Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Lutjanus spp.

SPECIES NAME(S)

Snappers nei, Red snappers

COMMON NAMES

Kakap merah

The main commercial snappers commercially caught are Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus and Crimson snapper L. erythropterus (Badrudin et al, 2005). They are not separated in catch records so are considered here in a multi-species profile for family Lutjanidae (snappers). There is as yet no consensus as to the stock structure of these species, with studies showing between one and seven stocks of L. malabaricus in the region (Blaber et al, 2005; Prisantoso and Badrudin et al, 2010; Badrudin and Aisyah, 2009). This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. This profile refers to Arafura and Timor Sea (WPP-718) assessment unit.

The red snapper fisheries within the regions are fished by thousand of fishers, including many subsistence fishers, meaning collection of data and information has proven to be challenging. The fisheries are targeted by multiple gears, including fish trawls which fish on the same fishing grounds as bottom longline and handlines. The fish trawls are large industrial-scale multi species vessels which transfer their catches directly to carrier vessels, and ship their catch directly overseas, particularly to Thailand and China.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The relatively comprehensive information on stock structure, population dynamics, joint catch records of L. malabaricus and L. erythropterus collected through the efforts of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) and long-term support from the Australian Government through a joint research between Australia and Indonesia from early 2000 up to now, have provided a basis to develop management plan for the fishing areas of these two species of red snappers. Recommendations on management are available. The MMAF has shown strong intentions of improving the fisheries management by re-licensing and reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhancing monitoring of harvesting. 
Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas will be managed using an EAFM approach, including red snapper fisheries.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2010 report classifies many of the Arafura and Timor Seas fisheries as fully exploited or over exploited. This report proven that the current fishing levels on the snapper stocks in these regions are shown to be unsustainable. Furthermore recent reports showed that illegal unreported and unregulated fishing is still rampant in the Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas. Developing a management solely for red snappers fisheries is likely to be ineffective in the context ofmulti-species and multi-gear demersal fish resources.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

NO SCORE

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NO SCORE

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Promote traceability to ensure that the origin and status of snapper products are well-known and all products are sourced from legal fisheries.
2. Support research to define stock status of Indonesian snapper and improve the availability of accurate data on catches and bycatch.
3. Request that the government improve management and policies encouraging sustainable snapper fisheries and move quickly towards the ecosystem approach to fisheries management for this fishery.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Implement a traceability protocol to ensure the origin is well-known and the product was legally harvested by vessels participating in the PT. Ilufa/Intan Seafood Indonesia snapper fishery improvement project. Once the traceability protocol is in place, periodically check the legality and origin of products by checking permits and verifying regions fished during trips, etc. Share the results with the retail/foodservice buyer.
2. You and your supply chain should reach out to fishing companies in Indonesia to join the effort to improve the data reporting through a logbook system that can be used by government to better assess the fish stock.
3. You and your supply chain should reach out to fishery managers in Indonesia and ask that they enforce policies in place to manage the fisheries, and that they develop a clear process to continually evaluate the level of rigor associated with their policy.
4. Be active in assuring that the improvement efforts ongoing in Indonesia are getting the encouragement they need to move forward. Always ask your supply chain about the status of the improvement project efforts.


FIPS

  • Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas snapper and grouper - handlines, bottom set longline:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Aru Bay, Arafuru Sea and Eastern of Timor Sea Aru Bay, Arafuru Sea and Eastern of Timor Sea (WPP-718) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Handlines hand operated
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 12 September 2012

Strengths

The relatively comprehensive information on stock structure, population dynamics, joint catch records of L. malabaricus and L. erythropterus collected through the efforts of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) and long-term support from the Australian Government through a joint research between Australia and Indonesia from early 2000 up to now, have provided a basis to develop management plan for the fishing areas of these two species of red snappers. Recommendations on management are available. The MMAF has shown strong intentions of improving the fisheries management by re-licensing and reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhancing monitoring of harvesting. 
Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas will be managed using an EAFM approach, including red snapper fisheries.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2010 report classifies many of the Arafura and Timor Seas fisheries as fully exploited or over exploited. This report proven that the current fishing levels on the snapper stocks in these regions are shown to be unsustainable. Furthermore recent reports showed that illegal unreported and unregulated fishing is still rampant in the Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas. Developing a management solely for red snappers fisheries is likely to be ineffective in the context ofmulti-species and multi-gear demersal fish resources.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Promote traceability to ensure that the origin and status of snapper products are well-known and all products are sourced from legal fisheries.
2. Support research to define stock status of Indonesian snapper and improve the availability of accurate data on catches and bycatch.
3. Request that the government improve management and policies encouraging sustainable snapper fisheries and move quickly towards the ecosystem approach to fisheries management for this fishery.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Implement a traceability protocol to ensure the origin is well-known and the product was legally harvested by vessels participating in the PT. Ilufa/Intan Seafood Indonesia snapper fishery improvement project. Once the traceability protocol is in place, periodically check the legality and origin of products by checking permits and verifying regions fished during trips, etc. Share the results with the retail/foodservice buyer.
2. You and your supply chain should reach out to fishing companies in Indonesia to join the effort to improve the data reporting through a logbook system that can be used by government to better assess the fish stock.
3. You and your supply chain should reach out to fishery managers in Indonesia and ask that they enforce policies in place to manage the fisheries, and that they develop a clear process to continually evaluate the level of rigor associated with their policy.
4. Be active in assuring that the improvement efforts ongoing in Indonesia are getting the encouragement they need to move forward. Always ask your supply chain about the status of the improvement project efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The two main target species of red snappers caught in Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas are identified as Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), and Scarlet snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus). A stock assessment of these two species was conducted during the joint research on shared stocks of red snappers by Australia and Indonesia in the Arafura and Timor Seas between 1999 and 2003. The objectives of this joint research were first, to describe the population dynamics, stock structure and biology of snappers (primarily L. malabaricus) relevant to the management of stocks shared between Australian and Indonesian fisheries; second, to characterize the social and financial structures of the Indonesian fishery so they could be taken into account in the development of management strategies; and third, to explore ways of developing complementary management for the long term sustainability of the snapper fisheries (Blaber et al., 2005).

Stock structure was evaluated by looking at the genetic population structure of these two species in both Australia and Indonesia by allozyme electrophoresis and sequence variation of mitochondria DNA. The analysis of the allozyme data on the genetic structures of the 2 species of red snappers (L malabaricus and L erythropterus) from central and eastern Indonesia including Arafura and Timor Seas indicated the existence of 6 discrete populations of L malabaricus, of which 5 of these are stocks in Arafura and Timor Seas (Kupang, Ambon, Tual, Aru and Merauke) (Fig 1). While L. Erythropterus showed genetic homogeneity covering a large area in Arafura and Timor Seas region (Salini et al, 2006)(Fig. 2).


Figure 1. Stock structure of L. malabaricus Source: Salini et al., 2006.


Figure 2. Stock structures of L. eryptropterus Source: Salini et al., 2006.

A more recent study (Prisantoso and Badrudin et al, 2010) indicates that there may be separate stocks in Indonesian and Australian waters.

Several workshops to focus on the stock assessment were conducted during the joint research project. Stock assessment of all red snappers was analyzed via a biomass dynamic model for the Arafura Sea, based on Australian and Indonesian catch data collected by the project enumarators, District Fisheries Government, research and survey data on trawls, transhipment data provided by commercial companies, harbourmaster data on landing, observer and biological data. All these data combined with the results of socioeconomic study provide inputs to stock assesssments and management. Recent Indonesian catch data presented a problem and had to be estimated, resulting in the modelling of two possible catch scenarios, and results were considered to be relative rather than absolute estimators of abundance (Blaber et al 2005).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The joint research between Australia and Indonesia produced a list of management recommendations on shared snapper fisheries in Arafura and Timor Sea. The result of the stock structure analyses led to an assumption that Indonesia and Australia fish the same stocks of L malabaricus and L erythropterus, particularly for fishing grounds along the transboundary areas. Within this context, Australia suggesteda collaborative management plan for the shared stock of red snappers in Indonesian and Australian waters be developed. However, the results of a recent paper presented by Prisantoso and Badrudinet al (2010) that indicated that there are separate stocks in Indonesian and Australia waters were discussed during the workshops on red snappers in 2008 and 2009, and further discussion among two countries is planned to develop possible management options.

Table 1: Preliminary list of management options for snapper fisheries in the Timor and Arafura Seas and their potential applicability to each fishery sector of the conceptual model. Fishery sectors are described in Table 1. Y: yes (applicable); N: no (not applicable).

Fishery Sector
Management Options Timor Sea Arafura Sea
Timor Barat Sahul Bank Indonesia Sahul Bank Australia Maluku Fish net Indonesia Fish trawl Australia
MPAs/closure Y Y Y Y Y Y
Limited entry Y Y Y Y Y Y
Capacity controls: Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term
a) Includes raise license fee/vessel size/gear type sk Y short-term, Y long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term
b) Min. legal size– on capture N N N N N N
c) Min legal size – gear Y Y Y Y Y Y
Effort Limits (eg seasons) Y Y Y Y Y Y
Catch limits N N Y N N Y
Multizone Management In place In place Y In place In place Y
Habitat Protection Y Y Y Y Y Y
Stock Enhancement N N N N N N
Close the Fishery Y Y Y Y Y Y

Source: Anon, 2003.

Table 2: Advantages and limitations of the potential management options for snapper fisheries in the Timor and Arafura Seas listed in Table 1.Y: yes; N: no.

Management Options Selective gear Non -Selective gear Advantages Limitations
MPAs/closure Y Y Protects range of species and/or habitat; good in data poor area; limits harvest May re-distribute effort so higher pressure outside; needs to be big enough; social displacement; inefficiency; bilateral agreement needed
Limited entry Y Y Limits effort and/or yield; avoid over-capacity; capitalization; ownership Allocation problems; displacement of effort; needs licence system
Capacity controls – Y short-term, N long-term Y short-term, N long-term Limits effort and/or yield; avoid over-capacity; capitalization Regulation
a) Includes raise license fee/vessel size/gear type sk Y short-term, Y long-term same May increase government revenue
b) Min. legal size– on capture N N
c) Min legal size – gear Y Y Protects juveniles; improves catch value Only protects juveniles; difficult for mixed species fisheries; not suitable for small targets; survival rate of escapees
Effort Limits (eg seasons) Y Y Protect spawners and/or juveniles; limit catch and harvest Difficult to apply in high seas; shift effort to alternate fisheries
Catch limits Y Y Direct control Need good statistics; high grading
Multizone Management Y Y Preserves catch niche for smaller operators; reduces sector conflict; protect habitat Local, regional, national policy agreement
Habitat Protection Y Y Shifts effort Displace effort
Stock Enhancement Not viable for these fisheries
Close the Fishery May save resources Drastic displacement
Restrict trade Prevent destructive practices thus protect habitat; cheaper than controlling catchers International cooperation

Source:Anon, 2003

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The stock assessment workshop in 2003 determined Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and associated reference points but, given the associated uncertainty in the model, used them only as relative measures. The authors decided to reference the biomass in 1990 as the limit under which the biomass should not be allowed to fall. This biomass level (6,500 tons) was chosen as it represents the year that the biomass was slightly above the biomass at MSY (Blaber et al 2005).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 10 March 2014

To accommodate the lack of information, the joint Indonesian/Australian study examined two catch history options: the pessimistic one assumed a maximum catch in year 2002 of 4,000 tonnes. For the optimistic scenario, the 2002 catch was assumed to be 2,000 tonnes. In both cases, catches for the intervening years were estimated by linear interpolation. In addition to that, due to the data-poor situation, the status of the fishery relative to sustainable yields was investigated. The biomass at 1990 has been chosen as the limit under which the biomass should not be allowed to fall (i.e. the target is that for the fishery to return above the limit, and that may be sustainable in the long term). This year was chosen as it represents the year that the biomass was slightly above the biomass at the Maximum Sustainable Yield (Blaber et al 2005).

The report illustrated two options (pessimistic and optimistic) using biomass at 1990 as a reference point. For the pessimistic scenario where the catch in the year 2002 was at its higher estimate, 2002 biomass levels were estimated at 11% of the limit reference point (biomass in 1990). Recovery of the stock would be protracted even under an assumption of zero future catch, with only partial recovery in 2010 to 30% of the limit reference point (Figure 3). Under the more optimistic assumption – the 2002 catch is 2,000 tons – the 2002 biomass is at 31% of limit reference levels. If the future catch is kept at 2002 levels the resource will continue to slowly deteriorate to a 2010 biomass merely 23% of limit reference levels (Figure 4).


Figure 3. Estimated catch levels (tons) by year since 1971 for the Arafura Sea snapper fisheries, biomass levels as a proportion of 1990 biomass (%) and biomass at Maximum Sustainable Yield (%) under the pessimistic option projecting catches similar to 2002.
Source: Blaber et al (2005)


Figure 4. Estimated catch levels (t) by year since 1971 for the Arafura Sea snapper fisheries, biomass levels as a proportion of 1990 biomass (%) and biomass at Maximum Sustainable Yield (%) under the optimistic option projecting catches similar to 2002.
Source: Blaber et al (2005)

Given the potential inaccuracies in the model, the assessment was treated as a relative measure rather than an absolute estimator of abundance. Moreover, due to the paucity of current data and the simple assumptions of the population model, it is clear that the model should be used to investigate policy options rather than for quantitative prediction (Blaber et al 2005).

More recently, Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2010 report classifies many of the Arafura and Timor Seas fisheries as fully exploited or over exploited (Anon. 2010 in ATSEA 2012).

The snapper fishery in Aru, Arafura and Timor Sea is targeted by semi-industrial and industrial operations using bottom longline and fish net/fish trawls. The traditional fishery uses dropline/handline, and bottom longline. The semi industrial bottom longline fishery targets larger fish for export purposes, where most of the vessels originate from Tanjung Balai Karimun in Sumatera, witha sub-base in Kupang, where catches are transported by carrier vessels from Probolinggo (East Java).

There have been observed changes in the catch composition of snapper fisheries in the region, based on catch data analysed from 1977 bottom longline and trap vessels from 2005 to 2007. The catch share of Malabar blood snapper declined from 42.1 % (2005) to 30.8 % (2006) and then 24.7% (2007). Another change was in size distribution, using the parameter of length at first capture. Studies show a decline in snapper size structure, for Malabar blood snapper from 50.7 cm and 67.3 cm (2000/2002) to 41cm (2007), and for Scarlet snapper from 59 cm (2000/2002) to 39 cm (2007) (Nuraini and Ernawati 2009). It is likely that the snappers landed were immature and yound broodstocks , compared to the sizes landed during the period of 1999-2002, which was generally longer than 60 cm in total length (Badrudin et al 2004) . These changes in catch composition and size structure can be an indication of unsustainable fishing (table 3).

Table 3. Changes of catch composition. Source: Nuraini and Ernawati 2009

TRENDS

Last updated on 10 March 2014

Eastern Timor, Aru and Arafura Seas are the major fishing grounds for red snappers, contributing to more than 30% (35,112 tons in 2007 and 27,012 in 2008) of the total catch in Indonesia (116,994 tons in 2007 115,523 tons in 2009), (MMAF 2009, 2010). Red snappers stated in government statistic data may consists of several species of Lutjanidae. The limited available catch data of snappers (likely L malabaricus and L erythropterus) collected from Tanjung Balai Karimun bottom longline vessels sub-base Kupang (west Timor) and Probolinggo (east Java) was 1,673.5 tons (2007), 1,678.2 tons (2008) and 1,523.3tons (January to August 2009)(table 4) (Badrudin and Aisyah 2009).

Table 4. Catch landings. Source: Badrudin and Aisyah (2009)


Figure 5. Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas are part of Fishery Management Area number XI, with total landing of 30%
Source: Processed from Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia in MMAF (2009)

Information on Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) of red snappers in Aru Arafura and Timor Seas is not available. It is likely caused by the paucity of data on the number of vessels, carrier ships and fishing trips.
The increase of fuel price in 2007 decreased the number of vessels (bottom longline) operating in Arafura and Timor Seas from 217 to 187.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 10 March 2014

For fishery management purposes, Indonesian seas are divided into 11 Fisheries Management Areas (FMA – in Indonesian Wilayah Pengelolaan Perikanan/WPP) as shown in map in Figure 3. The Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas belong to FMA-718 and FMA-573. (Fig. 6 PER1 2009)


Figure 6. Fisheries Management Area in Indonesia (MMAF, 2009)

Management Targets
There are currently no management measures applied exclusively to red snapper in Indonesia.

Licensing and Input Controls
Management of snapper (demersal fisheries), as in other fisheries in Indonesia, is mainly by input controls through licensing, implementation of log book system, installment of a vessel monitoring system, and institutional strengthening.
Ministerial Decree No 60 of 2001 provides for the arrangement for the utilization of fishing vessels in the Indonesian EEZ while Ministerial Decree No 2 of 2002 established the Guidelines for the Execution of Control in Fishing. It is followed by Ministerial Decree No 3 of 2002 which requires the use of logbooks in monitoring fish catch and transport. Furthermore, Ministerial Decree No 10 of 2003 was issued to regulate licensing and other types of resources utilization in the Indonesian EEZ. Ministerial Decree No 24 of 2003 also established a monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) system for Indonesia (Agoes 2005).
License is granted on the basis of fish stock utilization status, and a new license will not be issued when fish stock is fully or over exploited. Fishing fee is charged on the basis of resource rent. Given that many of Indonesia’s fish stock status is overfished or fully utilized, including in demersal and consumable reef fishes, the central government has reduced the number of vessel licenses it has issued. Contrarily, given new autonomy over natural resource management, provincial and local governments have expanded the granting of fishing licenses (Agoes 2005).
More recently, the MMAF has tried to reduce the number of vessels licensed to operate in Indonesian waters. Between 2001 and 2003, centrally-licensed vessels (that is, vessels licensed by the Indonesian central government) operating in four FMAs surrounding Arafura Sea, for example, contracted by 39%, from to 3,658 to 2,629 vessels. Over the same period, however, the number of vessels licensed by district and provincial governments to operate in the Arafura Sea with inboard motors increased by around 105% from 1,093 to 2,238 vessels (MMAF 2005). Therefore, the limitation of numbers of fishing vessels by central government will not be effective without alignment with local governments.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 10 March 2014

There is no recovery plan in place.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 10 March 2014

Trawling in Indonesian waters was banned in 1980 by Presidential Decree No. 39 (1980) , except in the Arafura Sea east of 130o E, which includes the waters of the Kei, Tanimbar and Aru islands.

The Fisheries Act No. 45/2009, which replaced Act No. 31/2004, strengthens the effort to eliminate Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing.Furthermore the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries issued the Ministerial Decree No. 1/2009 as an amendment to the decree No. 995/KPTS/IK210/29/1999 concerning Fisheries Management Areas (FMA) to support better management of marine and fisheries resources.

In 2001 it was estimated that 85% or approximately 7,000 vessels over 50 gross tonnes were operating without a license (Resosudarmo et al. 2009), with the main illegal fishing activities in the Arafura Sea that of trawlers targeting shrimps.

In 2003 the government of Indonesia issued a policy to officially license foreign vessels of 100-300 GT through a licensing fee agreement. Illegal fishing practices in the Indonesian Arafura Sea have shown a decline since the implementation of the vessel re-registration policy in 2003 (Wagey et al. 2009).

Fegan (2003) indicated that in the Arafura Sea, hundreds of trawlers, most from Thailand, are fishing massive quantities of fish under bilateral agreements. Unfortunately, there is no breakdown of catch by species. It is believed that without a breakdown by species of the trends in catch, scientists can only guess that long-lived slow breeding but valuable species like snapper and groupers are being wiped out in this area.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The effects of the red snapper fishery on protected, endangered or threatened species in Indonesia are at present unknown.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The main target of bottom longline vessels is red snappers. However, from the report on catch composition, the average catch of red snappers was 40.4% of the total catch. Other catches were deep sea snapper (27.1%), groupers, and other snapper species.

HABITAT

Last updated on 10 March 2014

The impact of bottom longline on habitat is unknown, but likely low. While the impact of dropline/handline on habitat is likely have no or minimal bottom contact and therefore has little or no affect on fish habitat.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 10 March 2014

There were 88 marine conservation areas (in forms of marine national parks, marine nature recreational parks, marine nature reserves and marine wilderness reserves) in Indonesia in 2011, totaling 13.9 million hectares (Susanto, 2011).


Figure 7. Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia – consists of Nature reserve (Cagar Alam/Suaka Alam), National Park (Taman Nasional), Wildlife reserve (Suaka Margasatwa), Marine Nature Recreation Park (Taman Wisata Alam/taman Buru/Taman Wisata hutan raya) and District Marine Protected Area (kawasan Konservasi Laut Daerah) (Source: Yunia, 2010)

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no management objectives in place. The fishery is managed by input controls but lack of alignment between central and regional management means even this has not been effective.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

Recent reports show that illegal unreported and unregulated fishing is still rampant in the Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

According to Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2010 Report fishing levels on the snapper stocks in the Arafura and Timor Seas are unsustainable.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for biomass
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

Scores are determined qualitatively based on the limited available information.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 1 May 2012
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP  reviewed. FIP progress rating remains B - last stage 4 results within last 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Jul 12
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 16
Jan 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Oct 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jul 16
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Other References

Anin, 2003. Aciar Red Snapper project (FIS/97/165). Report of the final (4th) stock assessment workshop. (Puncak Pass, Cianjur, Indonesia, 18 to 20 March 2003). Draft version.

Badrudin and Aisyah. 2009. Separate stocks of red snapper exploitation and management in the Indonesian sector of the Arafura Sea. Journal of Indonesian Fisheries Research. Vol 15(2):81-88.

Ministry of Marine and Fisheries Affairs (MMAF), 2010. Capture Fisheries Statistical of Indonesia. Directorate General of Capture Fisheries. Jakarta. p 134.

  1. ATSEA. 2012. Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis for the Arafura and Timor Seas Region. http://iwlearn.net/iwprojects/3522/reports/transboundary-diagnostic-analysis-tda-for-the-arafura-and-timor-seas-region
  2. Badrudin, Wiadnyana, N.N., Wibowo, B., 2005. Deep water exploratory bottom long-lining in the waters of Arafura Sea. Indo. Fish. Res. Jour. Vol. 11 (1): 41-46http://www.sidik.litbang.kkp.go.id/index.php/searchkatalog/byId/4264
  3. Blaber, S. J. M., Dichmont, C. M., Buckworth, R. C., Badrudin Sumiono, B., Nurhakim, S., Iskandar, B., Fegan, B., Ramm, D. C. and Salini, J. P. 2005. Shared stocks of snappers (Lutjanidae) in Australia and Indonesia: Integrating biology, population dynamics and socio-economics to examine management scenarios. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15: 111-127.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11160-005-3887-y?LI=true
  4. Fry, G., Milton,D.A.,Velde, T.V.D., Stobutzki, I., Andamari, R., Badrudin., Sumiono, B., et al. 2009. Reproductive dynamics and nursery habitat preferences of two commercially important Indo-Pacific red snappersLutjanus erythropterus and L. Malabaricus. Fish Science 75:145-158 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12562-008-0034-4?LI=true
  5. M. F. O’Neill, G. M. Leigh, J. M. Martin, S. J. Newman, M. Chambers, C. M. Dichmont, R. C. Buckworth. 2011. Sustaining productivity of tropical red snappers using new monitoring and reference points. The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. P 106. http://www.frdc.com.au/research/Documents/Final_reports/2009-037-DLD.pdf
  6. Nuraini, S and Ernawati, T. 2009. Changes to the red snapper fisheries in the Arafura Seafisheries management area. Journal of Indonesian Fisheries Research. Vol 15(1):9-16.http://www.sidik.litbang.kkp.go.id/index.php/searchkatalog/byId/4437
  7. Prisantoso.B.Iskandar and Badrudin. 2010. Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Ikan Kakap Merah (Lutjanus spp) di laut Arafura. http://jurnal.pdii.lipi.go.id/index.php/search.html?act=tampil&id=76748&idc=33
  8. Resosudarmo, BP, Napitupulu, L & Campbell, D 2009, Illegal Fishing in the Arafura Sea. In: RESOSUDARMO, B. P. & JOTZO, F. (eds.) Working With Nature against Poverty: Development Resources and the Environment in eastern Indonesia. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, pp 178-200.https://bookshop.iseas.edu.sg/publication/661
  9. Salini, J.P. and Ovenden, J.R. and Street, R. and Pendrey, R. and Haryanti, . and Ngurah, . 2006. Genetic population structure of red snappers (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 and Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790) in central and eastern Indonesia and northern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology, 68 (Supplement. B). pp. 217-234.http://www.scsagr.com/upimg/200854165912.pdf
  10. Sumiono, B. Deepsea demersal and prawn resources exploration surveys in Indonesia. WP05d-Indonesia.doc
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      References

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        Snappers nei - Aru Bay, Arafuru Sea and Eastern of Timor Sea

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