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SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 28 February 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lutjanus campechanus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Northern red snapper

COMMON NAMES

Huachinango de castilla, Guachinango

The stock structure of the species in Mexican waters is unknown but a biological stock exists in US waters. A management unit is therefore considered to exist in Mexico Gulf of Mexico in lack of a formal stock assessment (SAGARPA 2012).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A network of marine protected areas is established and protected species identified.
  • A closed season is established.
  • ETP/bycatch is not thought to be a concern.
Weaknesses
  • No specific scientific recommendations are known to exist.
  • No catch limits are defined.
  • No abundance estimates are available or reference points.
  • The status of the stock is unknown.
  • There are signs of non-compliance in protected areas.
  • Interaction of the fishery with protected species is not known but vulnerable ones are identified.
  • The stock may be increasingly targeted as red grouper numbers fall.
Options
  • Improve data gathering as a basis for stock assessments
  • Determine the status of the stock
  • Establish reference points and catch limits
  • Ensure effort increases are avoided

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Mexico Mexico Hooks and lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 28 February 2018

Strengths
  • A network of marine protected areas is established and protected species identified.
  • A closed season is established.
  • ETP/bycatch is not thought to be a concern.
Weaknesses
  • No specific scientific recommendations are known to exist.
  • No catch limits are defined.
  • No abundance estimates are available or reference points.
  • The status of the stock is unknown.
  • There are signs of non-compliance in protected areas.
  • Interaction of the fishery with protected species is not known but vulnerable ones are identified.
  • The stock may be increasingly targeted as red grouper numbers fall.
Options
  • Improve data gathering as a basis for stock assessments
  • Determine the status of the stock
  • Establish reference points and catch limits
  • Ensure effort increases are avoided

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 28 February 2018

No stock assessment is performed for northern red snapper in Mexican waters.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 28 February 2018

The National Fisheries Institute (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, INAPESCA) belongs to the Secretary of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación, SAGARPA) and coordinates and conducts scientific and technological research on fisheries and aquaculture resources (FAO 2005) and provides the advice for CONAPESCA. Since 2000 INAPESCA creates the National Fisheries Chart (Carta Nacional Pesquera, CNP) which is updated yearly and is developed under the Fisheries Law. The CNP constitutes a state of the art review of Mexican fisheries (by species or group of species) and defines guidelines, strategies and measures for conservation, protection and management of the fishing resources.

No specific scientific recommendations are known to exist for Northern red snapper. General advice for the assemblage is to continue to control access with a gear-specific permit system, focusing on selectivity (SAGARPA 2012).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 28 February 2018

Total snapper assemblage catch should not exceed 4,295t (80% of historical maximum) in the Gulf of Mexico. No reference points are prescribed at species level (SAGARPA 2012).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 27 March 2018

In 2012 all snapper and grouper were deteriorating in Yucatán, Campeche and Veracruz, maximally exploited in Tamaulipas, Quintana Roo and Tabasco (SEMARNAT 2012). Lutjanids (primarily northern red snapper) comprised 7.3% of the grouper fishery landings in 2007 (Coronado and Salas 2011) though this may have risen is the grouper stocks are deteriorating and fishermen increasingly targeting other stocks (Trejo-Martínez et al. 2010). Red snapper comprises 90% of snapper complex catches in the Yucatan (SAGARPA 2012). No recent information is available. Annual catches around 5,250t in 2017.

Considered overfished across Venezuela, USA, Mexico, and Cuba, with medium uncertainty (FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Dept and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2011).

TRENDS

Due to deterioration of red grouper (Epinephelus morio), snappers are more frequently targeted by commercial fishers, especially northern red snapper and yellowtail snapper (Trejo-Martínez et al. 2010). Snapper assemblage is deteriorating (SAGARPA 2012).

Annual catches in the Central West Atlantic region have shown a slight decline in the last decade but there is high variability (FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Dept and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2011). According to Mexican sources, catches have risen slightly from 2005 to 2017, again with variability (see tim-series below).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 28 February 2018

The National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Comissión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca, CONAPESCA) belongs to SAGARPA and is the regulatory agency, in charge of management, coordination and policy development of marine resources (FAO 2005).

Species-specific management measures are not known to exist but only fishing licenses with gear requirements related with selectivity for the multispecies fishery (SAGARPA 2012). No catch limits are defined.

All species associated with red grouper are planned to have recovered by 2022 according to the management plan (Diario Oficial de la Federacion (DOF) 2014) but this does not go into any further detail on a per-species basis. However the closed season and network of MPAs will benefit all associated species regardless of specific intent.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 28 February 2018

The management plan for Red grouper and associated species aims to have all stocks at sustainable levels by 2022 (Diario Oficial de la Federacion (DOF) 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 28 February 2018

Illegal fishing is detected in Natural Park Arrecife Alacranes (Parque Nacional Arrecife Alacranes (PNAA) n.d.) as well as in National Park Arrecifes de Cozumel. Control measures are considered insufficient and inefficient and also in Reserve of Biosphere Arrecifes de Sian Ka’an. Goals and actions for fisheries comprised in the management plan of National Park Arrecifes de Cozumel have not yet been accomplished (SAGARPA 2012).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricate (Critically endangered; (Mortimer and Donnelly 2008)) and loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (IUCN 1996) are the main marine species within Biosphere Reserve “Ría Celestún” that can interact with the fishery. Green turtle Chelonia mydas (Endangered; (Seminoff 2004)), leatherback Dermochelys coriacea (Vulnerable; (IUCN 2013)) and hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Critically endangered; (Mortimer and Donnelly 2008)) nest in all islands of the Marine National Park Arrecife Alacranes (SEMARNAP 1998).

Common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Least concern; (IUCN 2008)) is also distributed in Gulf of Mexico and there is no data for Tamaulipas. There are recorded interactions (death and permanent injuries) with fishing vessels oerating, in general (SAGARPA 2012).

However specific studies about the interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species are required (SAGARPA 2012).

Tropical coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea and within the fishing area are considered to be subject to a “low level” and “high level” of threat (SEMARNAP 1998). Some of the coral species identified are in IUCN Red list: staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis (Critically Endangered), fragile saucer coral Agaricia fragilis (Data deficient); lettuce coral A. agaricites, grooved brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis, symmetrical brain coral D. strigosa, smooth flower coral Eusmilia fastigiata, spiny flower coral Mussa angulosa, mustard hill coral Porites astreoides, finger coral P. porites, lesser starlet coral Siderastrea radians (all Least concern; (IUCN 2008) for all prior references) and Millepora alcicornis (Least concern; (IUCN 2008)) (SEMARNAP 1998).

Strong sanctions for damaging coral and killing turtles are in place (Scott 2014).

The only 6% of the artesanal fleet catch is recorded as "other", including ETP species (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps, Lachnolaimus maximus, Rhomboplites aurorubens) (IUCN 2017). Shark and ray species are reported in the catch but only Sphyrna lewini is considered ETP (Coronado and Salas 2011) (Monroy et al. 2010), constituting <1% catch volumes. Fishing mortality on ETP species is low and cumulative impacts are anticipated to be low also, though data are lacking. Closed areas/MPAs and closed seasons protect ETP species as well as target species.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Northern red snapper comprise 76-90% of the fishery catches. Yellowtail snapper (about 11%) and other species of Lutjanus spp. such as silk snapper Lutjanus vivanus and vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens are also captured (FAO 2007)(SAGARPA 2012). Northern red snapper do not appear to be significant bycatch in the grouper fishery, less so than yellowtail snapper (Diario Oficial de la Federacion (DOF) 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Juveniles are found over shallow sandy and muddy bottoms, adults increasingly over hard substrate (FishBase n.d.).

Some coral species are not in the IUCN Red list (see summary for PET species), such as Colpophyllia amaranthus, Dichocaenia stokesii, Manicina arolata, Montastrea annularis, M. cavernosa, P. furgata (SEMARNAP 1998) but atolls' ecosystems are sensitive to impacts and the interaction with the fishery is not well understood.

This method of fishing is typically low impact.

The northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem has been recently modelled, relating components to the environment (Sagarese et al. 2017)​.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 27 March 2018

A network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is established in Mexican waters. A special license is to be required to Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, SEMARNAT) to fish in protected areas and each one possess management programs which regulate activities within. Some MPA overlap with the fishing area (federal states of Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán and Quintana Roo): National Park Arrecife de Alacranes, Reserve of Biosphere Arrecifes de Sian Ka’an, National Park Arrecifes de Xcalak, Reserve of Biosphere Banco Chinchorro, National Marine Park Isla Mujeres, Punta Cancún y Punta Nizuc, Laguna de Términos, Reserve of Biosphere Los Petenes, Reserve of Biosphere Ria Celestún, Reserva of Biosphere Los Tuxtlas, National Park Arrecifes de Cozumel, Arrecifes de Tuxpan.

In Tamaulipas (Rancho Nuevo Beach), Yucatán (beach near Río Lagartos) and Quintana Roo (Isla Contoy Beach) there are Sanctuaries for the protection and conservation of sea turtles. Fishing activities during the nesting period in a buffer area of 4 nautical miles are object of special rules (Agreement D.O.F. el 16 de julio de 2002) (SAGARPA 2012).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 27 March 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

No catch limit or specific measures are defined (an advised catch limit, a reduction of fishing effort and limitation of fishing licenses in some federal states; reduction of fishing mortality) (SAGARPA, 2012).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no catch limits or management decisions to ensure sustainable exploitation of the stock.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

There is no data about fishers’ compliance. Reported signs of Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in protected areas (Scott, 2014).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

The stock is reported to be deteriorated but little information is available (SAGARPA 2012).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

If catch levels remain at existing levels or have risen in recent years the stock may be more deteriorated than when first reported (SAGARPA 2012), though if changes resulting the 2014 management plan (DOF 2014) are successful, stock health is likely to improve.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  • Northern red snapper is caught in a multispecies fishery. In the Mexican Gulf of Mexico no stock assessment is conducted.
  • Scores 1 to 5 were determined qualitatively according to available information (please mouse-over for further details). No reference points are defined and time-series for abundance or fishing mortality are not available. The stock status is not known.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

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    Northern red snapper - Mexico Gulf of Mexico

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