Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 15 August 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(S)

Anchoveta

COMMON NAMES

Peruvian anchovy

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al., 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al., 2015):
1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/ Northern Chile stock, managed by both Peru and Chile, and,
3. the Central-Southern Chile stock, managed by Chile.

This profile refers on the Northern-central Peruvian stock.

The stock has been expanding in recent warmer years up to Gulf of Guayaquil (3°00’ S), in Ecuador (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009), where it is captured by a small pelagics purse seine fishery.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • Enforcement has been intensified among all fleets via a mandatory electronic log to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding. 
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • Several transitory fishing closures have been established for the protection of juveniles and spawning process, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • An Observer’s program conducted by IMARPE exists since 1996, although reporting of juveniles’ discards and bycatch is not systematic.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets have recently started.
Weaknesses
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not publicly available in the last years.
  • The TAC that was defined for the artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not fractioned by the nothern-central and southern stock); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. 
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta as a target species, but stock status is not known. 
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats' vulnerability to fishery impacts are not well known.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Advocate for the development of annual stock assessments that incorporate improved catch data and consider the effects of environmental variability on the population. Stock assessment results should be peer reviewed and publically reported.
  • Request the government of Peru to develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • Work with scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

FIPS

  • Peruvian anchovy - industrial purse-seine:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

  • Peruvian anchovy - small scale purse-seine:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Peruvian Northern-Central Ecuador Ecuador Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Artisanal - Artisanal Peru Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Industrial - Industrial Peru Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • Enforcement has been intensified among all fleets via a mandatory electronic log to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding. 
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • Several transitory fishing closures have been established for the protection of juveniles and spawning process, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • An Observer’s program conducted by IMARPE exists since 1996, although reporting of juveniles’ discards and bycatch is not systematic.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets have recently started.
Weaknesses
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not publicly available in the last years.
  • The TAC that was defined for the artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not fractioned by the nothern-central and southern stock); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. 
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta as a target species, but stock status is not known. 
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats' vulnerability to fishery impacts are not well known.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Advocate for the development of annual stock assessments that incorporate improved catch data and consider the effects of environmental variability on the population. Stock assessment results should be peer reviewed and publically reported.
  • Request the government of Peru to develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • Work with scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 August 2017

The Marine Research Institute of Peru (IMARPE) is the scientific institution responsible for the monitoring of fisheries and stock assessments in Peru. Before 2010, stock assessments were carried out using virtual population analysis (Díaz, 2009). The most recent modeled stock assessments publicly available are exploratory models published after a peer review by an international panel of experts (IMARPE, 2010b). Since then, stock status is assessed based on real-time monitoring; which consists on direct biomass estimates and distribution from acoustic surveys prior each fishing season, and monitoring of oceanographic conditions, samplings for size structure and reproductive and somatic conditions, before and during fishing seasons, to account for the rapid fluctuations in the natural biomass of this resource (e.g. EUR-OCEANS, 2008; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017). 

Since 2015, IMARPE improved reporting on the monitoring of the anchoveta resource, publishing protocols and presenting more details on the methodology for estimating biomass and catch recommendations in technical reports (IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017). 

An external technical audit by FAO recommended the use of a stock assessment model to compare stock status with direct biomass estimates (FAO, 2014). IMARPE applied a population balance model for the period 1997-2105 and concluded that direct biomass estimates may be insufficient during abnormal environmental conditions, when anchoveta are at greater depths and become less detectable using the traditionally applied acoustic method (IMARPE, 2015c,d). However, no other stock assessment model has been applied since then. Instead, survey frequency and intensity has been increased with support from the industry (e.g. IMARPE 2017).  

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 16 August 2017

IMARPE gives out the catch advice following a protocol (IMARPE 2016) before each fishing season based on hydroacoustic surveys and also recommends actions through real-time monitoring of oceanographic conditions, size structure and reproductive conditions of anchoveta during the fishing season (IMARPE 2016). An external technical audit by FAO  recommended the use of a stock assessment model to determine the stock status and provide alternative approaches to calculate the advised quota (FAO, 2014).  

Since 2015, IMARPE does not provide an explicit catch advice, instead it presents alternative catch levels from projections based on different environmental scenarios, exploitation rates and remnant biomass (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0 million tonnes expected at the next spawning season) (IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016).  For the 2017 first fishing season, catch advice was 2.8 million tonnes, based on expected neutral to favorable environmental conditions, the target harvest rate of 0.35 and a target range for remnant biomass of 6 million tonnes. IMARPE highlights the importance of protecting the juvenile fraction of the stock (IMARPE 2017).

A specific quota for the artisanal component of the anchoveta fishery was set in 2017 for the first time in the history of the fishery; but there is no evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation (PRODUCE 2017).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Considering 40 years of observations, the range of remnant spawning stock biomass for the next spawning event is between 4 and 6 million tonnes (IMARPE, 2014a). Target exploitation rate is 0.35, the historical average level (IMARPE 2016).

Several authors and most recently, Hervás and Medley (2016) have raised concerns about the justification of the thresholds used by IMARPE in relation to the impact on predators and the need to analyze if these reference points are sufficient, taken also into account the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem. Recommendations have been included in a fishery improvement project that will be undertaken within the next year (SNP and CeDePesca 2017)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Total biomass was estimated at 7.78 million tonnes in last research survey, conducted between March-April 2017, with a spawning stock biomass of 4.43 million tonnes, above the limit biomass reference point but below the optimal biomass level. The juvenile fraction of the population was 72% in numbers and 43% in biomass. The distribution of anchoveta was very coastal and with high density spots, associated with the coastal El Niño conditions occurring since February 2017 (IMARPE 2017)

TRENDS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Since the beginning of this fishery, anchoveta has passed three phases regarding recruitment and biomass levels; a low period from 1950 to 1972, a high level period from 1973 to 1991, and an intermediate period from 1992 to present. Since mid-1990’s, total biomass fluctuated around an average of 8.2 million tonnes in summers and 6.0 million tonnes in winters (IMARPE, 2014c).

According to IMARPE, landings and exploitation rates have been decreasing since 1994, due to more precautionary fishing policies (IMARPE, 2014c). Fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not published; however, fishing effort and CPUE are informed for each fishing season (IMARPE, 2016b,d). Landings peaked in 1970 at around 10 million tonnes, dropped to a minimum in 1978 to 480,000 tonnes, and peaked again in 1994 at around 9 million tonnes. Over the past decade, landings peaked at 8 million tonnes in 2000 and 2004, from 2006 to 2009 have stabilized around 5 million tonnes and dropped to an average of 3 million tonnes since 2010.

The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables, resulting in rapid fluctuations in biomass. Since 2009 an increase in variability amplitude and a trend to more positive anomalies is being observed and more pronounced fluctuations have characterized biomass estimates (IMARPE, 2014c,d). Cumulative adverse environmental conditions from late 2013 to early 2016 have affected the stock, resulting in changes in distribution patterns, delayed reproductive peaks, poor somatic conditions and higher percentage of juveniles. However, the stock has shown ability to recover rapidly even from prolonged unfavorable conditions when these normalize (IMARPE, 2014d; 2015d; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017). 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Fisheries in Peru are managed by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) and the Vice-Ministry of Fisheries. Anchoveta is managed by an adaptive system to account for highly ecosystem variability and consequent uncertainty and rapid fluctuations in biomass, typical of this resource and the Humbolt ecosystem (EUR-OCEANS, 2008).

Statutory management measures  include :i) spatial closures  (industrial fishing operations off 10 nm from the coast and and from 3 nm for artisanal and small-scale fleets), ii) temporal closures (to protect juveniles when the proportion is more than 10% of landings in numbers); iii)  minimum mesh size (13 mm); iv) minimum landing size of 12 cm; v)  landings from artisanal fleets only for human consumption; vi) effort control (one trip per day, satellite positioning system on board; vii) a discard ban of fishing resources at sea (PRODUCE, 2012d), with incidental catches limited to 5% of total landings; viii) closed entry for new fishing boats.

In 2016, an electronic log system was implemented for all fleets to enforce controls. Industrial fleet is temporally allowed to fish within the 5 and 10 nm as exploratory fishing activities to collect data on species distributions patterns (PRODUCE 2016; PRODUCE 2017). Also, permission for landing of juveniles or bycatch in percentages above those allowed (10% and 5% respectively) is applied if timely informed by fishermen to allow managers to define proper closures, aiming to reduce incentives to discarding (PRODUCE 2016)

Since 2015 both institutions IMARPE and PRODUCE are gradually improving transparency regarding the management of this fishery. IMARPE publish daily landing records from both industrial and artisanal/small-scale fleets (IMARPE 2017). However, the decision making process is not made publicly available; there is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort if spawning stock biomass drops to the limit level (4 million tonnes) nor mechanisms explaining how catch levels are defined among the alternative scenarios presented by IMARPE before a fishing season is opened.

Last updated on 16 August 2017

The artisanal and small scale fleets have not been managed under a catch limit program until this year, by implementation of the Supreme  decree Decreto Supremo N° 005-2017 (PRODUCE 2017). This regulation provides also other new measures for these fleets: i) the change in fleets’ definition, with a maximum 32.6 m3 tonnage and 15 mts length and differentiation between small-scale and artisanal fleets, based on the use or not of mechanized fishing operations; ii) anchoveta extractive activities are only allowed from three miles off the coastline for all fleets, iii) mandatory registration of all authorized vessels in a national system, and iv) an annual total allowable catch limit for direct human consumption . As well, an electronic/radio log is required for these component of the fishery  (PRODUCE 2016).

A specific quota of 300,000 tonnes was set in 2017 for the first time in history. The current artisanal quota is set on an annual basis, and is not fractioned by stock. There is no evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation (PRODUCE 2017).

Last updated on 16 August 2017

For the industrial fleet in the northern-central stock of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) and Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) a quota is set per each of two fishing seasons within a year. Longnose anchovy accounts for only a small percent of total landings.  As of 2009, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel regime has been implemented; with the aim to reduce the pressure on the fishery and the environment by spacing out the effort over the season (PRODUCE, 2010). PRODUCE establishes industrial fleet fishing seasons’ periods based on real-time monitoring of the anchoveta spawning process and the presence of juveniles.

The first fishing season in 2017 (April-July) had a TAC of 2.8 million tonnes (PRODUCE 2017) and during the fishing season, 94 transitory fishery closures were set to protect juvenile anchoveta (PRODUCE 2017).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Adaptive management is used for this stock due to its strong dependence on environmental variables and rapid fluctuations in biomass (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). Some precautionary measures have been taken to allow the recovery of the stock from adverse environmental conditions, such as closure of the second fishing season in 2014, a lower TAC in second fishing season of 2015 and early closing of first fishing season in 2016 to protect the spawning peak (IMARPE, 2014c-e; IMARPE, 2015b-d; PRODUCE 2016).

Two Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) have been implemented recently to improve management of the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets (see FIP section).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Landings have been below set TACs since the implementation of the quota system, except in 2008 and 2011 with slight exceeds. During the first fishing season of 2016, only 50% of the TAC was attained, with around 917,000 tonnes of catches, due to the early closure of the fishery to protect the spawning peak. In the second fishing season of 2016 catches reached 1.96 million tonnes (98% of set TAC), with an incidence of juveniles of 28% in numbers (IMARPE 2017).  In the first fishing season of 2017 catches were 2.37 million tonnes, representing 86% of set TAC. The incidence of juveniles was 14% in numbers, significantly lower than in the previous fishing season. Fishing activities were carried out mainly between 5-20 nm; as the industrial fleet was allowed again to fish from the 5 nm (PRODUCE 2017)

Mendo and Wosnitza‐Mendo (2014) conducted the reconstruction of marine fisheries catches in Peru between 1950 and 2010, through estimation of a correction factor for unreported catches, including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. By 2010, the estimate was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Artisanal and small-scale fleets’ correction factor was on average 35% for the period of analysis. These two fleets by law target anchoveta only for direct human consumption, however, the catches are also illegally sold for reduction fishmeal plants. In 2017, a TAC was applied for the artisanal and small-scale fleets this year for the first time (PRODUCE 2017).

Since 2010, monitoring and inspection has increased significantly (PRODUCE 2016; PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2017) , however, as usually the quota is almost completely attained, the correction factor for unreported catches should be reassessed and taken into account in the quota limit setting process. 

Intensive monitoring and inspection is being conducted at landing and weighing points and on-board; in the 2017 first fishing season of industrial fleet most infractions related to excess of catches of hold capacity and misreporting (PRODUCE 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Peru recognizes different ETP species susceptible to direct or indirect interactions with the anchoveta fishery, as a key prey species of the Humboldt Current ecosystem of some Endangered, Protected and Threatened (ETP) species. National legislation, based on the IUCN Red List, prohibits the capture of protected species (seabirds, turtles and marine mammals) for commercial purposes, including Peruvian Diving Petrel, Humboldt penguin, Guanay cormorant, pelican, Peruvian booby, green sea turtle, South American sea lion and Southern fur seal. Commercial catch, processing and marketing of small cetaceans is prohibited by a national law since the mid-1990s (PERU 1996).

The main threat posed by this fishery consists of reduction of food availability to protected predator species (Gislason, 2003). An inverse relationship was also found between the anchoveta fishing mortality and populations of seabirds and pinnipeds, however the high environmental variability, such as El Niño events, is considered the main factor driving the Humboldt Current ecosystem associated with ETPs populations viability of rebuilding (IMARPE, 2010b).  IMARPE highlights the difficulties to predict environmental variability and notes that focus should be on preservation of resilience of key species in the ecosystem, such as anchoveta. This is being implemented by protection of coastal areas, where this and many other species refuge, particularly under unfavorable oceanographic conditions, and spawning events and juvenile fraction of the population, to maintain the intrinsic  species capability to recover within a highly variable ecosystem environment (IMARPE, 2014a) (PRODUCE 2016).

Anomalous environmental conditions since 2013 are considered the main cause for the increased diversity in the pelagic ecosystem, and therefore a higher number of non-target species caught as bycatch in the anchoveta fishery in 2014 and 2015 (IMARPE, 2015c,d), e.g. Smooth hammerhead (tiburón martillo, Sphyrna zygaena) which is categorized as “Vulnerable” by IUCN (IUCN, 2016) (PRODUCE, 2015e). Research surveys include monitoring and report  of seabirds, mammals and fish species (IMARPE 2017), however there is no regular reporting of interactions of the anchoveta fishery with ETPs species.

There is a study underway to better understand the interactions of the industrial fishery in the coastal zone (PRODUCE 2017) and two FIPs are underway and aim to conduct actions for a better understanding of the fishery impacts on protected species and habitats (SNP and CeDePesca 2017).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 16 August 2017

There is an IMARPE on-board observer program since 1996, which covers about 4-6% of the overall fishing effort (Hervás and Medley 2016). Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta and are managed together under one quota in the industrial fishery.  The proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known. 

Peruvian law allows just up to 5% of non-target species bycatch in weight for all fleets in the anchoveta fishery (e.g. PRODUCE, 2015b,c). There is system for daily catch and bycatch data reporting for all fleets on IMARPE website, however, there are no regular analysis of bycatch related to the maximum allowed percentage. Saldarriaga (2015) estimated a bycatch rate of around 5% in the industrial fishery, using landings data from 2003 to 2011, and a decreasing trend in recent years. However, using bootstrapping and delta models, bycatch rates  were around 10% with an increasing trend in the 2005-2011 period.

Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), squid and Carrot squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) are mentioned as the main incidental species in the anchoveta industrial fishery (IMARPE 2014a, 2015c). In the artisanal and small-scale fleets, there are numerous species , including : silverside (Odontesthes regia), bonito (Sarda chilensis), squid (Loligo gahi), Jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), flounder (Paralichthys adspersus), Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), red squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon), butterfish (Trachinotus paitensis), mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), eagle rays (Myliobatis spp. among others, (CeDePesca 2010). Around 98 - 99% of the observed catch in the small-scale fishery was anchoveta (nearly 100% for the artisanal fleet) in recent fishing trips and bycatch species were Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), longnose anchoveta (Anchoa nasus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and silverside (Odontesthes regia) (IMARPE 2015).

Anomalous environmental conditions since 2013 are considered the main cause for the higher numbers of juvenile anchoveta and non-target species (IMARPE, 2015c,d). Thus, IMARPE has recommended a strict control of landings, discarding and fishing within the 5 nm, as well as bycatch incidence (IMARPE, 2016c,d).  

A permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets, implementation of the electronic log system that allows setting of timely closures and intense inspection in ports and on-board is a precautionary strategy recently in place to minimize the impact of the fishery (PRODUCE 2016)(PRODUCE 2017). 

Ecuador
Purse seines

Last updated on 2 March 2015

Anchoveta is caught by the mixed small pelagics purse seine fishery in Ecuador in the southern coast since 2001 Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009).

In recent years, the most important species in catches have been chub makarel (Scomber japonicus, bullet mackerel (Auxis spp.), thread herring (Ophistonema ssp.), Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus) and Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi. Anchoveta has been the most significant species in total catches in 2007/2008 (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009), however currently is a secondary species for this fleet with occasional catches, ranging from 0 to 6% from total small pelagics landings (around 200,000 tons) since 2010 (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 16 August 2017

There is no direct impact on bottom habitats from purse seine, unless it is used in waters shallower than the nets height. Since 2012, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast; small-scale vessels (10 to 32.3 m3) between 5 and 10 nm, while the artisanal fleet (less than 10 m3) can operate from the coastline. The aim of this regulation is to protect coastal habitats and breeding zones for several species (PRODUCE, 2012b; IMARPE, 2014a). Concerns have been raised  regarding the potential impacts of the artisanal fleet operating from mile zero and small-scale fleet operating between miles 5 and mile 10 as the morphology of the platform along the Peruvian coastline and associated habitats vulnerable to fishery impacts are not well known (Hervás and Medley 2016).

Recently, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established (PRODUCE 2017). On the other hand, management authorities are keen to allow the industrial fleet  to fish in coastal areas (IntraFish 2016) and temporary permissions to operate within the 5-10 nm zone were given in 2016 and 2017, as exploratory fishing activities to collect data on species distributions patterns (PRODUCE 2016; PRODUCE 2017).

Still, the main impact of the fishery on the ecosystem occurs via the impacts on the trophic chain, as anchovy is a forage species. A negative trend was observed for anchoveta landings from 1990 to 2012, what was also seen for other commercial species, which rely on anchoveta directly or indirectly through the trophic chain, underpinning the key role of anchoveta in Peruvian marine ecosystem (IMARPE, 2014a). Anchoveta is highly dependent on environmental events; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Spatiotemporal variability affecting anchoveta at different temporal scales has been studied by several authors (Ballón et al., 2011; Bertrand et al., 2011; IMARPE, 2012a,b; Espino and Yamashiro, 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand, 2014; etc). During ENSO events, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events, decadal shifts towards less productive conditions and overfishing (Bertrand et al., 2011).

Prolonged warm anomalous conditions since late 2013 have led to higher diversity in the pelagic ecosystem, higher mixture of juvenile and adult organisms in anchoveta schools, diet change by anchoveta (from euphasids to copepods), more coastal distribution and increased consumption of anchoveta by coastal species due to its accessibility. These changes seem to increase risk upon the anchoveta stock (IMARPE, 2014a,c; 2015d). IMARPE highlights that difficulties to predict environmental variability are more evident in recent years, and indicates that focus should be on preservation its resilience by protecting coastal areas, spawning events and juveniles (IMARPE 2016; PRODUCE 2016).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 16 August 2017

There are two Marine Reserves in Peru: Paracas Marine Reserve – extension of 335,000 ha of which 65% correspond to sea waters, created to protect especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin; and the National Reserve of Islands, Islets and Guano Headlands System – contains 22 islands and islets and 11 headlands (140,833 ha) and was created to preserve the continuity of the biological cycle of species that inhabit it and to help preserve straddlling fish stocks (Cedepesca, 2010). The creation of a new marine reserve has been proposed to protect an area within the tropical sea ecoregion in Peru (Peru Pesquero, 2015).

The Nature Conservancy has been working to address sustainable fisheries and marine conservation issues in Peru, promoting marine protected areas and is working with the IMARPE to predict how fish stocks will behave given certain environmental changes (TNC 2017).

In 2016 and 2017, around a hundred transitory fishery closures each fishing season were set to protect juveniles (Diario Gestión 2016; Diario Gestión 2017; PRODUCE 2017).  As well, anchoveta extractive activities are now only allowed from three miles off the Peruvian coastline for all fleets, constituting a permanent spatial closure (PRODUCE 2017).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 18 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no management plan as an adaptive management system is used for anchoveta (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). In-year management measures such as fishing season periods and TACs are deployed based on real-time monitoring of environmental, biological and fishery data. Temporary closures are established based on presence of juveniles and fishing seasons periods are defined based on reproductive status for protection of the spawning peaks. IMARPE uses different remnant spawning stock biomass targets (ranging 4 to 6 million tonnes) depending on dominant environmental conditions and an historical target exploitation rate of 0.35 for catch recommendations(IMARPE, 2017b). Exploitation rates are not published nor details on the methodology and assumptions for estimating advised catch limits. New management measures are applying for the artisanal component of the fishery, including an annual quota (PRODUCE, 2016f; 2017a,c).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

IMARPE gives out scientific advice and PRODUCE sets TACs for the industrial fleet for each fishing season, following closely the advised levels in general. In April 2017, a TAC of 300,00 tonnes was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time in history (PRODUCE 2017e), to be used for direct human consumption. However, the TAC applies to the entire coast (i.e., there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks), and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. This artisanal quota is around 8% of the total annual TAC for the industrial fleet in the last two years.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 2370 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 2800 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 84.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock status is analyzed by intensive monitoring of environmental and biological indicators (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). Since 2013, anomalous warm environmental conditions have dominated, causing changes in distribution and spawning patterns. Last research survey indicates a spawning stock biomass of around 4.4 million tonnes, above the limit biomass reference point and a reduced and coastal distribution, associated with the coastal El Niño conditions occurring since February 2017 (IMARPE 2017b). Available information suggests that the stock has shown the ability to recover rapidly from prolonged environmental unfavorable conditions when these tend to normalize (IMARPE, 2016b-d), but the uncertainty surrounding environmental variability and the stock status is high.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Target exploitation rate is 0.35, the historical average level (IMARPE, 2016a), however actual target exploitation rates are not published (IMARPE, 2017b). Landings have been at or below set TAC for several years. However, some sources of fishing mortality, such as discards and illegal captures magnitude could not be estimated (IMARPE, 2015c). Since 2009, there is an increase in variability amplitude and more pronounced biomass fluctuations of anchoveta, leading to higher uncertainty about stock status in the long-term (IMARPE, 2014c,d; 2016b-d, 2017b).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. There are no fishing mortality reference points set for the stock, thus score #1 and #5 could not be determined quantitatively, and qualitative scores were assigned.
  2. For the inustrial fleet there are two fishing seasons per year, with specific TAC recommendations and set TACs. Data shown is the sum of these volumes for both fishing seasons. In 2017, a TAC of 300,00 tonnes was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time in history (PRODUCE 2017e), which applies to the entire coast. As there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks, and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation, the value is not included in the scores datasheet and a qualitative score #2 was assigned. 
  3. Fishery removals refer to landings, as IMARPE has not reported catch estimates. Landings up to 1999 are approximate values, taken from IMARPE (2009b).
  4. No formal stock assessment model is conducted for this stock. Spawning stock biomass values in the datasheet from 2009 onward refer to biomass direct estimates from hydroacoustic surveys, thus might not be comparable to the time-series shown up to 2008, obtained from an exploratory model (Diaz et al., 2010).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 4 Jan 2017
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP remains at C. FIP younger than  a year old with stage 3 activities underway. 

1.
FIP Development
Mar 17
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 17
Jan 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Jul 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Additional sources:

  1. González, N., Prado, M., Castro, R., Solano, F., Jurado, V., Peña, M. undated. Análisis de la pesquería de peces pelágicos en el Ecuador (1981-2007), Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Investigación de Recursos Bioacuáticos y su Ambiente, 40 pp.
  2. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Estado poblacional del stock norte-centro de anchoveta y proyecciones de pesca de anchoveta para la temporada abril-septiembre 2009”. 4 pages.
  3. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Desarrollo de la pesquería de anchoveta en el litoral peruano (enero – 12 de julio de 2009)”. 3 pages.
  4. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Incidencia del evento El Niño 2009/2010 y sus efectos sobre el desarrollo de la pesquería de la anchoveta”. 8 pages.
  5. Serra. R.; Aguayo, M .; Rojas, O.; Cañón, J.; Inostroza, F. 1979. Anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns) Teleostomi Clupeiformes Engraulidae. En: CORFO-IFOP (eds). Estado actual de las principales pesquerías nacionales. Bases para un desarrollo pesquero: I Peces. AP 79/18: 1-52.
  6. Avadí, A., Fréon, P., Tam, J. 2014. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case. PloS ONE 9(7): e102057. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102057. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102057&representation=PDF
  7. Ballón, M., Bertrand, A. Lebourges-Dhaussy, A., Gutiérrez, M., Ayón, P., Grados, D., Gerlotto, F. Is there enough zooplankton to feed forage fish populations off Peru? An acoustic (positive) answer. Progress in Oceanography 91 (2011) 360–381. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661111000279
  8. Bertrand, A., Chaigneau, A., Peraltilla, S., Ledesma, J., Graco, M., Monetti, F., Chavez, F.P. 2011. Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern Tropical Pacific. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29558. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029558. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029558
  9. Bertrand, S. Joo, R., Arbulu Smet, C., Tremblay, Y., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H. Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging. Journal of Applied Ecology 2012, 49, 1168–1177. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x/abstract
  10. BirdLife International 2005. Spheniscus humboldti. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  11. Birdlife International 2007. Pelecanoides garnotii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  12. Bren School of Environmental Science & Management (BSESM), 2013. Assessing Management Strategies for the Artisanal Sector of the Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery, Submitted in partial satisfaction of the degree requirements for the Master in Environmental Science and Management at the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, 87 pp.http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/research/2013Group_Projects/documents/Anchoveta_Final_Report.pdf
  13. Cahuin, S.M.; Cubillos, L. A.; Escribano, R. 2015. Synchronous patterns of fluctuations in two stocks of anchovy Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in the Humboldt Current System. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31, 45–50, ISSN 0175–8659.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jai.12646/pdf
  14. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010. Anchoveta (sur del Perú/norte de Chile) Engraulis ringens: Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería [in spanish]. Mar del Plata, Argentina, December 2010. 20 pp.http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/anchoveta_stock_sur_Peru-norte_Chile_Informe_CeDePesca_diciembre_2010.pdf
  15. Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur (CPPS), 2010. Red Nacional de Áreas marinas y costeras protegidas del Pacífico Sudeste, Secretaría Ejectuva del Plan de Acción para la protección del Medio Marino y Áreas Costeras del Pacífico Sudeste (Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru), Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, 26 p.http://www.cpps-int.org/spanish/planaccion/docs2010/Red.regional.AMCP.PSE.version2010.pdf
  16. Corrales, M.B., Peña, C., Díaz, E., Limache, J. 2013. On Board Fisheries Observer Program: "Logbook": Towards the Ecosystem-Based Approach in Perú, 7th International Fisheries observer & Monitoring Conference, 26 pp.http://www.ifomc.com/presentations/3bBouchon.pdf
  17. Correo, 2013. Suspenden extracción de anchoveta en zona norte - centro del litoral, 27th January 2013[Assessed on 21st March 2013]http://diariocorreo.pe/ultimas/noticias/3193360/suspenden-extraccion-de-anchoveta-en-zona-no
  18. De La Puente, Ó., Sueiro, J.C., Heck, C., Soldi. G., De La Puente, S. 2011. Evaluación de los sistemas degestión pesquera en el marcode la certificación a cargo del Marine Stewardship Council, La pesquería peruana de Anchoveta. Centro para la Sostenibilidad Ambiental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. [Document available online 21st March 2012]http://www.scribd.com/doc/101686776/La-Pesqueria-Peruana-de-Anchoveta
  19. Díaz, E., 2009. Assessment and Management of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Peruvian Marine Research Institiute (IMARPE).http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/paita/reportes/cedepesca/docs/13.pdf
  20. Díaz E, García C, Espinoza D, Guevara-Carrasco R, Csirke J, Ñiquen M, Vargas N, Argüelles J. 2010.- Assessment of the north – center stock of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens Jenyns) using an age - structured model. Bol Inst Mar Perú. 25(1-2):57-61. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  21. Espino, M., Yamashiro, C. 2012. La variabilidad climática y las pesquerías en el Pacífico suroriental. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 40(3): 705-721. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-560X2012000300018
  22. Espinoza, P., Bertrand, A. 2014. Ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability in anchoveta Engraulis ringens diet off Peru. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.12293. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24446662
  23. EUR-OCEANS, 2008. Fact Sheet Nº9: Adaptive management in pelagic fisheries. 2 pp.http://www.eur-oceans.info/medias/documents/FS9_Adaptative_management_low.pdf
  24. Fablet, R., Gay, R., Peraltilla, S. Peña, C. Castillo, R. Bertrand, A. 2012. Bags-of-Features for fish school cluster characterization in pelagic ecosystems: application to the discrimination of juvenile and adult anchovy (Engraulis ringens) clusters off Peru. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 69.11 pp. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010057141
  25. FAO, 2014. Auditoría Técnica Internacional del Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE) - Informe Final (May, 2014). 29 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_inf_final_auditoria_fao_a_imarpe_(may_14).pdf
  26. FIS, 2013. Captura de anchoveta juvenil representa 90% de las infracciones pesqueras, Perú, February 05th, 2013 [Assessed online 21st March 2013]http://www.fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?l=s&id=58592&ndb=1
  27. Fish Information & Services (FIS), 2010. Noticias: Autorizan pesca de anchoveta; fijan cuotas de jurel y caballa.http://fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=&day=19&id=36250&l=s&special=0&ndb=0
  28. Gislason, H. 2003. The effects of fishing on non-target species and ecosystem structure and function, University of Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, 21 pp.ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/reykjavik/pdf/15Gislason.pdf
  29. IMARPE, 1970. Boletín VOL. 2(6), Diciembre 1970, Informe del Cuadro de Expertos sobre Dinámica de la Población de la Anchoveta Peruana.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/index.php?id_detalle=00000000000000006696
  30. IMARPE, 2009a. Estimación de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el Método de Producción de Huevos (MPH), 26 Agosto- 30 Setiembre 2009, Talara – Paracas (BIC OLAYA 0908-09). http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_informe_crucero_mph_0909.pdf
  31. IMARPE, 2009b. Desarrollo de la Pesquería Pelagica (Enero – Octubre 2009); Resultados del Crucero de Estimacion de Biomasa Desovante de Anchoveta BIC Olaya 0908-09 (26 Agosto – 30 Setiembre 2009); Resultados del V Panel Internacional de Expertos para la Evaluación de la Anchoveta.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/exposicion_Nov09.pdf
  32. IMARPE, 2010a. Estimacion de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el metodo de produccion de huevos entre Talara y Punta Paracas (Pisco), 16 Agosto‐21 de Setiembre 2010. Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 33 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_infcruc1008_09_anch.pdf
  33. IMARPE, 2010b. Boletín Instituto del Mar del Perú. Quinto panel internacional de expertos en evaluación de la anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns. Callao, 10–14 agosto 2009. Lima: Instituto del Mar del Perú.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  34. IMARPE, 2010. Programa Bitácoras de Pesca (PBP), IMARPE, 7 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_otropr_bitaco_otro_progra_set10.pdf
  35. IMARPE, 2011a. Estado poblacional del Stock norte-centro de anchoveta y sus proyecciones de pesca para la temporada abril – setiembre 2011. (Resultados del Crucero de Evaluación Hidroacústica de Recursos Pelágicos BIC Olaya 1102-04 y Crucero Evaluación de estructuras de cardúmenes de anchoveta (BIC SNP-2). Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 7 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_inf_ejec_cr_1102_210311_tmp.pdf
  36. IMARPE, 2011c. Resultados principales del POI – PTI - Anual 2010: 1. Seguimiento de pesquerias y evaluacion de recursos pesqueros. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 175 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_eval_anual_resu_2010.pdf
  37. IMARPE, 2013b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Noviembre 2013-Enero 2014, 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_nor_sur_nov13ene14.pdf
  38. IMARPE, 2014a. Informe Análisis Poblacional de la Pesquería de Anchoveta en el Ecosistema Marino Peruano”. 38 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/info_anal_pob_anchov_1.pdf
  39. IMARPE, 2014b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Abril - Julio 2014, 9 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  40. IMARPE, 2014c. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Octubre del 2014. 45 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_aoctub2014.pdf
  41. IMARPE, 2014d. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Diciembre del 2014. 25 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  42. IMARPE, 2014e. Informe de la Operación EUREKA LXVII. Talara (05°S) – Punta San Juan (16°S). 19 – 23 November, 2014.21 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/eureka19al23nmov2014.pdf
  43. IMARPE, 2015a. Estimación de la captura total permisible del stock norte centro de la anchoveta peruana. PROTOCOLO IMP-DGIRP / AFDPERP. April, 2015. 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe/estim_cap_anch_abr2015_.pdf
  44. IMARPE, 2015b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana. Estado actual y recomendaciones de manejo para la primera temporada de pesca 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_public_evalanch_temp1_2015.pdf
  45. IMARPE, 2015c. Situación del stock norte - centro de la anchoveta peruana a setiembre del 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/situa_anchov_aset15.pdf
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