Last updated on 25 May 2017
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
- Push managers to reduce fishing mortality to eliminate overfishing.
- Advocate for the governments of Peru and Chile to establish coordinated fishery research and management plans in line with the objectives of the agreed Strategic Action Programme between both countries.
- Support work by the Chilean authorities for the development and implementation of the management plan for the fishery. The management plan should have a clear management strategy and consider the need of transboundary coordination and environmental variability.
- Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that incorporate an appropriate growth/productivity model and environmental variables, ensuring that once tested, these models form the basis of the management strategy.
- Support the work of scientists and managers in both countries to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.
Last updated on 18 July 2018
Scientific institutions of Peru and Chile, IMARPE and IFOP, undertake scientific surveys at least twice a year, in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock and oceanographic conditions. A joint Peruvian-Chilean assessment workshop bringing together Chile’s Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP) and the Peruvian Institute of the Sea (IMARPE) was held from 1982 to 2011 to evaluate both anchoveta and sardine, and was restarted in 2015.
IMARPE uses a dynamic biomass model, with landings and fishing effort as input data, to estimate an annual maximum sustainable yield and estimate advised TAC (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015). Since 2010, a statistical catch-at-size model is used by IFOP considering the whole stock. Differentiation by fleet addresses different size structures of catches. Data inputs to the model include commercial landings data, such as size sampling from both Chile and Peru, relative estimates of biomass and recruitment obtained from acoustic surveys (Peruvian and Chilean) and estimates from the Daily Egg Production Method. Model outputs are provided on a six-month scale to better represent the stock’s dynamics with two peak recruitment periods (IFOP 2016).
A workshop for revision of the model used by IFOP was held using updated population parameter estimates, to provide a preliminary analysis of the impacts of observed accelerated, e.g. smaller individuals reproductively mature. Both the base model (scenario A) and this alternative model (scenario B) have been used in the latest stock assessment by IFOP (IFOP 2017). The alternative scenario indicated a re-escalation towards lower total biomass, spawning biomass, reproductive potential, fishing mortality values and, on the other hand, a higher natural mortality (IFOP 2017). An expert revision of the anchoveta aging technics was conducted, confirming the very rapid growth rate in juvenile anchoveta (Plaza et al. 2017).
IMARPE updated their model using higher growth and carrying capacity to define a catch advise for 2018 (IMARPE 2017). IFOP tested a number of growth and productivity scenarios, including the recent rapid growth estimates (IFOP 2017), given the persisting high uncertainty on population parameters (CCT-PP 2017).
In the XV binational IMARPE-IFOP workshop, conducted in December 2017, an alternative stock assessment using Stock Synthesis platform was conducted (IMARPE 2017; CCT-PP 2018).
A revision and benchmark workshop was recommended by the CCT-PP- to be conducted prior to the mid-year IFOP stock update (May 2018) (CCT-PP 2018), however, last available committee session report did not include any information on this regard (CCT-PP 2018).
Last updated on 18 July 2018
In Peru, IMARPE issues independent scientific advice to the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE), in charge of fisheries management. Advice is based on an agreed protocol (IMARPE 2015), which mentions a target exploitation rate of 0.25, corresponding to a “moderate” level, to project TAC levels. For 2017, IMARPE advised a maximum annual catch of 1.03 million tonnes: 515,000 tonnes for each of the two seasons (PRODUCE 2017). For 2018, a catch limit of 1070,000 tonnes was recommended (IMARPE 2017), split in 535,000 tonnes per each fishing season.
In Chile, stock assessments are officially conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (‘IFOP’) which includes different exploitation and risk options. Since 2013, the Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic fisheries (“Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos”, CCT-PP), formed by IFOP and the SUBPESCA’s representatives, analyzes IFOP’s update on stock status and catch projections and makes the official recommendation to the Chilean fisheries authority. According to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657), the recommendation is provided as a TAC range with the lower limit as 20% of the actual TAC recommendation (SUBPESCA 2017).
For 2016, the Chilean advised catch – based on IFOP´s latest report (IFOP 2015) – was 760,000 tonnes, thus the quota recommended range was 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2015). For 2017, the initial recommended quota based on the FMSY could reach 1.1 million tonnes (IFOP 2016), but given the high instability of environmental conditions on the stock, an atypical El Niño in 2015-2016 and low levels of chlorophyll, the CCT-PP has recommended to maintain the same advice as for 2016, range of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2016). For 2017, catch options based on the two mentioned models ranged from 775,000 tonnes to 1.122 million tonnes (IFOP 2017). For 2018, catch options were based on the accelerated growth scenario applying different exploitation levels and recruitment assumptions (IFOP 2017), and ranged between 1.1 and 1.8 millon tonnes. Given the high uncertainty and continued discussions on stock assessment, the CCT-PP has continued to implement a status quo in catch advice from 2016 for both 2017 and 2018, of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2017; CCT-PP 2017).
IFOP recommended the use of high-resolution satellite information for the monitoring of the pelagic ecosystem in northern Chile, to have a diagnosis of the productive levels of the environment and thus have a better understanding of the condition of the resource and catch levels that are biologically permissible for the sustainability of the fishery each year (CCT-PP 2016; IFOP 2016). Recently, a revision and benchmark workshop was recommended by the CCT-PP- to review implications of the confimed rapid growth parameters in stock assessment and status (CCT-PP 2018), but no information on this regard is publicly available.
Last updated on 18 July 2018
The latest stock assessment, using an alternative Stock Synthesis model, suggest that biomass is at MSY and exploitation is below target level (IMARPE 2017; CCT-PP 2018). However, the estimates are highly uncertain. A sustained drop in length and average weight that has been observed in the last 7 years. This may be indicating a process of juvenilization of the population, presumably due to fishing pressure or unfavorable environmental conditions mainly associated to a prolonged El Niño 2015-2016, or a combined effect of both factors. Several models were run by IFOP, using historical and recently estimated growth and productivity parameters. Spawning stock biomass (SSB) estimates ranged from 187 to 1030 thousand tonnes (IFOP 2017).
Biomass reference points adopted in 2015 are dynamic BMSY proxies, based on virginal spawning biomass estimates (B0) (MEFT 2015). Given the high uncertainty on biomass estimates, neither target biomass reference point (Btarget = 50%B0) nor limit biomass reference point (Blim =25%B0) could be defined for 2018 (CCT-PP 2017). A retrospective analysis showed that the pronounced uncertainty starts in 2015, among the complete time-series starting in 1985 (IFOP 2017).
In 2017, Peruvian acoustic survey conducted in April 2017 estimated a biomass of 1.163 million tonnes, and in October 2017, a biomass of 324 thousand tonnes (IMARPE 2017). In Chile, October and December 2017 surveys indicate that the stock is composed by a high percentage of juveniles and direct biomass estimates show a decreasing trend compared with recent years (CCT-PP 2017; CCT-PP 2018).
Landings of anchoveta during the historical series have shown large fluctuations over the years in both the Chilean and Peruvian fisheries, mainly owing to inter-annual changes in the abundance of this resource. In 2016 landings were 425,400 tonnes, the lowest in almost two decades. In 2017, landings increased again to around 733,000 tonnes (PRODUCE n.d.; SUBPESCA 2018).
Last updated on 18 July 2018
This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries, through management measures including closed seasons, minimum mesh sizes and total allowable catches (TACs).
In 2016, the Peruvian TAC (industrial fleet only) was set in line with the IMARPE recommendation at 382,000 tonnes for each fishing season (PRODUCE 2016)(PRODUCE 2016). For 2017, the TAC was set at 515,000 tonnes for each fishing season (PRODUCE 2017)(PRODUCE 2017), and for 2018, the TAC was set at 535,000 tonnes for each fishing season, in line with IMARPE's recommendation (PRODUCE 2017)(PRODUCE 2018). For Chile, a single TAC is issued annually for the anchoveta fishery in regions XV-I-II (northern Chile), and allocated by fleet component and semester. In 2016, the Chilean TAC was set at around 752,000 tonnes. For 2017 and 2018, the status quo on TAC advice and setting was applied due to high uncertainty on stock status. This limit is close to the upper value of the recommended range (MEFT 2015; MEFT 2016; MEFT 2017; MEFT 2017). The share for the industrial and artisanal fleets is around 636,500 tonnes and 115,300 tonnes, respectively. A research plan for estimating discard rates in both fleets was approved for two years and is underway (MEFT 2016).
In Peru, until recently the artisanal and small-scale fleets were not managed under a catch limit program. However, a new set of management measures for this component of the fishery has been currently implemented, and includes: a new definition for this component of the fleet, gear specifications, area restrictions (fishing not allowed wiithin 3 nm from the coast), mandatory satellite positioning system, minimum landing sizes, bycatch limits, and an annual TAC (PRODUCE 2017). The first TAC for the Peruvian artisanal fleet was issued in 2017 at 300,000 tonnes, and applies for the entire Peruvian coast (i.e., includes both North-Centre and North Chile/South Peruvian stocks), and all year round (PRODUCE 2017). The same catch limit was determined for 2018 (PRODUCE 2018). There is however no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation by IMARPE. In terms or the Peruvian industrial fleet, statutory management controls also include area restrictions (fishing operations off 10 nm from the coast), minimum landing size of 12 cm, limit of 10% of juveniles in landings; a discard ban of fishing resources at sea (PRODUCE 2012). For both fleets, incidental catches are limited to 5%, an there is a closed entry for new fishing boats.
A management plan has been approved in April 2018 by Chile for the nothern anchoveta stock. It presents the challenges and agreed actions to improve stock status, reduce bycatch and increase social aspects of the fishery (MEFT 2018; SUBPESCA 2018). Although scientific workshops IFOP-IMARPE are annually undertaken to exchange relevant data and an Strategic Action Program between Chile and Peru was approved in 2016 for implementing a coordinated series of measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017; IMARPE 2018; UNDP Peru n.d.), the Chilean management plan does not define actions to conduct an effective joint management between Chile and Peru.
Mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards has been recently implemented (MEFT 2015).
Last updated on 18 July 2018
Historically, landings have always been below both Chilean and Peruvian set TAC (IFOP 2016; IMARPE 2017; SUBPESCA 2018). There is however evidence in the literature of some catch under-reporting. Mendo and Wosnitza-Mendo (2014) estimated correction factors for unreported catches in Peru, from 1950 to 2010, including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. Industrial anchoveta catches correction factor varied mostly between 15% and 35%, peaking in the early 1970s well over 30%. In 2010, estimate for undeclared anchoveta catches by fishing companies was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Small and artisanal fleets correction factor is on average 35%, and it has been reported that catches are also illegally sold for indirect human consumption, to reduction fishmeal plants.
There are no estimates for under-reporting from the Chilean fishery (IFOP, 2016), but a research program is underway to obtain such estimates. The data collection will last for two years (MEFT 2016).
Last updated on 16 August 2017
The fishery for anchoveta is known to interact with several PET species of sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and sharks, most of which are released just after being caught. Among these, are the Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti (“Vulnerable”- IUCN), Peruvian Diving Petrel Pelecanoides garnotii (“Endangered”- IUCN) and Smooth Hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena (“Vulnerable”- IUCN). The greatest impact of this fishery might be the decrease in the availability of anchoveta, as it is an important prey for many of the species mentioned above (CeDePesca 2010). Bertrand et al. 2012) found out that the foraging efficiency of breeding seabirds may be significantly affected by not only the global quantity, but also the temporal and spatial patterns of fishery removals, thus an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should limit the risk of local depletion around breeding colonies using, for instance, adaptive marine protected areas. There are also concerns about Burmeister’s porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis (“Data Deficient” – IUCN), the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (“Near Threatened” – IUCN) and green turtle Chelonia mydas (“Endangered”- IUCN) (IUCN 2017), which feed extensively on anchoveta.
IMARPE records seabirds and marine mammals’ observations during the Peruvian hydroacoustic surveys (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2017), but there is no regular reporting on interaction with the anchoveta fishery. As such, the direct and indirect effects of the fishery on these species are not known in detail.
Last updated on 17 August 2017
In the Peruvian fishery for anchoveta, there is a bycatch limit of 5% (PRODUCE 2011). However, bycatch data is not collected on a regular basis. According to an onboard observer program conducted in 2010, anchoveta comprised 99.9% of the catches, while the remaining 0.1% was mostly comprised by Chilean silverside Odontesthes regia (‘pejerrey’). Species such as the Mexican barracuda Sphyraena ensis, Pacific bonito Sarda chilensis, Patagonian squid Loligo gahi, among others, were also observed in the catches (IMARPE 2010). Results from an onboard observer programs conduted in January and February 2015 indicated that anchoveta dominated both catches from the artisanal and the small scale components, comprising 98% or more of the total catches. Longnose anchovy Anchoa nasus ('Samasa' or 'anchoveta blanca'), lorna drum Sciaena deliciosa ('lorna'), pejerrey and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus ('caballa') comprised the remaining fraction of the catches (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015). Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and anchoveta are managed together under a single quota in the industrial fishery. However, the proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known.
In Chile, there is no data on bycatch but it is considered to be low (IFOP 2013; IFOP 2015c). South American pilchard Sardinops sagax was caught together with anchoveta during the history of the fishery (CeDePesca 2010). The resource is collapsed, associated with adverse physical and biological environmental conditions for the resource. Still, the highest rates of exploitation occurred in the early 1990s, when the stock was already declining significantly. A quota is issued annually; in 2015 reported catches were 338 tonnes (SUBPESCA 2017), well below set TAC (SUBPESCA 2014).
Last updated on 16 August 2017
Anchoveta is a pelagic species that is captured by purse seines both in Chile and Peru. Usually, the purse seine fishery are not deemed to significantly impact the seafloor unless used in shallow waters. In Peru, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast; the artisanal and small-scale fleets are can operate from the 3nm from the coast in order to protect coastal habitats and spawning and breeding zones for several species (PRODUCE 2012; PRODUCE 2017).
Anchoveta biomass is strongly affected by the oceanographic conditions; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The spatiotemporal variability of anchoveta have been studied by several authors (e.g., Ballón et al. 2011; Bertrand et al. 2012; Espino 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand 2014). During El Niño event, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events and decadal shifts towards less productive conditions, and overfishing (Bertrand et al. 2012).
Kelvin waves and a strong El Niño event observed in 2014 and 2015 are considered to have caused a decrease of the coastal habitat (anchoveta habitat), decrease in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015) affecting the ecosystem (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015).
Last updated on 16 Aug 2017
There are two marine protected areas in Peru, “Reserva Marina de Paracas” and “Reserva Nacional de Islas, Islotes y Sistemas de Puntas de Guano”, both aiming at protecting marine life, in particular seabirds and marine mammals. In Chile, there are five marine protected areas (“La Rinconada”, “Isla Chañaral”, “Isla Choros-Damas”, “Putemún” and “Pullinque”), which main goal is to preserve the natural oyster Argopecten purpuratus and scallop _Tiostrea chilensis _ banks, and protect several species of marine mammals that occur in the area. The effects of these marine reserves on the stock of anchoveta are unknown (CeDePesca 2010).
In Peru and Chile, some areas may be temporarily closed due to the high proportion juveniles. Since 2014, the instability of the environmental conditions is thought to be the cause of a higher mix of adult and juvenile anchoveta. In Peru, fishery was closed in the second season of 2014 (IMARPE 2015), and recently there have been numerous temporal closures in both countries when high proportions of juveniles are observed in catches (MEFT 2016; MEFT 2016; PRODUCE 2016).