelin as a key prey item.
  • Catches have been around the set Total Allowable Catch.
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities. The fishery does not interact with protected species. Temporary area closures are enforced in Icelandic waters to protect juveniles.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.The portion of immature capelin is in a very low abundance, at 9.4 billion in 2016, well below the trigger value of 50 billion.
  • ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole Harvest Control Rule.
  • Acoustic surveys to assess the stock are highly dependent on the weather conditions and contribute to the uncertainties in the determination of the stock status.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 3 September 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Advocate that scientists and managers work together to establish biologically-based reference points.
  • Work with scientific institutions to continue and expand assessment of the environmental impact of the fishery.
  • Push managers to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based fisheries management and, in particular, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species when setting catch limits.
  • Encourage the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to commission a peer review of the stock assessment, including evaluation of the current acoustic monitoring survey to ensure optimal coverage and minimization of uncertainty.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 7 August 2017

An assessment benchmark was undertaken in late January 2015 and a new Harvest Control Rule (HCR) following the acoustic assessment surveys was proposed. This new approach is based on leaving more than 150 thousand tons for spawning with more than 95% probability. 

This year’s advice is based on a greater spatial coverage than in previous years. Two acoustic surveys are conducted yearly since 1978 to assess the mature part of the stock: in autumn (September-December) and in winter (January-February). The operations are highly dependent on the weather conditions and aggregation of capelin, which occasionally influences uncertainties in the stock assessment (ICES 2017). The model used includes predation by cod, haddock and saithe and uncertainties from the surveys performed (MFRI 2017)

ICES recommends the evaluation of assumptions and practical operation of the HCR in the upcoming years as well as different kinds of studies such as optimal harvesting of the fishery, biological studies regarding the life history and ecological key role of capelin. Known restrictions of the surveys performed to assess the stock should be planned and weighted to attain a better coverage (ICES 2017). Changes in the stock distribution are related to climate changes, affecting the results of the autumn survey (Carscadden et al. 2013). The peer review of the assessment conducted by the Icelandic Marine Research Institute is also suggested (ICES 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 7 August 2017

The advice is based on the new HCR agreed by the Coastal States (Iceland, Greenland and Norway) in 2015 that aims to leave at least 150,000 t for spawning (escapement strategy) (ICES 2017). This review of the HCR, first established in 1979, is in accordance with the precautionary approach and considers predation on capelin and the spawning season (Kvamsdal et al. 2016). However ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole HCR (ICES 2017).   

Two fixed points were defined for the HCR: Utrigger = 50 billion immature capelin and TACMAX = 400 kt for U >127 billion immature capelin. The agreed method for setting the initial/preliminary TAC was:

  • TAC = 5.2x(Uimm–Utrigger) kt for Uimm in the range 50–127 billion.
  • TAC = 0 if Uimm <50 billion.
  • TAC = 400 kt if Uimm >127 billion.

The final TAC is likewise based on <5% probability of SSB< Blim this is accomplished by

  1. bootstrapping the historical January acoustic estimate and finding the 95% lower confident limit;
  2. adding catches taken before the January survey;
  3. subtracting 300 kt (Blim=150 kt and an allowance of 150 kt for predation, set at the average model estimate from survey to spawning); and
  4. setting up a regression model with this value vs. acoustic indices of immature capelin. The slope of the regression line is 5.2.

As for 2016/2017 ICES and the MRI advised that the initial quota for the 2017/2018 fishing year be set a zero as there was a > than 95% chance that the stock was above Blim. The immature portion of the stock is well below the trigger value (ICES 2017). The intermediate and final advice TACs for 2017/2018 are not yet available at the time of this profile update (will be published in autumn 2017 and January/February 2018, respectively) (ICES 2017).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

A new benchmark assessment was undertaken in late January 2015 and a biomass limit reference point was proposed at 150 thousand tons, at Bloss level (ICES, 2015). Exploitation estimates are not in use. 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 7 August 2017

Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of Icelandic capelin is considered very variable, as it is mostly dependent on one age group (ICES, 2011b). 

ICES indicates that the SSB in spring 2017 was at 361,000 t. Portion of immature capelin was encountered in a very low abundance, at 9.4 billion, well below the trigger value of 50 billion. Though lower than previous years, ICES notes that 2016 onwards SSB is not comparable to other years as a new methodology which has different assumptions of natural mortality is being used (ICES 2017).

TRENDS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

Parental biomass (SSB) has oscillated roughly from 304,000 t to 650,000 t since 1999, showing no clear trend. ICES notes that the 2016 estimate of SSB assumes a different natural mortality, so the results are not comparable with past yearsRecruitment estimates are lower over the recent past than historically, suggesting impending decline if accurate. Overall stock is experiencing lower recruitment than in previous decades (ICES 2017). The stock collapsed twice, giving room to moratoriums in 1982 and the early 1990s. And lower stock levels and catches are shown after 2004/2005 than in mid-1990s (Kvamsdal et al. 2016).  

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 7 August 2017

This stock is jointly managed by Iceland, Norway and Greenland. The fishery is based on the maturing portion of the stock taking place from late June to the end of March of the following year (Kvamsdal et al. 2016).   

According to ICES the fishery is managed in line with a two-step management plan which sets an initial quota based on acoustic surveys the previous year, and then sets a final quota which regulates harvest such that a minimum spawning-stock biomass of < 150 kt has less than a 5% probability of occurring (ICES, 2015).  An initial TAC is set at the catch given the juvenile abundance (ages 1-2) estimated according to the autumn acoustic survey. An intermediate TAC is based on in-season acoustic survey results performed in autumn 2017 and a final TAC (released in winter) is grounded on the autumn and/or winter 2017/2018 surveys conducted.

In 2017 ICES and MRI advised that the initial quota for the 2017/2018 fishing year be set at zero as there was a > than 95% chance that the stock was above Blim (ICES 2017; MFRI 2017). In the previous fishing season (2016/2017) zero catches were also advised as an initial TAC. This was later revised to 54,000 t and later 299,000 t based on new information. Managers have since set the quota at 299,000 t based on this information and new advice (FiskerForum 2017).

As agreed by the coastal states pelagic trawls are not allowed to operate in the summer fishery to protect the juvenile portion of the stock. Besides, area closures are defined when the proportion of juveniles (individuals < 14cm) exceeds 20% of the catch for up to 2 weeks (ICES 2017).  

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 10 April 2017

The HCR in place is the basis for management:  an initial quota is set following the rule developed by ICES (2015), with a very low probability of being higher than a regression estimated final TAC. This is followed by an intermediate TAC set in the autumn and a final TAC set in winter, that will have a >95% probability of SSB being greater than or equal to Blim at spawning time in the following spring (ICES 2017)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 3 May 2017

Harvester compliance has been strong. Although preliminary, catches in 2016/2017 are close to the final TAC set for the fishing season at 299,000 t. Discards are considered negligible (ICES 2017).

Juvenile areas have been protected from midwater trawling and harvesters have complied with these measures as well. In Icelandic waters, only purse-seiners are allowed in these areas to target capelin. Observers are frequently on board vessels during autumn fisheries in areas where juveniles are likely to occur. Catch transfers are allowed between purse-seine boats to avoid slippage, if the catches are beyond the carrying capacity of the vessel. However, slippage has not been frequent in last years. Catch sensors are used to avoid too large catches (ICES, 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 7 August 2017

The seabird community in Icelandic waters is composed of relatively few but abundant species, accounting for roughly ¼ of total number and biomass of seabirds within the ICES area. At least 12 species of cetaceans occur regularly in Icelandic waters, and an additional 10 species have been recorded more sporadically; the most abundant cetacean off the Icelandic continental shelf is the common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (IUCN status: “Least Concern”) (ICES, 2010b). Two species of seals, common seal Phoca vitulina and grey seal Halicoerus grypus breed in Icelandic waters, while 5 northern species of pinnipeds are also found in the area (ICES, 2010b).

There are no official reports of impacts of the Icelandic capelin fishery on Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 7 August 2017

In the Icelandic pelagic fisheries, catch other than the targeted species is considered rare. Discarding is allowed when catches surpass the carrying capacity of the vessel, but are almost zero due to methods of transferring catches between purse-seiners. Catch sensors are used, which helps reduce the need to discard (ICES, 2010a,b; ICES, 2014). 

HABITAT

Last updated on 7 August 2017

The sea bottom topography around Iceland is generally irregular, with hard rocky bottom prevailing in most areas; and in some cases the shelf around Iceland is cut by many sub‐sea canyons. At present considerably large coral areas exist on the Reykjanes Ridge and off SE-Iceland. Other known coral areas are small (Steingrímsson and Einarsson, 2004 in ICES, 2010b). Many of the cold-water coral areas that have been surveyed have already been destroyed. Currently, 5 areas with relatively undisturbed cold-water corals have received full protection and several other areas are under consideration for further protection. Gorgonian corals occur all around Iceland but these are relatively uncommon on the shelf (< 500 m depth) but can be found in relatively high numbers in deep waters (> 500 m) off south, west and north coasts of Iceland (ICES, 2012b).

As in other pelagic fisheries, no direct effects on the sea floor or benthic communities are known to occur in the Icelandic capelin fishery. 98% of catches are captured by purse-seines (ICES 2017).

Spawning takes place in March-April. The main spawning grounds are shallow waters on the sea bed off the south and west coasts (ICES, 2012b). Capelin have shifted their larval drift and nursing areas west-wards to the colder waters off E-Greenland. Furthermore, the arrival of adult capelin to the overwintering grounds on the outer shelf off N-Iceland has been delayed and migration routes to the spawning grounds are currently located farther off N- and E-Iceland. These changes in the spatial distribution patterns of capelin may have had an effect on the growth rate of various predators (e.g.cod) in recent years (ICES, 2012b).

Capelin plays an important role in the shelf food web, being important in the diet of cod as well as a number of other fish stocks, marine mammals and seabirds. A decline in the stock may be expected to have implications on the productivity of their predators (ICES, 2014). 

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 7 August 2017

Iceland anticipates three different types of area closures: Real Time, Permanent, and Temporary; still, the latter measure has not been related to the capelin fishery:

Real Time and Temporary area closure: A quick closure system has been in force since 1976 with the objective to protect juvenile fish. Fishing is prohibited for at least two weeks in areas where the number of small fish (< 14 cm) measured by inspectors exceeds 20% of the catch (ICES 2017). If, in a given area, there are several consecutive quick closures the Minister of Fisheries can with regulations close the area for longer time forcing the fleet to operate in other areas. Inspectors from the Directorate of Fisheries supervise these closures in collaboration with the Marine Research Institute.

Permanent area closure: In addition to allocating quotas on each species, there are other measures in place to protect fish stocks. Based on knowledge on the biology of various stocks, many areas have been closed aiming at protecting juveniles. Some of them are temporary, but others have been closed for fishery for decades.

Seven designated Nature Reserves, established from 1974 to 1988, and one Conservation Area, designated in 1995, exist along the Icelandic coast and off Surtsey Island totaling 3,507 km2 (Wood, 2007). Iceland has 39 marine protected areas (in accordance with the OSPAR definition), including 11 relative large areas and 16 offshore areas, which are closed year-round or seasonally or have restricted access for fisheries management purposes (detailed information in Hoyt, 2005).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 21 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The fishery is managed according to a two-step management plan and a provisional Total Allowable Catch (TAC) has been defined until further information on the stock sizes becomes available during the year (ICES, 2014; MRI, 2015; ICES, 2017a). It is not known if the harvest control rule is precautionary (it is only the initial TAC). ICES 2015 indicates using the 95% limit for stock size is precautionary but other aspects of the HCR are not.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TAC is 299 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 299 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 300 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 299 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 100%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The portion of immature capelin was encountered in a very low abundance at 9.4 billion in 2016, well below the trigger value of 50 billion (ICES, 2017b). The stock is however considered to be in a full reproductive capacity, with the spawning stock at 361,000 t, well above the limit biological reference point established (ICES, 2017a).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The Marine Research Institute of Iceland has concluded that the fishable and spawning biomass of the capelin stock in Icelandic waters high enough to support an increase in the quota during 2017 to 299,000 t (MRI, 2017; ICES, 2017a,b).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. Catches, biomass, and quotas are based on the fishing year rather than the calendar year. 2017 values regard the 2016/2017 fishing year. 2017 catches are preliminary (ICES 2017).    
  2. Spawning Stock Biomass estimate in 2016 and 2017 used a new method to better account for natural mortality. As such the estimates from 2016 onwards are not comparable to previous years. Estimates of stock relative to the biological limit reference point are similarly not comparable with other years. The current health and future health scores regard the 2016/2017 fishing season.
  3. An initial advised Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for the 2017/2018 fishing season is advised at zero t and is available in June considering the autumn survey.
  4. The final TAC (as shown in the graph above) will be reviewed in autumn 2017 and published in January/February 2018.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

ISF Iceland capelin

STATUS

MSC Certified on 18 April 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 87.5
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 92.3
Principle 3 – Management System 92.9

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Astthorsson, O. S., and A. Gislason 1998. Short communication: environmental conditions, zooplankton and capelin in the waters north of Iceland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 808–810.
  2. Björnsson, H., Stefánsson, N., Sigurgeirsson, H., and Stefánsson, G. 1997. BORMICON. Líkan til könnunar á samspili fiskstofna í norðurhöfum (BORMICON; A BOReal MIgration and CONsumption model.) In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 379–411. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  3. Bogason, V. 1997. Fæða landsels (Phoca vitulina) við Ísland. (The food of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) at Iceland). In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 319–330. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  4. Directorate of Fisheries, 2015.Increased capelin quotas 2014/2015.Available online at 4th February 2015.http://www.fiskistofa.is/english/news/nr/1245
  5. Directorate of Fisheries. 2016. Capelin quotas for 2015/2016. Directorate of Fisheries. Icelandhttp://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
  6. Hoyt, E., 2005. Habitat protection for cetaceans around the world: status and prospects. In: Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises: A World Handbook for Cetacean Habitat Conservation (eds E. Hoyt), 1st Edn. Earthscan, Wiltshire, pp. 87-418 http://www.google.com/books?hl=pt-PT&lr=&id=k_vKoL6mKWcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=%22marine+protected+areas%22+iceland+2008&ots=RmXE67x8hW&sig=B2kDTxyiX5a013PPgAB3TjXAfZs#v=onepage&q=iceland&f=false
  7. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), 2012. Management, Total Allowable Catch. [Assessed on 22nd March 2012]http://www.fisheries.is/management/total-allowable-catch/
  8. ICES, 2008. Advice for Icelandic capelin in the Iceland East Greenland Jan Mayen area (Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W). Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee in the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2008. ICES Advice. Book 2, section 2.4.11. 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/cap-icel.pdf
  9. ICES, 2008. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 21 - 29 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2008 /ACOM:03. 604 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/NWWG/NWWG08.pdf
  10. ICES 2009a. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/cap-icel.pdf
  11. ICES 2009b. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen area. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2012%20-%20Capelin%20in%20the%20Iceland-East%20Greenland%20-%20Jan%20Mayen%20area.pdf
  12. ICES 2009c. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Overview on ecosystem, fisheries and their management in Icelandic waters. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2001%20-%20Introduction%20and%20Exec.%20Summary.pdf
  13. ICES, 2010b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April - 4 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:07). 751 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/NWWG/Exec.%20Summary%20and%20Sec%2001%20Introduction.pdf
  14. ICES 2010. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 4 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/cap-icel.pdf
  15. ICES, 2010c. ICES Advice 2010, Book 1. Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf
  16. ICES, 2010. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%202.pdf
  17. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.12 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland. Stock: Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Divison IIa west of 5ºW (Iceland-East Greenland-Jan Mayen area). Advice summary for 2012http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2011/ICES%20ADVICE%202011%20BOOK%202.pdf
  18. ICES, 2011b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:7). 975 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/NWWG/NWWG%20Report%202011.pdf
  19. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cap-icel.pdf
  20. ICES 2013 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). Advice February 2013http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cap-icel.pdf
  21. ICES, 2014. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.3.1 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cap-icel.pdf
  22. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic), excluding Division IIa west of 5°W (Barents Sea capelin)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  23. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland and Faroes grounds, East Greenland, Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  24. ICES, 2015. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Icelandic Stocks (WKICE), 26- 30 January 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2015/ACOM:31. 325 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2015/WKICE%202015/wkice_2015_final.pdf
  25. JEU 2014. REGULATIONS COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014. Official Journal of the European Unionhttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  26. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2014. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2013/2014 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2014/2015. 2.24 Capelin: 70-71 http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2014/english/24-capelin-14.pdf
  27. MRI, 2010. English summary of the State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2009/2010 –Prospects for the Quota Year 2010/2011.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2010/35-engl-sum.PDF
  28. MRI, 2011. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2010/2011 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2011/2012. Marine Research Institute. Reykjavik, Iceland. 185 pp.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2011/ASTANDSSKYRSLA_HAFRANNSOKNASTOFNUNARINNAR_2011.pdf
  29. MRI, 2012. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2011/2012 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2012/2013. Marine Research Institute nº 163. Reykjavik, Iceland.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2012/eng/22-capelin-12.PDF
  30. MRI. 2013 State of stocks 2012/2013 - Prospects 2013/2014 Capelin http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2013/english/22-capelin-13.pdf
  31. MRI, 2015. Commercial fish & fish stocks 2014/2015 2015/2016. 2:24 Capelin. Iceland http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2015/lodna_2015.pdf
  32. Nytjastofnar sjávar 2008/2009 og aflahorfur fiskveiðiárið 2009/2010. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2008/2009 Prospects for the Quota Year 2009/2010, 179 pp, In Icelandic/English summary, figure and table legends.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2009/Astandsskyrsla_2009.pdf
  33. Præbel, K., Westgaard, J. I., Fevolden, S. E., Christiansen, J. S., 2008. Circumpolar genetic population structure of capelin Mallotus villosus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360:189-199 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232703052_Circumpolar_genetic_population_structure_of_capelin_Mallotus_villosus._Mar_Ecol_Prog_Ser
  34. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  35. Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  36. Reiss, H., Hoarau, G., Dickey-Collas, M., Wolff, W.J., 2009. Genetic population structure of marine fish: mismatch between biological and fisheries management units. Fish and Fisheries, 2009, 10, 361–395. http://www.rug.nl/research/marine-benthic-ecology-and-evolution/publications/_pdf/2009/2009-reissfishfisheries.pdf
  37. Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWFhttp://www.mpaglobal.org
  38. World Fishing News. 2016. Institute recommends capelin TAC. http://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
References

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