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SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 23 August 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Anchoveta

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al. 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al. 2015):


1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, assessed and managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/ Northern Chile stock, assessed and managed unilaterally by Peru and Chile, and,
3. the Central-Southern Chile stock, assessed and managed by Chile.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Peru and Chile scientific institutions conduct regular scientific surveys in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock.
  • More precautionary biomass and fishing mortality reference points were adopted in Chile and, for 2017, a more precautionary advice was given taking into account high environmental variability and uncertainty of stock status.
  • High recruitment and large proportion of juveniles has been observed in 2016 and 2017, similar to those in the strong 1998 El Niño event.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the Peruvian fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • A Strategic Action Program was developed between Chile and Peru and is expected to increase coordinated measures between both countries for the protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats. 
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards has been implemented in Chile.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is considered overfished and overfishing is occurring; even under more optimistic scenarios, the spawning stock biomass remains below the limit reference point and fishing mortality above the target levels.
  • Poor stock condition has been also associated with oceanographic conditions, but this factor is not included in the IFOP stock assessment.
  • Efforts are being made on the development of a management plan in Chile and an action program to increase coordination between Chile and Peru, but an integrated management plan for reducing the fishing effort on the stock has not been implemented yet.
  • Although reported landings have been below both the Chilean and Peruvian unilateral TACs, total landings have generally exceeded the advised catch level for the entire stock. Under-reporting and discarding have raised concerns in recent years in Peru and no estimates are available for Chile.
  • The TAC that was defined for the Peruvian artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not disaggregated by two anchoveta stocks); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a target species, but the stock status for this species is unknown. 
  • Information of fishery impacts on bycatch, protected species and vulnerable habitats is scarce.

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

5.8

Future Health:

0


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Push managers to reduce fishing mortality to eliminate overfishing.
  • Advocate for the governments of Peru and Chile to establish coordinated fishery research and management plans in line with the objectives of the agreed Strategic Action Programme between both countries. 
  • Support work by the Chilean authorities for the development and implementation of the management plan for the fishery. The management plan should have a clear management strategy and consider the need of transboundary coordination and environmental variability.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that incorporate an appropriate growth/productivity model and environmental variables, ensuring that once tested, these models form the basis of the management strategy.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers in both countries to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Chile Chile XV-I-II Chile Seine nets
Southern Peru Peru Southern Peru Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 21 August 2017

Strengths
  • Peru and Chile scientific institutions conduct regular scientific surveys in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock.
  • More precautionary biomass and fishing mortality reference points were adopted in Chile and, for 2017, a more precautionary advice was given taking into account high environmental variability and uncertainty of stock status.
  • High recruitment and large proportion of juveniles has been observed in 2016 and 2017, similar to those in the strong 1998 El Niño event.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the Peruvian fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • A Strategic Action Program was developed between Chile and Peru and is expected to increase coordinated measures between both countries for the protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats. 
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards has been implemented in Chile.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is considered overfished and overfishing is occurring; even under more optimistic scenarios, the spawning stock biomass remains below the limit reference point and fishing mortality above the target levels.
  • Poor stock condition has been also associated with oceanographic conditions, but this factor is not included in the IFOP stock assessment.
  • Efforts are being made on the development of a management plan in Chile and an action program to increase coordination between Chile and Peru, but an integrated management plan for reducing the fishing effort on the stock has not been implemented yet.
  • Although reported landings have been below both the Chilean and Peruvian unilateral TACs, total landings have generally exceeded the advised catch level for the entire stock. Under-reporting and discarding have raised concerns in recent years in Peru and no estimates are available for Chile.
  • The TAC that was defined for the Peruvian artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not disaggregated by two anchoveta stocks); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a target species, but the stock status for this species is unknown. 
  • Information of fishery impacts on bycatch, protected species and vulnerable habitats is scarce.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Push managers to reduce fishing mortality to eliminate overfishing.
  • Advocate for the governments of Peru and Chile to establish coordinated fishery research and management plans in line with the objectives of the agreed Strategic Action Programme between both countries. 
  • Support work by the Chilean authorities for the development and implementation of the management plan for the fishery. The management plan should have a clear management strategy and consider the need of transboundary coordination and environmental variability.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that incorporate an appropriate growth/productivity model and environmental variables, ensuring that once tested, these models form the basis of the management strategy.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers in both countries to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 August 2017

A joint Peruvian-Chilean assessment workshop bringing together Chile’s Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP) and the Peruvian Institute of the Sea (IMARPE) was held from 1982 to 2011 to evaluate both anchoveta and sardine. Between 2011 and 2016, IFOP and IMARPE, in collaboration with ONGs, have implemented the GEF-UNDP Project "Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Large Marine Ecosystem of the Humboldt Current. As a result, a Strategic Action Program was developed and during this year, it will be designed. It is expected to provide the basis for implementing a coordinated series of measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017)

Currently, regular scientific surveys are conducted by scientific institutions of Peruvian and Chile at least twice a year, in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock and oceanographic conditions. IMARPE has also been using a dynamic biomass model, which includes landings and fishing effort data, to estimate an annual maximum sustainable yield and estimate advised TAC (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015). Results from the anchoveta Peruvian surveys in the southern region undertaken in 2016 are not available.

Since 2010, a statistical catch-at-size model is used by IFOP considering the whole stock, to handle the uncertainty in age estimation. Differentiation by fleet addresses different size structures of catches. Data inputs to the model include commercial landings data including size sampling from both Chile and Peru, relative estimates of biomass and recruitment obtained from acoustic surveys (Peruvian and Chilean) and estimates from the Daily Egg Production Method. Model outputs are provided on a six-month scale to better represent the stock’s dynamics with two peak recruitment periods. As previously proposed, IFOP is presenting stock status based on biomass and fishing mortality estimates as well as reproductive potential reduction (RPR) as an alternative analysis of stock status, to take into account the great productivity changes of small pelagic resources and the current high uncertainty in biomass and fishing mortality estimates (IFOP 2016)

A workshop for revision of data and the model used by IFOP was held and an alternative model scenario was conducted using updated population parameter estimates, to provide a preliminary analysis of the impacts of observed accelerated, e.g. smaller individuals reproductively mature. Both the base model (scenario A) and  this alternative model (scenario B) have been used in the latest stock assessment by IFOP (IFOP 2017). A comparison of the results from the two models indicate that the stock status, expressed by the reduction of the spawning biomass and the reproductive potential, does not show important differences with respect to the base model. However, this alternative scenario indicates a re-escalation towards lower total biomass, spawning biomass, reproductive potential, fishing mortality values ​and, on the other hand, a higher natural mortality (IFOP 2017). The CCT-PP established a working group to analyze in detail the new population parameters and their implications in stock status and advice catch levels, and in the meantime only the base model is considered for scientific advice on the total allowable catch (CCT-PP 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 21 August 2017

In Peru, IMARPE issues independent scientific advice to the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE), in charge of fisheries management, based on an agreed protocol (IMARPE 2015). For 2016, IMARPE recommended an annual catch of 764,000 tonnes, to be distributed evenly in the two fishing seasons (IMARPE 2015). For 2017, IMARPE advised a maximum annual catch of 1.03 million tonnes, 515,000 tonnes for each of the two seasons (PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2017); however, IMARPE’s most recent report with the dynamic biomass model and annual maximum sustainable yield results is not publicly available.

In Chile, stock assessments are officially conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (‘IFOP’) which includes different exploitation and risk options. Since 2013, the Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic fisheries (“Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos”, CCT-PP), formed by IFOP and the SUBPESCA’s representatives, analyzes IFOP’s update on stock status and catch projections and makes the official recommendation to the Chilean fisheries authority. According to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657), the recommendation by is provided in the as a TAC range with the lower limit as 20% of the actual TAC recommendation (SUBPESCA 2017).

For 2016, the Chilean advised catch – based on IFOP´s latest report (IFOP 2015) – was 760,000 tonnes, thus the quota recommended range was 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2015). For 2017, the initial recommended quota based on the FMSY could reach 1.1 million tonnes, with a risk level of 30% of exceeding the management objective (IFOP 2016). But given the high instability of environmental conditions on the stock, an atypical El Niño in 2015-2016 and low levels of chlorophyll, the CCT-PP has recommended to maintain the same advice as for 2016, range of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2016). In the stock assessment update of 2017, IFOP provided the catch options for 2017 based on two models: the base model (or “scenario A”), and the alternative model (or “scenario B”) (for more details see the Stock Assessment section). Results from the base model indicated that fishing at the level of the FMSY proxy (=0.58), with a risk level of 30% of exceeding the management objective, would result in catches of 775,000 tonnes; for the alternative model fishing at Fmsy and the same level of risk of F exceeding the management objective would result in catches of 1.122 million tonnes (IFOP 2017). Given the most recent results of the age-growth project, with revised biological parameters, and the need to evaluate the new assessment, the CCT-PP has maintained the initially recommended catch advice for 2017 of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2017).

IFOP recommended the use of high-resolution satellite information for the monitoring of the pelagic ecosystem in northern Chile, to have a diagnosis of the productive levels of the environment and thus have a better understanding of the condition of the resource and catch levels that are biologically permissible for the sustainability of the fishery each year. Also, IFOP and the CCT-PP highlight the urgent need to readjust the modeling approach considering the new growth estimates of anchoveta for this stock (CCT-PP 2016; IFOP 2016).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

In Peruvian waters, a target exploitation rate of 0.25, corresponding to a “moderate” level, has been used to project TAC levels (IMARPE 2013). The current protocol to estimate advised TAC levels do not mention any reference point for the Peruvian portion of this stock (IMARPE 2015).

In Chile, reference points have been revised for the main fisheries, with the participation of international experts (CCT-PP 2014). These more precautionary reference points have been officially adopted in 2015 (MEFT 2015). The proxy for BMSY is a dynamic reference point based on the virginal spawning biomass (B0), and it is defined at 50%B0 (B0 = unfished spawning stock biomass) as the target biomass reference point, which corresponds to 55%BDR (Spawning Biomass per Recruit). In 2017, the virgin biomass (B0) per the base model was estimated at around 3.7 million tonnes, and Btarget (50%B0) at 1.9 million tonnes. The limit biomass reference point was defined at Blim=25%B0 and was estimated at 950,000 tonnes in 2017. The proxy for FMSY (F55% BDR) was estimated as 0.58 (CCT-PP 2017; IFOP 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 21 August 2017

According to the most recent Chilean stock assessment, which considers the entire stock, both models tested indicate that the stock is overfished and overfishing is occurring (IFOP 2017). In the base model ("scenario A"), total biomass was estimated at 5.5 million tonnes for the first semester of 2017, slightly below the historical average; spawning stock biomass was estimated at 915,000 tonnes (24% B0), below both the target (50%B0) and limit (25%B0) reference points and the historical average (CCT-PP 2017; IFOP 2017). In the alternative model ("scenario B"), total biomass was estimated at 1.8 million tonnes, also slightly below the historical average. Spawning stock biomass per the alternative model was estimated at 214,000 tonnes (15% B0), also below both the target (50%B0) and limit (25%B0) reference points. In terms of fishing mortality, the models give slightly different results; for the base model, F for the first semester of 2017 was estimated at 1.86, more than three times the FMSY proxy (0.58), while in the alternative model F was estimated at 2.0, 16% above the FMSY proxy (= 1.72). Acoustic surveys indicated high recruitment events in 2016 and 2017, similarly as observed in the 1998 strong El Niño event. In 2017, recruits are among the highest in the last decade, well above the historical average (IFOP 2017).

Results from the anchoveta Peruvian surveys in the southern region undertaken in 2016 are not available. A strong El Niño occurred from February 2015 to May 2016, and between May-December 2016 anomalies became weaker, however, a new El Niño event is currently occurring (IFOP 2016). In Peru, the 2017 first fishing season was opened on 17 January and was suspended a month later due to a high incidence of juveniles. IMARPE recommended the re-opening of the fishery after a survey confirmed that anchoveta in the southern region was less affected (IMARPE 2017). The 2015-2016 El Niño event had atypically more profound effects in the Chilean central-southern regions, but the salinity anomalies were still high in northern coastal Chile (IFOP 2016). Biological patterns have changed, e.g. spawning of smaller than 12 cm is been observer more frequently.

TRENDS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Landings of anchoveta during the historical series have shown large fluctuations over the years in both the Chilean and Peruvian fisheries, mainly owing to inter-annual changes in the abundance of this resource. An increasing trend in landings occurred from 1984 to 1994, the highest value of the historical series. Since 1998, a high inter-annual variability is observed, but with an overall decreasing trend from 2004 to present. Between 1984 and 2004, Chilean dominated in landings, from 2005 to 2009 Peruvian landings were higher due to higher availability and increase in effort. Since then, Chilean catches represent 60-75% of total landings (CCT-PP 2016, IFOP 2017).

Negative anomalies in recruitment have been estimated since the mid-2000s, leading to a reduction in recruitment until 2014. This was a result of a productivity change that could be related to variations in environmental conditions, as a recent study indicates a reduction in primary production since 2007. Total and spawning stock biomass (SSB) have suffered a significant reduction in 2007-2008, to almost half of the historical average from 1992-2007. SSB was rescaled from an average 2.2 million  tonnes during that period to 0.99 million tonnes in average for the last decade. Both total biomass and recruitment show a significant increase since 2015. However, there is relatively high uncertainty around the estimates for the most recent years, with coefficients of variation (CV) of around 40% (IFOP 2017).

Fishing mortality (F) levels have been highly variable, influenced mainly by the Chilean fleet operations. During the last 10 years, Chilean fishing mortality levels are significantly higher than the Peruvian levels, likely a result of the fishing pattern of the Chilean fleet, which targets older age classes (> 2.5 years old), which are less abundant (IFOP 2016, IFOP 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 21 August 2017

This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries, through management measures including closed seasons, minimum mesh sizes and total allowable catches (TACs).

In 2016, the Peruvian TAC (industrial fleet only) was set in line with the IMARPE recommendation at 382,000 tonnes for each fishing season (PRODUCE 2016; PRODUCE 2016). For 2017, the TAC was set at 515,000 tonnes for both fishing seasons, in line with IMARPE's recommendation (PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2017). Recently, a temporal closure was set to protect juveniles (PRODUCE 2017). For Chile, a single TAC is issued annually for the anchoveta fishery in regions XV-I-II (northern Chile), and allocated by fleet component and semester. In 2016, the Chilean TAC was set at 752,170 tonnes, close to the upper value of the recommended range (MEFT 2015). For 2017, the initial TAC was set at 762,500 tonnes, with 631,061 tonnes assigned to the industrial fleet and 116,024 tonnes for the artisanal fleet (MEFT 2016). The shares for the industrial and artisanal fleets were then revised to 636,939 tonnes and 115,246 tonnes respectively (MEFT 2017).

In Peru, until recently the artisanal and small-scale fleets were not managed under a catch limit program. However, a new set of management measures for this component of the fishery has been currently implemented, and includes: a new definition for this component of the fleet, gear specifications, area restrictions (fishing not allowed wiithin 3 nm from the coast), mandatory satellite positioning system, minimum landing sizes, bycatch limits, and an annual TAC (PRODUCE 2017). The first TAC for the Peruvian artisanal fleet was issued in 2017 at 300,000 tonnes, and applies for the entire Peruvian coast (i.e., includes both North-Centre and North Chile/South Peruvian stocks), and all year round(PRODUCE 2017). There is however no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation by IMARPE. In terms or the Peruvian industrial fleet, statutory management controls also include area restrictions (ifishing operations off 10 nm from the coast), minimum landing size of 12 cm, limit of 10% of juveniles in landings; a discard ban of fishing resources at sea (PRODUCE 2012). For both fleets, incidental catches are limited to 5%, an there is a closed entry for new fishing boats.  

No management plan is currently in place for this stock, but biomass target and limit, and target fishing mortality reference points are defined in Chile. However, the stock is currently considered as below the biomass limit reference point (IFOP 2017), and there is no known joint recovery plan. A management plan is presumably under development (SUBPESCA 2017). Between 2011 and 2016, IFOP and IMARPE, in collaboration with non-governemental organizations (NGOs), have implemented the GEF-UNDP Project "Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Large Marine Ecosystem of the Humboldt Current. As a result, a Strategic Action Program was developed and will be further designed during 2017. It is expected to provide the basis for implementing a coordinated series of measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017).

Chile XV-I-II

Mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards has been recently implemented (MEFT 2015).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Although SSB is well below the reference point adopted by Chile and fishing mortality is above the target level, there is no recovery plan in place. There is also no harvest control rule to reduce fishing effort should SSB drop below the limit reference point. IFOP highlights that the current overfishing situation is difficult to address due to the inability to conduct an effective joint management between Chile and Peru (IFOP 2015).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Mendo and Wosnitza-Mendo (2014) estimated correction factors for unreported catches in Peru, from 1950 to 2010,  including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. Industrial anchoveta catches correction factor varied mostly between 15% and 35%, peaking in the early 1970s well over 30%. In 2010, estimate for undeclared anchoveta catches by fishing companies was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Small and artisanal fleets correction factor is on average 35%, and it has been reported that catches are also illegally sold for indirect human consumption, to reduction fishmeal plants.

There are no estimates for under-reporting from the Chilean fishery (IFOP, 2016), but a research program is underway to obtain such estimates. The data collection will last for two years (MEFT 2016).

Still, reported landings have usually been well below the sum of Chilean and Peruvian set TACs (IFOP 2016).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 16 August 2017

The fishery for anchoveta is known to interact with several PET species of sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and sharks, most of which are released just after being caught. Among these, are the Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti (“Vulnerable”- IUCN), Peruvian Diving Petrel Pelecanoides garnotii (“Endangered”- IUCN) and Smooth Hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena (“Vulnerable”- IUCN). The greatest impact of this fishery might be the decrease in the availability of anchoveta, as it is an important prey for many of the species mentioned above (CeDePesca 2010). Bertrand et al. 2012) found out that the foraging efficiency of breeding seabirds may be significantly affected by not only the global quantity, but also the temporal and spatial patterns of fishery removals, thus an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should limit the risk of local depletion around breeding colonies using, for instance, adaptive marine protected areas. There are also concerns about Burmeister’s porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis (“Data Deficient” – IUCN), the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (“Near Threatened” – IUCN) and green turtle Chelonia mydas (“Endangered”- IUCN) (IUCN 2017), which feed extensively on anchoveta.

IMARPE records seabirds and marine mammals’ observations during the Peruvian hydroacoustic surveys (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2017), but there is no regular reporting on interaction with the anchoveta fishery. As such, the direct and indirect effects of the fishery on these species are not known in detail.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 17 August 2017

In the Peruvian fishery for anchoveta, there is a bycatch limit of 5% (PRODUCE 2011). However, bycatch data is not collected on a regular basis. According to an onboard observer program conducted in 2010, anchoveta comprised 99.9% of the catches, while the remaining 0.1% was mostly comprised by Chilean silverside Odontesthes regia (‘pejerrey’). Species such as the Mexican barracuda Sphyraena ensis, Pacific bonito Sarda chilensis, Patagonian squid Loligo gahi, among others, were also observed in the catches (IMARPE 2010). Results from an onboard observer programs conduted in January and February 2015 indicated that anchoveta  dominated both catches from the artisanal and the small scale components, comprising 98% or more of the total catches. Longnose anchovy Anchoa nasus ('Samasa' or 'anchoveta blanca'), lorna drum Sciaena deliciosa ('lorna'), pejerrey and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus ('caballa') comprised the remaining fraction of the catches (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015). Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and anchoveta are managed together under a single quota in the industrial fishery. However, the proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known. 

In Chile, there is no data on bycatch but it is considered to be low (IFOP 2013; IFOP 2015c). South American pilchard Sardinops sagax was caught together with anchoveta during the history of the fishery (CeDePesca 2010). The resource is collapsed, associated with adverse physical and biological environmental conditions for the resource. Still, the highest rates of exploitation occurred in the early 1990s, when the stock was already declining significantly. A quota is issued annually; in 2015 reported catches were 338 tonnes (SUBPESCA 2017), well below set TAC (SUBPESCA 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 21 August 2017

Anchoveta is a pelagic species that is captured by purse seines both in Chile and Peru. Usually, the purse seine fishery are not deemed to significantly impact the seafloor unless used in shallow waters. In Peru, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast; the artisanal and small-scale fleets are can operate from the 3nm from the coast in order to protect coastal habitats and spawning and breeding zones for several species (PRODUCE 2012; PRODUCE 2017).

Anchoveta biomass is strongly affected by the oceanographic conditions; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The spatiotemporal variability of anchoveta have been studied by several authors (e.g., Ballón et al. 2011; Bertrand et al. 2012; Espino 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand 2014). During El Niño event, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events and decadal shifts towards less productive conditions, and overfishing (Bertrand et al. 2012).

Kelvin waves and a strong El Niño event observed in 2014 and 2015 are considered to have caused a decrease of the coastal habitat (anchoveta habitat), decrease in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015) affecting the ecosystem (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 16 August 2017

There are two marine protected areas in Peru, “Reserva Marina de Paracas” and “Reserva Nacional de Islas, Islotes y Sistemas de Puntas de Guano”, both aiming at protecting marine life, in particular seabirds and marine mammals. In Chile, there are five marine protected areas (“La Rinconada”, “Isla Chañaral”, “Isla Choros-Damas”, “Putemún” and “Pullinque”), which main goal is to preserve the natural oyster Argopecten purpuratus and scallop _Tiostrea chilensis _ banks, and protect several species of marine mammals that occur in the area. The effects of these marine reserves on the stock of anchoveta are unknown (CeDePesca 2010).

In Peru and Chile, some areas may be temporarily closed due to the high proportion juveniles. Since 2014, the instability of the environmental conditions is thought to be the cause of a higher mix of adult and juvenile anchoveta. In Peru, fishery was closed in the second season of 2014 (IMARPE 2015), and recently there have been numerous temporal closures in both countries when high proportions of juveniles are observed in catches (MEFT 2016; MEFT 2016; PRODUCE 2016).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 21 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries, which has resulted in the inability to address overfishing at the stock level (IFOP 2015c). Reference points have been adopted for the Chilean fishery (MEFT 2015a), but there is no Harvest Control Rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort when biomass is low. No reference points or stock assessment model are used to manage the Peruvian portion of the fishery (IMARPE 2015a; IMARPE 2015b; IMARPE 2015c). FAO has recently recommended incorporating these into IMARPE’s assessments (FAO 2014). Between 2011 and 2016, IFOP and IMARPE, in collaboration with ONGs, have implemented a GEF-UNDP Project to develop a strategy for implementing a series of coordinated measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017). The design of the strategy is underway.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

TACs for this stock are still set unilaterally by Peru and Chile, despite being a single stock. Set TACs from each of the two countries have generally been in line with the advice by the respective scientific institutions. For Peru, a TAC of 300,00 tonnes was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time in history (PRODUCE 2017e). However, the TAC applies to the entire coast (i.e., there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks), and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Landings have usually been below both Chilean and Peruvian set TAC. In 2015, these were 17% below total TAC. However, a 10% estimate of unreported catches by the industrial fleet was reported recently (Mendo and Wosnitza‐Mendo 2014) and there are no estimates for under-reporting from the Chilean fishery (IFOP 2016), but a research program is underway to obtain such estimates (MEFT 2016).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 5.8.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 25%B0.

The SSB is 915 ('000 t). The 25%B0 is 950 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/25%B0 for this index is 96.3%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 0.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 1.96 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.580 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 338%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries. TACs are set unilaterally; Peruvian managers set TACs for each fishing season (autumn and spring, with variable starting and ending periods); Chilean managers set TAC for the first and second semester for the industrial fleet and an annual TAC for the artisanal fleet.
  2. Since 2013 advised TAC in Chile is defined by the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics, based on the Instituto Fomento Pesqueiro (IFOP) assessments reports.
  3. Advised TAC, set TAC and catches data are the sum of both Peruvian and Chilean fisheries. 
  4. In 2017, a TAC of 300,00 tonnes that applies to the entire Peruvian coast was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time in history (PRODUCE 2017). As there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks, and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation, the value is not included in the scores datasheet and a qualitative score #2 was assigned. Please hover over for the justification.
  5. Stock assessment is conducted by IFOP for the entire stock, considering fishery and biological data from Chile and Peru. The biomass and fishing mortality reference points are dynamic and recalculated annually.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

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    Anchoveta - Southern Peru/Northern Chile

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