Last updated on 25 July 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Mallotus villosus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Capelin

COMMON NAMES

Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen Area

Capelin in the Iceland East Greenland-Jan Mayen area is considered to be a separate stock (ICES, 2015) for assessment purposes. Genetic studies were almost solely focused on large-scale differentiation between populations (Reiss et al., 2009). Some microsatellite data within Northeast Atlantic were less conclusive in differentiating populations (Praebel et al., 2008).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • The stock size has been well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The assessment model and harvest control rule consider the role of capelin as a key prey item.
  • Catches have been around the set Total Allowable Catch.
  • Bycatch is considered negligible and there are no official reports of interactions of this fishery with ETP species.
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities. The fishery does not interact with protected species. Temporary area closures are enforced in Icelandic waters to protect juveniles.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.The portion of immature capelin is in a very low abundance, at 26.1 billion in 2017, well below the trigger value of 50 billion.
  • ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole Harvest Control Rule.
  • Acoustic surveys to assess the stock are highly dependent on the weather conditions and contribute to the uncertainties in the determination of the stock status.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.9

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with scientists and managers to review the existing harvest strategy, harvest control rule and TAC setting procedures to ensure that these are appropriately precautionary, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species.
  • Encourage the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to commission a peer review of the stock assessment, including evaluation of the current acoustic monitoring survey to ensure optimal coverage and minimization of uncertainty.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • ISF Iceland capelin:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Icelandic Iceland, Greenland and Norway Iceland Midwater trawls
Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 June 2018

Strengths
  • A two-stage management process ensures biomass is above the target escapement threshold before fishing can commence: in the last years, reproductive stock has been above the targeted escapement biomass.
  • The stock size has been well above the biomass limit reference point. 
  • The stock assessment was benchmarked in January 2015.
  • The assessment model and harvest control rule consider the role of capelin as a key prey item.
  • Catches have been around the set Total Allowable Catch.
  • Bycatch is considered negligible and there are no official reports of interactions of this fishery with ETP species.
  • The pelagic fishery is thought to raise little effects on the seafloor or benthic communities. The fishery does not interact with protected species. Temporary area closures are enforced in Icelandic waters to protect juveniles.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment is below average over the recent time period.The portion of immature capelin is in a very low abundance, at 26.1 billion in 2017, well below the trigger value of 50 billion.
  • ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole Harvest Control Rule.
  • Acoustic surveys to assess the stock are highly dependent on the weather conditions and contribute to the uncertainties in the determination of the stock status.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 6 September 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with scientists and managers to review the existing harvest strategy, harvest control rule and TAC setting procedures to ensure that these are appropriately precautionary, especially considering the importance of capelin as a forage species.
  • Encourage the Icelandic Marine Research Institute to commission a peer review of the stock assessment, including evaluation of the current acoustic monitoring survey to ensure optimal coverage and minimization of uncertainty.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 19 June 2018

An assessment benchmark was undertaken in late January 2015 and a new Harvest Control Rule (HCR) following the acoustic assessment surveys was proposed. This new approach is based on leaving more than 150 thousand tons for spawning with more than 95% probability. 

Two acoustic surveys are conducted yearly since 1978 to assess the mature part of the stock: in autumn (September-December) and in winter (January-February). The surveys in autumn have a dual purpose, aimed at covering both the immature and the mature part of the stock; the winter surveys in January–March target the spawning migration. The operations are highly dependent on the weather conditions and aggregation of capelin, which occasionally influences uncertainties in the stock assessment (ICES 2017). The acoustic surveys provide absolute biomass estimates of the spawning stock and numerical abundance indices of the immature fraction (1-2 yr old) of the stock. These estimates are fed directly into the management of the stock (SAI Global 2017). The model used includes predation by cod, haddock and saithe and uncertainties from the surveys performed (MFRI 2017)

ICES recommends the evaluation of assumptions and practical operation of the HCR in the upcoming years as well as different kinds of studies such as optimal harvesting of the fishery, biological studies regarding the life history and ecological key role of capelin. Known restrictions of the surveys performed to assess the stock should be planned and weighted to attain a better coverage (ICES 2017). Changes in the stock distribution are related to climate changes, affecting the results of the autumn survey (Carscadden et al. 2013). The peer review of the assessment conducted by the Icelandic Marine Research Institute is also suggested (ICES 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 June 2018

A benchmark assessment was undertaken in late January 2015 and a biomass limit reference point was proposed at 150 thousand tons, at Bloss level (ICES, 2015). Exploitation estimates are not in use. 

The advice is based on the new HCR agreed by the Coastal States (Iceland, Greenland and Norway) in 2015 that aims to leave at least 150,000 t for spawning (escapement strategy) (ICES 2017). This review of the HCR, first established in 1979, is in accordance with the precautionary approach and considers predation on capelin and the spawning season (Kvamsdal et al. 2016). However ICES only considers the initial TAC as precautionary and not the whole HCR (ICES 2017).   

Two fixed points were defined for the HCR: Utrigger = 50 billion immature capelin and TACMAX = 400 kt for U >127 billion immature capelin. The agreed method for setting the initial/preliminary TAC was:

  • TAC = 5.2x(Uimm–Utrigger) kt for Uimm in the range 50–127 billion.
  • TAC = 0 if Uimm <50 billion.
  • TAC = 400 kt if Uimm >127 billion.

The final TAC is likewise based on <5% probability of SSB< Blim this is accomplished by

  1. bootstrapping the historical January acoustic estimate and finding the 95% lower confident limit;
  2. adding catches taken before the January survey;
  3. subtracting 300 kt (Blim=150 kt and an allowance of 150 kt for predation, set at the average model estimate from survey to spawning); and
  4. setting up a regression model with this value vs. acoustic indices of immature capelin. The slope of the regression line is 5.2.

As for 2017/2018 fishing season ICES and the MRI advised an initial quota of zero tons. The immature portion of the stock was well below the trigger value (ICES 2017)(MRI 2017). An intermediate quota of 208,000 tons was advised by the MRI in October 2017 (MRI 2017), and was later updated to 285,000 tons in February 2018 (final quota) (MRI 2018). As for the 2018/2019 season, ICES advised that when the harvest control rule agreed by the Coastal States is applied, the initial TAC for the fishing season 2018/2019 should be zero tonnes (ICES 2017). The intermediate and final advice TACs for 2018/2019 are not yet available at the time of this profile update (will be published in autumn 2018 and January/February 2019, respectively).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 19 June 2018

Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of Icelandic capelin is considered very variable, as it is mostly dependent on one age group (ICES, 2011b). 

Approximately 849,000 tonnes of mature capelin were measured in the first coverage of the winter survey conducted by the MRI in January 2018, with a CV of 0.38 which is the highest CV observed since the HCR was adopted in 2015. In the second coverage, also in January 2018, the estimate was 759,000 tonnes with a CV of 0.19 (MRI 2018). The predation model (ICES 2015), accounting for the catches of 285 000 t and predation between survey and spawning by cod, saith and haddock, estimated that 364,000 t were left for spawning in spring 2018 (MRI 2018).

Portion of inmmature capelin was encountered in a low abundance (26,1 billion)  as compared to the trigger value of 50 billion, but represents a significant increase as compared to previous year (9,4 billion) (ICES 2017). Overall stock is experiencing lower recruitment than in previous decades (ICES 2017). The stock collapsed twice, giving room to moratoriums in 1982 and the early 1990s.

ICES notes that 2016 onwards SSB is not comparable to other years as a new methodology which has different assumptions of natural mortality is being used (ICES 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 19 June 2018

Part of the Icelandic capelin stock migrates seasonally into the jurisdiction of the Greenland and Norwegian fisheries. The capelin is therefore a shared stock and it s jointly managed by Iceland, Norway and Greenland. Through an agreement, the Icelandic Ministry of Industries and Innovation determines the annual TAC to be shared between the three countries. The agreement from 2003 states that Iceland’s share in the TAC should be 81%, Greenland’s 11% and Norway’s 8%. These shares have not been disputed so far (SAI Global 2017).

The fishery is based on the maturing portion of the stock taking place from late June to the end of March of the following year (Kvamsdal et al. 2016).   

According to ICES the fishery is managed in line with a two-step management plan which sets an initial quota based on acoustic surveys the previous year, and then sets a final quota which regulates harvest such that a minimum spawning-stock biomass of < 150 kt has less than a 5% probability of occurring (ICES, 2015).  An initial TAC is set at the catch given the juvenile abundance (ages 1-2) estimated according to the autumn acoustic survey. An intermediate TAC is based on in-season acoustic survey results performed in autumn 2017 and a final TAC (released in winter) is grounded on the autumn and/or winter 2017/2018 surveys conducted. There is no Ftarget or F at low biomass as the current harvest control rule is a pure escapement strategy (ICES 2015).

Zero catches were advised as an initial TAC for the 2017/2018 fishing season (ICES 2017). This advise was later revised to 208,000 t (MRI 2017) and finally adjusted to 285,000 t based on new information and surveys (MRI 2018). Managers are expected to set the quota for the 2017/2018 fishing season at 285,000 t based on this information. The initial quota for the 2018/2019 fishing year has been set at zero tonnes following the harvest control rule agreed by the Coastal States  (ICES 2017).

The fishery is managed through Individual Transferable Quotas allocated to individual vessels.

As agreed by the coastal states pelagic trawls are not allowed to operate in the summer fishery to protect the juvenile portion of the stock. Besides, area closures are defined when the proportion of juveniles (individuals < 14cm) exceeds 20% of the catch for up to 2 weeks (ICES 2017).  Juvenile areas have been protected from midwater trawling and harvesters have complied with these measures as well. In Icelandic waters, only purse-seiners are allowed in these areas to target capelin.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 19 June 2018

Fishers compliance has been strong. Catches in 2016/2017 (300,000 tons; preliminary) were close to the final TAC set for the fishing season at 299,000 t. All the vessels have to report the logbook, even if it is a manually logbook. On board inspectors are present on many of the vessels and is a legal requirement when fishing in certain designated areas (SAI Global 2017).

Discards are considered negligible (ICES 2017): there is no discarding of capelin and there are no reported cases of slippages in the capelin fishery in Iceland (SAI Global 2017). As a consequence the landings figures are considered by the ICES assessment working group to be a fair reflection of the actual catch (SAI Global 2017).

The Icelandic Coast Guard monitors fishing activities in Icelandic waters, including surveillance of areas closed for fishing and inspection of mesh sizes and other gear related practices (SAI Global 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 19 June 2018

The seabird community in Icelandic waters is composed of relatively few but abundant species, accounting for roughly ¼ of total number and biomass of seabirds within the ICES area. At least 12 species of cetaceans occur regularly in Icelandic waters, and an additional 10 species have been recorded more sporadically; the most abundant cetacean off the Icelandic continental shelf is the common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (IUCN status: “Least Concern”) (ICES, 2010b). Two species of seals, common seal Phoca vitulina and grey seal Halicoerus grypus breed in Icelandic waters, while 5 northern species of pinnipeds are also found in the area (ICES, 2010b).

According to the MSC assessment team (SAI Global 2017) the following ETP species have the potential to interact with this fishery: Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), Blainville´s (Mesoplodon densirostris), Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), Bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus), Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), Common or harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), Cuvier´s beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris), Fin whale (Balaenopterus physalus), Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), Grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus), Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Killer whale (Orcinus orca), Long- finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Sowerby´s (Mesoplodon bidens), Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), White-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), Brunnich Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Guillemot (Uria aalge), Razorbill (Alca torda), Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis).

The legislation in Iceland regarding ETP species is regulated by the Icelandic legislation (557/2007) who states to complete the logbook where any interaction or catch of birds or other endangered species must be reported to the Directorate of Fisheries.

There are no official reports of impacts of the Icelandic capelin fishery on ETP species. However, (Basran 2014) reported some interactions between humpback whales and the capelin fishery in Iceland through encirclement in purse seines. However, the same source reports that in most cases the fishermen are able to lower the net and release the whales even if it means a loss of catches. The MRI is not aware of any of these interactions resulting in serious injury or mortality to humpback whales (SAI Global 2017).

Indirect effects of the fishery on ETP species are unlikely to be beyond acceptable limits according to the MSC assessemnt team, although there is a lack of information on how the capelin could affect the feeding patterns of whales and seasbirds (SAI Global 2017).

Other Species

Last updated on 19 June 2018

The Icelandic Directorate of Fisheries (DoF) provides the total composition of catches by vessels. According to this entity, catches for the period 2011-2016 were composed almost exclusively by capelin (99.98%), with some anecdotic catches of cod (0.01%) and haddock (<0.01%). Therefore, the only target species of this fishery is capelin and bycatch can be considered negligible. A landing obligation is implemented in the fishery. Discarding is allowed when catches surpass the carrying capacity of the vessel, but are almost zero due to methods of transferring catches between purse-seiners. Catch sensors are used, which helps reduce the need to discard. Observers are frequently on board vessels during autumn fisheries in areas where juveniles are likely to occur. (ICES, 2010a,b; ICES, 2014). 

HABITAT

Last updated on 19 June 2018

Detailed maps of the seabed of the areas where this fishery operates are available through the EMODnet sea habitats project. The sea bottom topography around Iceland is generally irregular, with hard rocky bottom prevailing in most areas; and in some cases the shelf around Iceland is cut by many sub‐sea canyons. At present considerably large coral areas exist on the Reykjanes Ridge and off SE-Iceland. Other known coral areas are small (Steingrímsson and Einarsson, 2004 in ICES, 2010b). Many of the cold-water coral areas that have been surveyed have already been destroyed. Currently, 5 areas with relatively undisturbed cold-water corals have received full protection and several other areas are under consideration for further protection. Gorgonian corals occur all around Iceland but these are relatively uncommon on the shelf (< 500 m depth) but can be found in relatively high numbers in deep waters (> 500 m) off south, west and north coasts of Iceland (ICES, 2012b).

As in other pelagic fisheries, no direct effects on the sea floor or benthic communities are known to occur in the Icelandic capelin fishery. 98% of catches are captured by purse-seines (ICES 2017).

Iceland anticipates three different types of area closures: Real Time, Permanent, and Temporary; still, the latter measure has not been related to the capelin fishery:

Real Time and Temporary area closure: A quick closure system has been in force since 1976 with the objective to protect juvenile fish. Fishing is prohibited for at least two weeks in areas where the number of small fish (< 14 cm) measured by inspectors exceeds 20% of the catch (ICES 2017). If, in a given area, there are several consecutive quick closures the Minister of Fisheries can with regulations close the area for longer time forcing the fleet to operate in other areas. Inspectors from the Directorate of Fisheries supervise these closures in collaboration with the Marine Research Institute.

Permanent area closure: In addition to allocating quotas on each species, there are other measures in place to protect fish stocks. Based on knowledge on the biology of various stocks, many areas have been closed aiming at protecting juveniles. Some of them are temporary, but others have been closed for fishery for decades.

Seven designated Nature Reserves, established from 1974 to 1988, and one Conservation Area, designated in 1995, exist along the Icelandic coast and off Surtsey Island totaling 3,507 km2 (Wood, 2007). Iceland has 39 marine protected areas (in accordance with the OSPAR definition), including 11 relative large areas and 16 offshore areas, which are closed year-round or seasonally or have restricted access for fisheries management purposes (detailed information in Hoyt, 2005).

Besides, in the Icelandic EZZ there are 18 MPAs but they are not overlapped with the main capelin fishing grounds.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 15 June 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The fishery is managed according to a two-step management plan and a provisional Total Allowable Catch (TAC) has been defined until further information on the stock sizes becomes available during the year (ICES, 2014; MRI, 2015; ICES, 2017a). It is not known if the harvest control rule is precautionary (it is only the initial TAC). ICES 2015 indicates using the 95% limit for stock size is precautionary but other aspects of the HCR are not.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TAC is 285 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 285 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 9.9.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 300 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 299 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 100%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The portion of immature capelin was encountered in a very low abundance at 26,1 billion in 2017, well below the trigger value of 50 billion (MRI, 2018). The stock is however considered to be in a full reproductive capacity, with the spawning stock at 364,000 t, well above the limit biological reference point established (ICES, 2015).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The Marine Research Institute of Iceland has concluded that the fishable and spawning biomass of the capelin stock in Icelandic waters high enough to roughly maintain the quota of the last year (MRI, 2018). The proportion of immature capelin found in the last survey was still below the trigger value of 50 billion, but increased considerably with respect to previous year (from 9.4 to 26.1 million).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Information on catches, advised and set TACs are provided regularly by ICES and the Marine Research Institute.
  • Catches, biomass, and quotas are based on the fishing year rather than the calendar year. 2017 values correspond to the 2017/2018 fishing year. 
  • Catches for fishing year 2016-2017 are preliminary.
  • Spawning Stock Biomass estimate in 2016, 2017 and 2018 used a new method to better account for natural mortality and are not comparable to previous years. Estimates of stock relative to the biological limit reference point are similarly not comparable with other years. 
  • An initial advised Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for the 2018/2019 fishing season is advised at zero t. A new TAC for that fishing season will be advised after the surveys in autumn 2018 and winter 2019.
  • Scores about the management strategy, current health and future health of the stock cannot be calculated in a quantitative way due to lack of information, and therefore qualitative scores are provided.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

ISF Iceland capelin

STATUS

MSC Certified on 18 April 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 87.5
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 92.3
Principle 3 – Management System 92.9

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Astthorsson, O. S., and A. Gislason 1998. Short communication: environmental conditions, zooplankton and capelin in the waters north of Iceland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 808–810.
  2. Björnsson, H., Stefánsson, N., Sigurgeirsson, H., and Stefánsson, G. 1997. BORMICON. Líkan til könnunar á samspili fiskstofna í norðurhöfum (BORMICON; A BOReal MIgration and CONsumption model.) In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 379–411. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  3. Bogason, V. 1997. Fæða landsels (Phoca vitulina) við Ísland. (The food of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) at Iceland). In Fjölstofnarannsóknir (Multispecies Research) 1992–1995, pp. 319–330. Ed. by J. Jakobsson and Ó. K. Pálsson. Hafrannsóknastofnunin (Marine Research Institute), Reykjavík, Technical Report, 57 (In Icelandic).
  4. Directorate of Fisheries, 2015.Increased capelin quotas 2014/2015.Available online at 4th February 2015.http://www.fiskistofa.is/english/news/nr/1245
  5. Directorate of Fisheries. 2016. Capelin quotas for 2015/2016. Directorate of Fisheries. Icelandhttp://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
  6. Hoyt, E., 2005. Habitat protection for cetaceans around the world: status and prospects. In: Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises: A World Handbook for Cetacean Habitat Conservation (eds E. Hoyt), 1st Edn. Earthscan, Wiltshire, pp. 87-418 http://www.google.com/books?hl=pt-PT&lr=&id=k_vKoL6mKWcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=%22marine+protected+areas%22+iceland+2008&ots=RmXE67x8hW&sig=B2kDTxyiX5a013PPgAB3TjXAfZs#v=onepage&q=iceland&f=false
  7. Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (IMFA), 2012. Management, Total Allowable Catch. [Assessed on 22nd March 2012]http://www.fisheries.is/management/total-allowable-catch/
  8. ICES, 2008. Advice for Icelandic capelin in the Iceland East Greenland Jan Mayen area (Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W). Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee in the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2008. ICES Advice. Book 2, section 2.4.11. 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/cap-icel.pdf
  9. ICES, 2008. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 21 - 29 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2008 /ACOM:03. 604 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/NWWG/NWWG08.pdf
  10. ICES 2009a. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 5 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/cap-icel.pdf
  11. ICES 2009b. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Capelin in the Iceland/Greenland/Jan Mayen area. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2012%20-%20Capelin%20in%20the%20Iceland-East%20Greenland%20-%20Jan%20Mayen%20area.pdf
  12. ICES 2009c. North-Western Working Group, 29 April – 5 May 2009. Overview on ecosystem, fisheries and their management in Icelandic waters. 23 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/NWWG/Sec%2001%20-%20Introduction%20and%20Exec.%20Summary.pdf
  13. ICES, 2010b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April - 4 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:07). 751 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/NWWG/Exec.%20Summary%20and%20Sec%2001%20Introduction.pdf
  14. ICES 2010. Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area), 4 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/cap-icel.pdf
  15. ICES, 2010c. ICES Advice 2010, Book 1. Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf
  16. ICES, 2010. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%202.pdf
  17. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: The Iceland and East Greenland 2.4.12 Ecoregion: Iceland and East Greenland. Stock: Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Divison IIa west of 5ºW (Iceland-East Greenland-Jan Mayen area). Advice summary for 2012http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2011/ICES%20ADVICE%202011%20BOOK%202.pdf
  18. ICES, 2011b. Report of the North Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April - 3 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:7). 975 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/NWWG/NWWG%20Report%202011.pdf
  19. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.4.12 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cap-icel.pdf
  20. ICES 2013 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). Advice February 2013http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cap-icel.pdf
  21. ICES, 2014. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 2: Iceland and East Greenland. 2.3.1 Capelin in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland–East Greenland–Jan Mayen area). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cap-icel.pdf
  22. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic), excluding Division IIa west of 5°W (Barents Sea capelin)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  23. ICES, 2015. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Subareas V and XIV and Division IIa west of 5°W (Iceland and Faroes grounds, East Greenland, Jan Mayen area)http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/cap-icel.pdf
  24. ICES, 2015. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Icelandic Stocks (WKICE), 26- 30 January 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2015/ACOM:31. 325 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2015/WKICE%202015/wkice_2015_final.pdf
  25. JEU 2014. REGULATIONS COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014. Official Journal of the European Unionhttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  26. Marine Research Institute (MRI), 2014. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2013/2014 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2014/2015. 2.24 Capelin: 70-71 http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2014/english/24-capelin-14.pdf
  27. MRI, 2010. English summary of the State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2009/2010 –Prospects for the Quota Year 2010/2011.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2010/35-engl-sum.PDF
  28. MRI, 2011. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2010/2011 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2011/2012. Marine Research Institute. Reykjavik, Iceland. 185 pp.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2011/ASTANDSSKYRSLA_HAFRANNSOKNASTOFNUNARINNAR_2011.pdf
  29. MRI, 2012. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2011/2012 – Prospects for the Quota Year 2012/2013. Marine Research Institute nº 163. Reykjavik, Iceland.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2012/eng/22-capelin-12.PDF
  30. MRI. 2013 State of stocks 2012/2013 - Prospects 2013/2014 Capelin http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2013/english/22-capelin-13.pdf
  31. MRI, 2015. Commercial fish & fish stocks 2014/2015 2015/2016. 2:24 Capelin. Iceland http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2015/lodna_2015.pdf
  32. Nytjastofnar sjávar 2008/2009 og aflahorfur fiskveiðiárið 2009/2010. State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic Waters 2008/2009 Prospects for the Quota Year 2009/2010, 179 pp, In Icelandic/English summary, figure and table legends.http://www.hafro.is/Astand/2009/Astandsskyrsla_2009.pdf
  33. Præbel, K., Westgaard, J. I., Fevolden, S. E., Christiansen, J. S., 2008. Circumpolar genetic population structure of capelin Mallotus villosus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360:189-199 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232703052_Circumpolar_genetic_population_structure_of_capelin_Mallotus_villosus._Mar_Ecol_Prog_Ser
  34. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  35. Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  36. Reiss, H., Hoarau, G., Dickey-Collas, M., Wolff, W.J., 2009. Genetic population structure of marine fish: mismatch between biological and fisheries management units. Fish and Fisheries, 2009, 10, 361–395. http://www.rug.nl/research/marine-benthic-ecology-and-evolution/publications/_pdf/2009/2009-reissfishfisheries.pdf
  37. Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWFhttp://www.mpaglobal.org
  38. World Fishing News. 2016. Institute recommends capelin TAC. http://www.fiskerforum.dk/en/news/b/institute-recommends-capelin-tac
References

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