Last updated on 19 July 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Anchoveta

COMMON NAMES

Peruvian anchovy

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al., 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al., 2015):
1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/ Northern Chile stock, managed by both Peru and Chile, and,
3. the Central-Southern Chile stock, managed by Chile.

This profile refers on the Northern-central Peruvian stock.

The stock expands in warmer years up to Gulf of Guayaquil (3°00’ S), in Ecuador (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009), where a purse seine fishery operates, but since 2012 anchoveta population has retracted.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • An electronic logbook has been recently implemented to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the fishery, including an annual TAC.
  • Several transitory fishing closures have been established for the protection of juveniles and spawning process, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets are underway, focusing on bycatch and ecosystem improving data.
Weaknesses
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and current fishing mortality or exploitation rate estimates are not publicly available in the last years, even if this was recommended by FAO in 2014.
  • The TAC that was defined for the artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not fractioned by the nothern-central and southern stock); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. 
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta as a target species, but stock status is not known. 
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats' vulnerability to fishery impacts are not well known.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Request the government of Peru to develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • Advocate for the development of annual stock assessments that incorporate improved catch data (landings and discards) and consider the effects of environmental variability on the population. Stock assessment results should be peer reviewed and publically reported.
  • Encourage the Peruvian authorities to make public the process by which the artisanal sector TAC is determined, and to assign each stock a specific quota based on scientific advice. 
  • Encourage the Peruvian research authorities to assess the status of minor species (e.g. longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and develop management/rebuilding plans as appropriate. 
  • Work with scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards and all bycatch; analyse the data and publish the results on bycatch quantities and trends.
  • Develop and implement bycatch reduction measures for the industrial and artisanal fleets based on increased knowledge from the IMARPE observer programme.
  • Work with scientists to define the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.

FIPS

  • Peruvian anchovy - industrial purse-seine:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

  • Peruvian anchovy - small scale purse-seine:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Peruvian Northern-Central Ecuador Ecuador Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Artisanal - Artisanal Peru Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Industrial - Industrial Peru Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 17 July 2018

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • An electronic logbook has been recently implemented to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the fishery, including an annual TAC.
  • Several transitory fishing closures have been established for the protection of juveniles and spawning process, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets are underway, focusing on bycatch and ecosystem improving data.
Weaknesses
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and current fishing mortality or exploitation rate estimates are not publicly available in the last years, even if this was recommended by FAO in 2014.
  • The TAC that was defined for the artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not fractioned by the nothern-central and southern stock); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. 
  • Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta as a target species, but stock status is not known. 
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats' vulnerability to fishery impacts are not well known.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Request the government of Peru to develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • Advocate for the development of annual stock assessments that incorporate improved catch data (landings and discards) and consider the effects of environmental variability on the population. Stock assessment results should be peer reviewed and publically reported.
  • Encourage the Peruvian authorities to make public the process by which the artisanal sector TAC is determined, and to assign each stock a specific quota based on scientific advice. 
  • Encourage the Peruvian research authorities to assess the status of minor species (e.g. longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and develop management/rebuilding plans as appropriate. 
  • Work with scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards and all bycatch; analyse the data and publish the results on bycatch quantities and trends.
  • Develop and implement bycatch reduction measures for the industrial and artisanal fleets based on increased knowledge from the IMARPE observer programme.
  • Work with scientists to define the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 17 July 2018

The Marine Research Institute of Peru (IMARPE) is the scientific institution responsible for the monitoring of fisheries and stock assessments in Peru. Before 2010, stock assessments were carried out using virtual population analysis (Díaz, 2009). The most recent modeled stock assessments publicly available are exploratory models published after a peer review by an international panel of experts (IMARPE, 2010b). Since then, stock status is assessed based on real-time monitoring; which consists on direct biomass estimates and distribution from acoustic surveys prior each fishing season, and monitoring of oceanographic conditions, samplings for size structure and reproductive and somatic conditions, before and during fishing seasons, to account for the rapid fluctuations in the natural biomass of this resource (e.g. EUR-OCEANS, 2008; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2018).

Since 2015, IMARPE improved reporting on the monitoring of the anchoveta Northern Central stock, publishing protocols and presenting more details on the methodology for estimating biomass and catch recommendations in most technical reports (IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017). However, assumptions on population parameters for stock projections are still not reported (IMARPE 2018). As well, some sources of fishing mortality such as juveniles discards, illegal catches and losses of anchoveta from gillneted fish are not included in the stock assessment (OCEANA Peru 2018). Since 2009, there is an increase in variability amplitude, more pronounced biomass fluctuations and juvenile proportion in population has increased as a reproductive response of the stock to environmental changes. This leads to higher uncertainty about stock status in the long-term (IMARPE, 2014c,d; 2016b-d) and need to increase monitoring of the stock (IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2018).

An external technical audit by FAO recommended the use of a stock assessment model to compare stock status with direct biomass estimates (FAO, 2014), however, none was conducted since then. Instead, survey frequency and intensity has been increased with support from the industry (EUREKA surveys, e.g. IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017), and a survey to estimate spawning biomass using the egg production method was also carried out (IMARPE 2017)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 17 July 2018

IMARPE usually does not provide an explicit catch advice, instead it presents alternative catch levels from projections based on different environmental scenarios, exploitation rates and remnant biomass (4.0 to 6.0 million tonnes for the next spawning season from empirical observations) (IMARPE, 2014a; IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016). Assumptions on population parameters for calculating exploitation prospect levels are generally not provided in reports, e.g. (IMARPE 2018).

For the 2017 first fishing season, catch advice was 2.8 million tonnes, based on expected neutral to favorable environmental conditions. As well, IMARPE highlighted the importance of protecting the juvenile fraction of the stock (IMARPE 2017). A low biomass was observed in August-July, thus IMARPE recommended to delay the beginning of the 2017 second fishing season to the third week of November, but no catch explicit advice was provided (IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017; IMARPE 2017). IMARPE recommended closing this fishing season earlier than expected due to the detection of the summer spawning peak (IMARPE 2018). A high biomass and low reproductive status was observed in the February-April acoustic survey, thus IMARPE recommended to start the 2018 first fishing season immediately, with catch levels between 3 and 3.5 million tonnes (IMARPE 2018). IMARPE highlighted the need to report discards - including estimates of gillneted fish in fishing nets. 

A specific quota for the artisanal component of the anchoveta fishery was set in 2017 for the first time (PRODUCE 2017); but there is no evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. The same catch limit was set for 2018, taking into account the results from the last acoustic survey but with no clear justification on the volume set (PRODUCE 2018)

Several authors and most recently, Hervás and Medley (2016) have raised concerns about the justification of the thresholds used by IMARPE in relation to the impact on predators and the need to analyze if these reference points are sufficient, taken also into account the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem. Recommendations have been included in a fishery improvement project (SNP and CeDePesca 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 17 July 2018

The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables, resulting in rapid fluctuations in biomass. Since the beginning of this fishery, anchoveta has passed three phases regarding recruitment and biomass levels; a low period from 1950 to 1972, a high level period from 1973 to 1991, and an intermediate period from 1992 to present. Since mid-1990’s, total biomass fluctuated around an average of 8.2 million tonnes in summers and 6.0 million tonnes in winters (IMARPE, 2014c), however, an increase in variability amplitude and anomalies is being observed since 2009, with more pronounced fluctuations in biomass estimates (IMARPE, 2014c,d).

The stock has shown ability to recover rapidly even from prolonged unfavorable conditions when these normalize (IMARPE, 2014d; 2015d; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2017). Total biomass was 7.78 million tonnes in March-April 2017, with 43% juveniles in biomass. The distribution of anchoveta was very coastal and with high density spots, associated with the coastal El Niño since February 2017 (IMARPE 2017). In August, the spawning stock biomass was estimated at 1.3 million tonnes, using the egg production method (IMARPE 2017). Then, the September-November acoustic survey detected a total biomass of 6.06 million tonnes, with 67% juveniles in biomass, widely spread along and from the coast (IMARPE 2017). In February-April, a total biomass of 10.86 million tonnes was reported, with 35% juveniles in biomass, with wide spatial distribution and high homogenous density (IMARPE 2018)

According to IMARPE, landings and exploitation rates have been decreasing since 1994, due to more precautionary fishing policies (IMARPE, 2014c). Landings peaked in 1970 at around 10 million tonnes, dropped to a minimum in 1978 to 480,000 tonnes, and peaked again in 1994 at around 9 million tonnes. Over the past decade, landings peaked at 8 million tonnes in 2000 and 2004, from 2006 to 2009 have stabilized around 5 million tonnes and are around 3 million tonnes since 2010.  

Fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not published; however, fishing effort and CPUE are informed for each fishing season (IMARPE 2017)(IMARPE 2018).

Last updated on 17 July 2018

Anchoveta catches have been reported by the small pelagics purse seine fishery in Ecuador in the southern coast from 2001 to 2012, explained as an expansion of the anchoveta distribution range northwards, as a result of an adaptive response to warmer conditions (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009). Landings have been very variable, in 2006-2008 anchoveta was the most important species for the small pelagics mixed fishery, peaking at 76,000 tonnes. Last significant volumes (12,000 tonnes) were landed in 2012, and from 2013 to 2015, there have been no catches (Instituto Nacional de Pesca 2017)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 17 July 2018

Fisheries in Peru are managed by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) and the Vice-Ministry of Fisheries. Anchoveta is managed by an adaptive system to account for highly ecosystem variability and consequent uncertainty and rapid fluctuations in biomass, typical of this resource and the Humbolt ecosystem (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). Peruvian statutory seasons/closures are based on anchoveta’s spawning cycle: a summer closure to protect the growth of anchovy juveniles, and a winter closure to protect the spawning stock.  Statutory management measures include: i) spatial closures (industrial fishing operations off 5 nm from the coast, ii) provisional closures to protect juveniles when the proportion is more than 10% of landings in numbers; iii) minimum mesh size (13 mm); iv) minimum landing size of 12 cm; v)  landings from artisanal fleets only for human consumption; vi) effort control (one trip per day, satellite positioning system on board; vii) a discard ban of fishing resources at sea (PRODUCE, 2012d), with incidental catches limited to 5% of total landings; viii) closed entry for new fishing boats.

Some precautionary measures have been taken to allow the recovery of the stock from adverse environmental conditions, such as closure of the second fishing season in 2014, a lower TAC in second fishing season of 2015 and early closing of fishing seasons to protect the spawning peak (IMARPE, 2014c-e; IMARPE, 2015b-d; PRODUCE 2016; IMARPE 2018)

In 2016, an electronic log system was implemented for all fleets to enforce controls, but has only started to be implemented in the second fishing season of 2017. By properly reporting catch composition, fishermen are awarded through an increase on the allowed percentages of juveniles and bycatch (which are defined as 10% and 5% of total catch, respectively) (PRODUCE 2016). If properly implemented and adopted, these measures will allow managers to define proper closures, aiming to reduce incentives to discarding.

Since 2015 both institutions IMARPE and PRODUCE are gradually improving transparency regarding the management of this fishery. IMARPE publishes daily landing records from both industrial and artisanal/small-scale fleets (IMARPE 2017). However, the decision making process is not made publicly available; there is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort if spawning stock biomass drops to the limit level (4 million tonnes) nor mechanisms explaining how catch levels are defined among the alternative scenarios presented by IMARPE before a fishing season is opened.

Two Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) have been implemented recently to improve management of the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets (see FIP section).

Last updated on 17 July 2018

The artisanal and small scale fleets have not been managed under a catch limit program until 2017 by the supreme decree N° 005-2017 (PRODUCE 2017). This regulation provides also other new measures for these fleets: i) the change in fleets’ definition, with a maximum 32.6 m3 tonnage and 15 mts length and differentiation between small-scale and artisanal fleets, based on the use or not of mechanized fishing operations; ii) anchoveta extractive activities are only allowed from three miles off the coastline for all fleets, iii) mandatory registration of all authorized vessels in a national system, and iv) an annual total allowable catch limit for direct human consumption. As well, an electronic/radio log is required for this component of the fishery (PRODUCE 2016).

A specific quota of 300,000 tonnes was set in 2017 for the first time in history. The current artisanal quota is set on an annual basis, and is not fractioned by stock. There is no evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation (PRODUCE 2017). The same volume was set as TAC for the artisanal and small scale fleet in 2018 (PRODUCE 2018)

Last updated on 17 July 2018

For the industrial fleet a quota is set per each of two fishing seasons within a year. Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) accounts for only a small percent of total landings, however current volumes are not available. As of 2009, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel regime has been implemented; with the aim to reduce the pressure on the fishery and the environment by spacing out the effort over the season (PRODUCE, 2010). PRODUCE establishes industrial fleet fishing seasons’ periods based on real-time monitoring of the anchoveta spawning process and the presence of juveniles.

The first fishing season in 2017 (April-July) had a TAC of 2.8 million tonnes (PRODUCE 2017); 94 transitory fishery closures were set to protect juvenile anchoveta during the fishing season (PRODUCE 2017). The second fishing season in 2017 was opened with a TAC of 1.49 million tonnes (PRODUCE 2017) on November 27th but exploratory fishing indicated a low catchability and high percentage of juveniles, so the fishery was suspended. It was re-opened on January 5th (PRODUCE 2018) until January 27th; 30 transitory fishery closures were set to protect juvenile anchoveta during this fishing season even if PRODUCE defined a large closure zone. The fishing season was closed early due to the detection of the summer spawning peak (PRODUCE 2018).

A TAC of 3.3 million tonnes was defined for the first fishing season in 2018, which started in April (PRODUCE 2018)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 17 July 2018

Since 2010, monitoring and inspection has increased significantly in the industrial fleet (PRODUCE 2016; PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2017). Intensive monitoring and inspection is being conducted at landing and weighing points and on-board and reports of suspensions are public (PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2018)

Landings have been below set TACs since the implementation of the quota system, except in 2008 and 2011. In the first fishing season of 2017 catches were 2.37 million tonnes, representing 86% of set TAC. The incidence of juveniles was 14% in numbers. Fishing activities were carried out mainly between 5-20 nm; as the industrial fleet was allowed again to fish from the 5 nm (PRODUCE 2017). During the second fishing season of 2017, only 46% of the TAC was attained, due to the early closure of the fishery to protect the spawning peak (PRODUCE 2018). However, as usually the quota is almost completely attained, the correction factor for unreported catches should be reassessed and taken into account in the quota limit setting process. 

Mendo and Wosnitza‐Mendo (2014) conducted the reconstruction of marine fisheries catches in Peru between 1950 and 2010, through estimation of a correction factor for unreported catches, including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. By 2010, the estimate was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Artisanal and small-scale fleets’ correction factor was on average 35% for the period of analysis. These two fleets by law target anchoveta only for direct human consumption, however, the catches are also illegally sold for reduction fishmeal plants. In 2017, a TAC was applied for the artisanal and small-scale fleets this year for the first time (PRODUCE 2017). Catch information from the artisanal fleet is not yet available to compare wth set TAC.

Level of compliance with spatial closures (3 nm for artisanals, 10 nm industrial vessels) and maximum 5% bycatch is not publicly reported.

Last updated on 17 July 2018

There are some warnings indicating that this fleet sells anchoveta to fishmeal processing plants, which is not allowed (GEF-PNUD 2014).  

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 19 July 2018

Peru recognizes different ETP species susceptible to direct or indirect interactions with the anchoveta fishery. On the one hand, anchoveta is considered a key prey species of the Humboldt Current ecosystem of some Endangered, Protected and Threatened (ETP) species. On the other hand, the fishery may interact with ETP species such as seabirds or marine mammals. National legislation (Supreme decree 034-2004-AG) prohibits the capture of protected species (seabirds, turtles and marine mammals) for commercial purposes, including Peruvian Diving Petrel, Humboldt penguin, Guanay cormorant, pelican, Peruvian booby, green sea turtle, South American sea lion and Southern fur seal. Commercial catch, processing and marketing of small cetaceans is prohibited by a national law since the mid-1990s (PERU 1996)

Last updated on 19 July 2018

Little information is available on the impact of the artisanal anchovy fishery on ETP species. Among the ETP species identified as bycatch in this fishery are seabirds, marine mammals and sea turtles, based on a GEF-PNUD-GEMCH project report (GEF-PNUD 2014). A risk analysis conducted in 2012 identified that seabirds Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus), Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocoraz bougainvillii), Red-legged cormorant (Phalacrocorax gaimardii), Neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) were at highest risk of direct impact by the artisanal anchovy fishery. No on-board monitoring program has been implemented in this fishery yet; thus, no estimates on bycatch or mortality rates are available.

Last updated on 19 July 2018

The Marine Institute of Peru, IMARPE, monitors about 4-6% of the industrial fleet with on-board observers since 1996 (Hervás and Medley 2016), but data on bycatch of species is rarely reported, so information publicly available on the direct impact of the industrial anchovy fishery on ETP species is limited. Most of the information available on bycatch on this fishery refers to bycatch of anchovy juveniles, and other fish species and jellyfish (Quiñones et al. 2013; Torrejón Magallanes 2014; Fréon et al. 2014). Nonetheless, various ETP species have been reported as being directly impacted by this fishery and interactions appear to be more frequent with seabirds, dolphins and sea lions (Fréon et al. 2014)(Peraltilla and Vinatea 2016)(Vinatea et al. 2017)

There are no current mitigation measures in place to reduce ETP bycatch.

Other Species

Last updated on 19 July 2018

Peruvian law allows just up to 5% of non-target species bycatch in weight for all fleets in the anchoveta fishery (e.g. PRODUCE, 2015b,c), however, there are no regular analysis of bycatch related to the maximum allowed percentage.

Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta and are managed together under one quota in both the industrial and artisanal fishery. The proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known. 

Anomalous environmental conditions since 2013 are considered the main cause for the higher numbers of juvenile anchoveta and non-target species (IMARPE, 2015c,d). A permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for both fleets is in place (PRODUCE 2017)(PRODUCE 2018).

Ecuador
Purse seines

Last updated on 19 July 2018

Anchoveta was caught by the mixed small pelagics purse seine fishery in Ecuador in the southern coast since 2001 Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009). In 2012, the mesh size was mandatorily increased by managers authorities changing completely the species list and anchoveta is no longer captured.

Last updated on 19 July 2018

A report recently made publicly on bycach by small-scale fleets in the coastal area using data from 2012 to 2016, indicate a diversity of species as bycatch, depending on the distance to the coast (IMARPE 2017). A research study is underway to determine if the 3 nm distance for this fleet is appropriate or if a depth reference should be implemented to protect bycatch species.

Last updated on 19 July 2018

An electronic log system that allows setting of timely closures and intense inspection in ports and on-board was implemented in the second fishing season 2017 for the industrial fishery (PRODUCE 2016)(PRODUCE 2017)

Saldarriaga (2015) estimated a bycatch rate of around 5% in the industrial fishery, using landings data from 2003 to 2011, and a decreasing trend in recent years. However, using bootstrapping and delta models, bycatch rates were around 10% with an increasing trend in the 2005-2011 period. Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), squid and Carrot squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) are mentioned as the main incidental species in the anchoveta industrial fishery (IMARPE 2014a, 2015c). In the artisanal and small-scale fleets, there are numerous species, including : silverside (Odontesthes regia), bonito (Sarda chilensis), squid (Loligo gahi), Jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), flounder (Paralichthys adspersus), Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), red squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon), butterfish (Trachinotus paitensis), mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), eagle rays (Myliobatis spp. among others, (CeDePesca 2010). Around 98 - 99% of the observed catch in the small-scale fishery was anchoveta (nearly 100% for the artisanal fleet) in recent fishing trips and bycatch species were Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), longnose anchoveta (Anchoa nasus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and silverside (Odontesthes regia) (IMARPE 2015).

There is a study underway to better understand the interactions of the industrial fishery in the coastal zone (PRODUCE 2017) and two FIPs are underway and aim to conduct actions for a better understanding of the fishery impacts on protected species and habitats (SNP and CeDePesca 2017).

HABITAT

Last updated on 19 July 2018

There is no direct impact on bottom habitats from purse seine, unless it is used in waters shallower than the nets height. Since 2012, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential impacts of the artisanal fleet operating from mile zero and small-scale fleet operating between miles 5 and mile 10 as the morphology of the platform along the Peruvian coastline and associated habitats vulnerable to fishery impacts are not well known (Hervás and Medley 2016). Since 2017, the artisanal fleet must operate at least at 3 nm from the coastline (PRODUCE 2017). The aim of this regulation is to protect coastal habitats and breeding zones for several species and habitats (PRODUCE, 2012b; IMARPE, 2014a).

Last updated on 19 July 2018

A research study is underway to determine if the 3 nm distance for this fleet is appropriate or if a depth reference should be implemented to protect bycatch species (IMARPE 2017).

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 19 July 2018

The main threat posed by this fishery consists of reduction of food availability to protected predator species (Gislason, 2003), as anchovy is a forage species. An inverse relationship was found between the anchoveta fishing mortality and populations of seabirds and pinnipeds. Also, a negative trend was observed for anchoveta landings from 1990 to 2012, what was also seen for other commercial species, which rely on anchoveta directly or indirectly through the trophic chain, underpinning the key role of anchoveta in Peruvian marine ecosystem (IMARPE, 2014a).

However, the high environmental variability is considered the main factor driving the Humboldt Current ecosystem associated with ETPs populations viability of rebuilding (IMARPE, 2010b). Anchoveta is highly dependent on environmental events; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Spatial-temporal variability affecting anchoveta at different temporal scales has been studied by several authors (Ballón et al., 2011; Bertrand et al., 2011; IMARPE, 2012a,b; Espino and Yamashiro, 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand, 2014; etc). During ENSO events, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events, decadal shifts towards less productive conditions and overfishing (Bertrand et al., 2011).

As well, prolonged warm anomalous conditions since late 2013 have led to higher diversity in the pelagic ecosystem, higher mixture of juvenile and adult organisms in anchoveta schools, diet change by anchoveta (from euphasids to copepods), more coastal distribution and increased consumption of anchoveta by coastal species due to its accessibility. These changes seem to increase risk upon the anchoveta stock (IMARPE, 2014a,c; 2015d). IMARPE highlights that difficulties to predict environmental variability are more evident in recent years, and indicates that focus should be on preservation of resilience of key species in the ecosystem, such as anchoveta, by protecting coastal areas, spawning events and juveniles (IMARPE 2016; PRODUCE 2016).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 27 July 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no management plan as an adaptive management system is used for anchoveta (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). In-year management measures such as fishing season periods for protection of the spawning peaks and TACs are deployed based on real-time monitoring of environmental, biological and fishery data. Temporary closures are established based on presence of juveniles; however, estimates indicate that juveniles are being caught in high percentages due to the lack of required control and surveillance of hauls to support the strategy in place (OCEANA, 2018; PRODUCE, 2016b). IMARPE uses different remnant spawning stock biomass targets (ranging 4 to 6 million tonnes) depending on dominant environmental conditions and an historical target exploitation rate of 0.35 for catch recommendations (IMARPE, 2017b). Assumptions on population parameters for calculating exploitation prospect levels are not reported (IMARPE, 2016c; IMARPE, 2018). The artisanal component of the fishery (<1% of total catch) is managed separatelly, with an annual and national wide quota (PRODUCE, 2017c; 2018b).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

IMARPE gives out scientific advice and PRODUCE sets TACs for the industrial fleet for each fishing season, following closely the advised levels in general. In April 2018, a second TAC was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet, maintaining the same catch limit as in 2017 (300,00 tonnes) (PRODUCE 2018b), to be used for direct human consumption. However, this TAC applies to the entire coast (i.e., there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks) and is set on an annual basis; also, no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation. This artisanal quota represented around 8% of the total annual TAC for the industrial fleet in 2017 and 2018 (PRODUCE, 2018b).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 3090 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 4290 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 72.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock status is analyzed by intensive monitoring of environmental and biological indicators (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). Since 2013, anomalous warm environmental conditions have dominated, causing changes in distribution and spawning patterns. Recent reports suggest that the stock has ability to recover rapidly from unfavorable conditions when these tend to normalize (IMARPE, 2016b-d, IMARPE, 2018). Several surveys have been conducted since September 2017, with a wide range of estimates in terms of the spawning stock biomass, which supports that the uncertainty surrounding environmental variability and the stock status remains high.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Target exploitation rate is 0.35, the historical average level (IMARPE, 2016a). Current exploitation rates are not published, even though this has been recommended by an international expert audit (FAO, 2014). However, advised TAC and set TAC are based on this target level (IMARPE, 2017d,e, 2018; PRODUCE, 2018a,b) and landings have been at or below set TAC for several years. However, some sources of fishing mortality such as juveniles discards, illegal catches and losses of anchoveta from gillneted fish are not included in the stock assessment and projections to calculate catch levels (IMARPE, 2018, OCEANA, 2018).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. There are no fishing mortality reference point at low biomass, thus Management strategy score was qualitatively assigned.
  2. For the industrial fleet there are two fishing seasons per year, with specific assessments, recommendations and set TACs. Data shown is the sum of these volumes for both fishing seasons, in most of the years. No quantitative catch limit was provided for the second fishing season in 2017 (IMARPE 2017). Since 2017, an annual TAC is set for the artisanal and small scale fleet (PRODUCE 2017; PRODUCE 2018), which applies to the entire Peruvian coast. As there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks, and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation, the value is not included in the datasheet and a Managers Compliance score was qualitatively assigned. 
  3. Fishery removals refer to landings, as IMARPE does not report catch estimates including discards, illegal catches and gillneted fish losses. Landings up to 1999 are approximate values, taken from IMARPE (2009b).
  4. No formal stock assessment model is conducted for this stock. Spawning stock biomass values in the datasheet from 2009 onward refer to biomass direct estimates from hydroacoustic surveys, thus might not be comparable to the time-series shown up to 2008, obtained from an exploratory model (Diaz et al., 2010), thus Current Health score was qualitatively assigned.
  5. No harvest rates estimates are reported by IMARPE, therefore Future Health score could not be assigned.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 4 Jan 2017
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating remains  A because of stage 4 activity reported during the past 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Mar 17
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 17
Sep 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Mar 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jan 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Additional sources:

  1. González, N., Prado, M., Castro, R., Solano, F., Jurado, V., Peña, M. undated. Análisis de la pesquería de peces pelágicos en el Ecuador (1981-2007), Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Investigación de Recursos Bioacuáticos y su Ambiente, 40 pp.
  2. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Estado poblacional del stock norte-centro de anchoveta y proyecciones de pesca de anchoveta para la temporada abril-septiembre 2009”. 4 pages.
  3. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Desarrollo de la pesquería de anchoveta en el litoral peruano (enero – 12 de julio de 2009)”. 3 pages.
  4. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Incidencia del evento El Niño 2009/2010 y sus efectos sobre el desarrollo de la pesquería de la anchoveta”. 8 pages.
  5. Serra. R.; Aguayo, M .; Rojas, O.; Cañón, J.; Inostroza, F. 1979. Anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns) Teleostomi Clupeiformes Engraulidae. En: CORFO-IFOP (eds). Estado actual de las principales pesquerías nacionales. Bases para un desarrollo pesquero: I Peces. AP 79/18: 1-52.
  6. Avadí, A., Fréon, P., Tam, J. 2014. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case. PloS ONE 9(7): e102057. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102057. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102057&representation=PDF
  7. Ballón, M., Bertrand, A. Lebourges-Dhaussy, A., Gutiérrez, M., Ayón, P., Grados, D., Gerlotto, F. Is there enough zooplankton to feed forage fish populations off Peru? An acoustic (positive) answer. Progress in Oceanography 91 (2011) 360–381. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661111000279
  8. Bertrand, A., Chaigneau, A., Peraltilla, S., Ledesma, J., Graco, M., Monetti, F., Chavez, F.P. 2011. Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern Tropical Pacific. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29558. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029558. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029558
  9. Bertrand, S. Joo, R., Arbulu Smet, C., Tremblay, Y., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H. Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging. Journal of Applied Ecology 2012, 49, 1168–1177. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x/abstract
  10. BirdLife International 2005. Spheniscus humboldti. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  11. Birdlife International 2007. Pelecanoides garnotii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  12. Bren School of Environmental Science & Management (BSESM), 2013. Assessing Management Strategies for the Artisanal Sector of the Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery, Submitted in partial satisfaction of the degree requirements for the Master in Environmental Science and Management at the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, 87 pp.http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/research/2013Group_Projects/documents/Anchoveta_Final_Report.pdf
  13. Cahuin, S.M.; Cubillos, L. A.; Escribano, R. 2015. Synchronous patterns of fluctuations in two stocks of anchovy Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in the Humboldt Current System. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31, 45–50, ISSN 0175–8659.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jai.12646/pdf
  14. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010. Anchoveta (sur del Perú/norte de Chile) Engraulis ringens: Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería [in spanish]. Mar del Plata, Argentina, December 2010. 20 pp.http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/anchoveta_stock_sur_Peru-norte_Chile_Informe_CeDePesca_diciembre_2010.pdf
  15. Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur (CPPS), 2010. Red Nacional de Áreas marinas y costeras protegidas del Pacífico Sudeste, Secretaría Ejectuva del Plan de Acción para la protección del Medio Marino y Áreas Costeras del Pacífico Sudeste (Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru), Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, 26 p.http://www.cpps-int.org/spanish/planaccion/docs2010/Red.regional.AMCP.PSE.version2010.pdf
  16. Corrales, M.B., Peña, C., Díaz, E., Limache, J. 2013. On Board Fisheries Observer Program: "Logbook": Towards the Ecosystem-Based Approach in Perú, 7th International Fisheries observer & Monitoring Conference, 26 pp.http://www.ifomc.com/presentations/3bBouchon.pdf
  17. Correo, 2013. Suspenden extracción de anchoveta en zona norte - centro del litoral, 27th January 2013[Assessed on 21st March 2013]http://diariocorreo.pe/ultimas/noticias/3193360/suspenden-extraccion-de-anchoveta-en-zona-no
  18. De La Puente, Ó., Sueiro, J.C., Heck, C., Soldi. G., De La Puente, S. 2011. Evaluación de los sistemas degestión pesquera en el marcode la certificación a cargo del Marine Stewardship Council, La pesquería peruana de Anchoveta. Centro para la Sostenibilidad Ambiental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. [Document available online 21st March 2012]http://www.scribd.com/doc/101686776/La-Pesqueria-Peruana-de-Anchoveta
  19. Díaz, E., 2009. Assessment and Management of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Peruvian Marine Research Institiute (IMARPE).http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/paita/reportes/cedepesca/docs/13.pdf
  20. Díaz E, García C, Espinoza D, Guevara-Carrasco R, Csirke J, Ñiquen M, Vargas N, Argüelles J. 2010.- Assessment of the north – center stock of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens Jenyns) using an age - structured model. Bol Inst Mar Perú. 25(1-2):57-61. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  21. Espino, M., Yamashiro, C. 2012. La variabilidad climática y las pesquerías en el Pacífico suroriental. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 40(3): 705-721. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-560X2012000300018
  22. Espinoza, P., Bertrand, A. 2014. Ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability in anchoveta Engraulis ringens diet off Peru. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.12293. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24446662
  23. EUR-OCEANS, 2008. Fact Sheet Nº9: Adaptive management in pelagic fisheries. 2 pp.http://www.eur-oceans.info/medias/documents/FS9_Adaptative_management_low.pdf
  24. Fablet, R., Gay, R., Peraltilla, S. Peña, C. Castillo, R. Bertrand, A. 2012. Bags-of-Features for fish school cluster characterization in pelagic ecosystems: application to the discrimination of juvenile and adult anchovy (Engraulis ringens) clusters off Peru. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 69.11 pp. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010057141
  25. FAO, 2014. Auditoría Técnica Internacional del Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE) - Informe Final (May, 2014). 29 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_inf_final_auditoria_fao_a_imarpe_(may_14).pdf
  26. FIS, 2013. Captura de anchoveta juvenil representa 90% de las infracciones pesqueras, Perú, February 05th, 2013 [Assessed online 21st March 2013]http://www.fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?l=s&id=58592&ndb=1
  27. Fish Information & Services (FIS), 2010. Noticias: Autorizan pesca de anchoveta; fijan cuotas de jurel y caballa.http://fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=&day=19&id=36250&l=s&special=0&ndb=0
  28. Gislason, H. 2003. The effects of fishing on non-target species and ecosystem structure and function, University of Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, 21 pp.ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/reykjavik/pdf/15Gislason.pdf
  29. IMARPE, 1970. Boletín VOL. 2(6), Diciembre 1970, Informe del Cuadro de Expertos sobre Dinámica de la Población de la Anchoveta Peruana.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/index.php?id_detalle=00000000000000006696
  30. IMARPE, 2009a. Estimación de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el Método de Producción de Huevos (MPH), 26 Agosto- 30 Setiembre 2009, Talara – Paracas (BIC OLAYA 0908-09). http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_informe_crucero_mph_0909.pdf
  31. IMARPE, 2009b. Desarrollo de la Pesquería Pelagica (Enero – Octubre 2009); Resultados del Crucero de Estimacion de Biomasa Desovante de Anchoveta BIC Olaya 0908-09 (26 Agosto – 30 Setiembre 2009); Resultados del V Panel Internacional de Expertos para la Evaluación de la Anchoveta.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/exposicion_Nov09.pdf
  32. IMARPE, 2010a. Estimacion de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el metodo de produccion de huevos entre Talara y Punta Paracas (Pisco), 16 Agosto‐21 de Setiembre 2010. Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 33 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_infcruc1008_09_anch.pdf
  33. IMARPE, 2010b. Boletín Instituto del Mar del Perú. Quinto panel internacional de expertos en evaluación de la anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns. Callao, 10–14 agosto 2009. Lima: Instituto del Mar del Perú.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  34. IMARPE, 2010. Programa Bitácoras de Pesca (PBP), IMARPE, 7 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_otropr_bitaco_otro_progra_set10.pdf
  35. IMARPE, 2011a. Estado poblacional del Stock norte-centro de anchoveta y sus proyecciones de pesca para la temporada abril – setiembre 2011. (Resultados del Crucero de Evaluación Hidroacústica de Recursos Pelágicos BIC Olaya 1102-04 y Crucero Evaluación de estructuras de cardúmenes de anchoveta (BIC SNP-2). Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 7 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_inf_ejec_cr_1102_210311_tmp.pdf
  36. IMARPE, 2011c. Resultados principales del POI – PTI - Anual 2010: 1. Seguimiento de pesquerias y evaluacion de recursos pesqueros. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 175 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_eval_anual_resu_2010.pdf
  37. IMARPE, 2013b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Noviembre 2013-Enero 2014, 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_nor_sur_nov13ene14.pdf
  38. IMARPE, 2014a. Informe Análisis Poblacional de la Pesquería de Anchoveta en el Ecosistema Marino Peruano”. 38 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/info_anal_pob_anchov_1.pdf
  39. IMARPE, 2014b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Abril - Julio 2014, 9 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  40. IMARPE, 2014c. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Octubre del 2014. 45 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_aoctub2014.pdf
  41. IMARPE, 2014d. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Diciembre del 2014. 25 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  42. IMARPE, 2014e. Informe de la Operación EUREKA LXVII. Talara (05°S) – Punta San Juan (16°S). 19 – 23 November, 2014.21 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/eureka19al23nmov2014.pdf
  43. IMARPE, 2015a. Estimación de la captura total permisible del stock norte centro de la anchoveta peruana. PROTOCOLO IMP-DGIRP / AFDPERP. April, 2015. 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe/estim_cap_anch_abr2015_.pdf
  44. IMARPE, 2015b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana. Estado actual y recomendaciones de manejo para la primera temporada de pesca 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_public_evalanch_temp1_2015.pdf
  45. IMARPE, 2015c. Situación del stock norte - centro de la anchoveta peruana a setiembre del 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/situa_anchov_aset15.pdf
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