Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(S)

Anchoveta

COMMON NAMES

Anchoveta, Peruvian anchovy

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al., 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al., 2015):
1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/ Northern Chile stock, managed by both Peru and Chile, and,
3. the Central-Southern Chile stock, managed by Chile.

This profile refers on the Northern-central Peruvian stock.

The stock has been expanding in recent warmer years up to Gulf of Guayaquil (3°00’ S), in Ecuador (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009), where it is captured by a small pelagics purse seine fishery.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • Control has been intensified s among all fleets via a mandatory electronic log to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding, and also by the recent approval of a quota system for the artisanal and small-scale fleets.
  • Several fishing closures have been established since 2014 as a result of high proportion of juveniles, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • An Observer’s program conducted by IMARPE exists since 1996, although reporting of juveniles’ discards and bycatch is not systematic.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets have recently started.
Weaknesses
  • Estimated correction factor for unreported catches is around 10% of total catches, which represents a significant volume, but it is not discounted in the quota limit setting process.
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not publicly available in the last years.
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats vulnerable to fishery impacts are not known, and concerns have been raised due to operation of the artisanal fleet from mile zero and the industrial fleets operations in the 5-10 nm zone. As a response, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm off the coastline for all fleets and stricter monitoring and recording system have been recently established.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

7.8

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators: last updated on 12th May 2016

1. Request a programme of annual stock assessments for this stock that incorporates improved catch data and a peer review.
2. Develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with a specific harvest control rule that accounts of the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem as a forage species.
3. Improve data-gathering systems to ensure appropriate reporting of catches and discards. Explore potential opportunities to develop techniques to identify juvenile and adult anchoveta from acoustic fisheries data in order to reduce discarding.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply chain: last updated on 24th May 2016

1. Request the Peruvian Government to follow recommendations by external peer reviewers of the currently applied real-time stock monitoring methodology used as base for fishery management.
2. Request the Peruvian Government to establish an official harvest control rule that account’s for the anchoveta’s role in the ecosystem as a forage species.
3. Determine if fishmeal or oil produced from this fishery is an ingredient in any of the products in your supply chain. If so, ensure that the suppliers (e.g. of aquaculture feed, pet food, nutraceuticals) join the South America Reduction Fisheries Supply Chain Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/small-pelagics/south-american-small-pelagics-roundtable).


FIPS

  • Peruvian anchovy industrial- purse seine:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

  • Peruvian anchovy small scale - purse seine:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Peruvian Northern-Central Ecuador Ecuador Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Artisanal - Artisanal Peru Purse seines
Peru Northern-Central Industrial - Industrial Peru Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Strengths
  • Scientific surveys are regularly conducted.
  • Public availability of information about the fishery, stock status and management measures is improving.
  • Control has been intensified s among all fleets via a mandatory electronic log to improve anchoveta and bycatch records and reduce incentives to illegal discarding, and also by the recent approval of a quota system for the artisanal and small-scale fleets.
  • Several fishing closures have been established since 2014 as a result of high proportion of juveniles, including the closure of the fishery. As well, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm along the Peruvian coastline for all fleets has been established.
  • An Observer’s program conducted by IMARPE exists since 1996, although reporting of juveniles’ discards and bycatch is not systematic.
  • Two fishery improvement projects, for the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets have recently started.
Weaknesses
  • Estimated correction factor for unreported catches is around 10% of total catches, which represents a significant volume, but it is not discounted in the quota limit setting process.
  • There is no management plan with an explicit harvest strategy and reference points that take into account the key role of anchoveta in the ecosystem.
  • The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables and since 2009 there is an increase in environmental variability amplitude leading to higher uncertainty about stock status.
  • Stock assessment models are not used and fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not publicly available in the last years.
  • Data on protected and non-target species is scarce, and compliance on the percentage bycatch limit is not reported.
  • Habitats vulnerable to fishery impacts are not known, and concerns have been raised due to operation of the artisanal fleet from mile zero and the industrial fleets operations in the 5-10 nm zone. As a response, a permanent spatial closure of 3 nm off the coastline for all fleets and stricter monitoring and recording system have been recently established.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators: last updated on 12th May 2016

1. Request a programme of annual stock assessments for this stock that incorporates improved catch data and a peer review.
2. Develop a long-term management plan for the fishery with a specific harvest control rule that accounts of the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem as a forage species.
3. Improve data-gathering systems to ensure appropriate reporting of catches and discards. Explore potential opportunities to develop techniques to identify juvenile and adult anchoveta from acoustic fisheries data in order to reduce discarding.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply chain: last updated on 24th May 2016

1. Request the Peruvian Government to follow recommendations by external peer reviewers of the currently applied real-time stock monitoring methodology used as base for fishery management.
2. Request the Peruvian Government to establish an official harvest control rule that account’s for the anchoveta’s role in the ecosystem as a forage species.
3. Determine if fishmeal or oil produced from this fishery is an ingredient in any of the products in your supply chain. If so, ensure that the suppliers (e.g. of aquaculture feed, pet food, nutraceuticals) join the South America Reduction Fisheries Supply Chain Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/small-pelagics/south-american-small-pelagics-roundtable).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The Marine Research Institute of Peru (IMARPE) is the scientific institution responsible for the monitoring of fisheries and stock assessments in Peru. Before 2010, stock assessments were carried out using virtual population analysis (Díaz, 2009). The most recent modeled stock assessments publicly available are exploratory models published after a peer review by an international panel of experts (IMARPE, 2010b). Since then, stock status is assessed based on real-time monitoring; which consists on direct biomass estimates and distribution from acoustic surveys prior each fishing season, and monitoring of oceanographic conditions, samplings for size structure and reproductive and somatic conditions, before and during fishing seasons, to account for the rapid fluctuations in the natural biomass of this resource (e.g. IMARPE, 2014b-d; 2015b-d; 2016b,c). These indicators are complemented in some occasions with trophic data and egg/larval quantification (IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016).

IMARPE reported that direct biomass estimates may be insufficient during abnormal environmental conditions, when anchoveta are at greater depths and become less detectable using the traditionally applied acoustic method (IMARPE, 2015c,d) and survey frequency is increased.

An external technical audit by FAO experts concluded that there is a high standard scientific support towards the management of fisheries in Peru, however, it was recommended the use of a stock assessment model to determine the stock status and provide alternative approaches to calculate the advised quota (FAO, 2014). IMARPE applied a population balance model as an alternative method to compare direct estimates, due to high uncertainty associated to highly variable environmental conditions and since 2015, IMARPE is presenting alternative catch levels (decision tables) taking into account different environmental scenarios, exploitation rates and biomass remnants (IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Before each fishing season, and based on hydroacoustic surveys, IMARPE gives out the catch advice following a protocol (IMARPE 2016). IMARPE also recommends actions through real-time monitoring of oceanographic conditions, size structure and reproductive conditions of anchoveta during the fishing season (IMARPE 2016).

When abundance is lower than historical averages and environmental conditions are unstable, intensified monitoring, e.g. extra surveys are requested (EUR-OCEANS, 2008; IMARPE, 2014d; 2015d). A strong El Niño affected the Peruvian coast during 2015 and early 2016, thus, three hydroacoustic surveys  were conducted in 2016. In May, warm unfavorable conditions still remained and low biomass was observed, thus IMARPE recommended to delay the first fishing season. In June, normalization of oceanographic conditions, higher biomass estimates and wider spatial distribution of the stock allowed the IMARPE to recommend the opening of the season. In November, normal to colder conditions and average biomass estimate allowed IMARPE to recommend the opening of the second fishing season (IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016).

Since 2015, IMARPE is not reporting explicit catch advice, instead decision tables for alternative catch levels, from projections based on different environmental scenarios, exploitation rates and biomass remnants (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0 million tonnes expected at the next spawning season) (IMARPE, 2015d; IMARPE 2016). Based on environmental plausible conditions and the target harvest rate (=0.35) indicated in the reports and protocol, permissible catch levels  would be 1.4 and 2.0 million tonnes for the first and second fishing seasons (IMARPE 2016; IMARPE 2016). Other recommendations from IMARPE in 2016 were to increase landings and processing plants controls to obtain precise estimates of juvenile incidence in catches.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Considering 40 years of observations, the range of remnant spawning stock biomass for the next spawning event is between 4 and 6 million tonnes (IMARPE, 2014a). The most recent version of the protocol establishes also a target exploitation rate at 0.35, the historical average level for defining the quotas (IMARPE 2016).

Several authors and most recently, Hervás and Medley (2016) have raised concerns about the justification of the thresholds used by IMARPE in relation to the impact on predators and the need to analyze if these reference points are sufficient, taken also into account the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem. Recommendations have been included in a fishery improvement project that will be undertaken within the next year (SNP and CeDePesca 2017)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Anchoveta is a small pelagic short-lived species, with population dynamics highly dependent on environmental conditions. Peruvian coasts are part of the Humboldt Current ecosystem, which shows significant inter-annual fluctuations. As well, in recent years, different environmental patterns are being observed, e.g. higher frequency of warm Kelvin waves and El Niño events.

The 2016 first hydroacoustic survey was carried out in March-April, as the summer spawning event was delayed, and estimated a below average total biomass of 4.42 million tonnes and a reduced and irregular spatial distribution, indicating  that the El Niño conditions affected the stock. Still, size structure and reproductive indicators analysis showed that the stock was able to renew. The second survey carried out in late May indicated a trend to recovery of the stock, due to the conclusion of the El Niño event. Total biomass was estimated at 7.28 million tonnes, with a juvenile portion of 29% in weight, thus a 5.16 million tonnes spawning stock biomass, both estimates at historical average levels and within the target reference range (4.5 - 6 million tonnes). Spatial distribution increased significantly; however, 60% of biomass remained within 10 nm and somatic conditions indicated that recovery was not complete (IMARPE 2016).

The third survey carried out between September –November 2016 showed a significant recovery of the stock, due to normalization of oceanographic conditions. Total biomass was estimated at 6.86 million tonnes, with a juvenile portion of 49% in weight. The spatial distribution of the stock has increased significantly and the high percentage of juveniles in the population is result of an above average recruitment event (IMARPE 2016).

During the first fishing season of 2016, 50.96% of the TAC was attained, with around 917,000 tonnes of catches. This low level of catches was due to the early closure of the fishery to protect the spawning peak (PRODUCE 2016). The second fishing season of 2016 extended to 27 January, 2017; catches reached 1.96 million tonnes (98% of set TAC), with an incidence of juveniles of 26% in numbers and 14% in weight (IMARPE 2017; PRODUCE 2017).

The most recent survey was conducted in February with industrial vessels along the entire Peruvian coast. Oceanographic conditions and species composition indicate presence of warm waters confirming the occurrence of El Niño event alerted, mainly in the central-northern regions (IMARPE 2017). 

TRENDS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Since the beginning of this fishery, anchoveta has passed three phases regarding recruitment and biomass levels; a low period from 1950 to 1972, a high level period from 1973 to 1991, and an intermediate period from 1992 to present. Since mid-1990’s, total biomass fluctuated around an average of 8.2 million tonnes in summers and 6.0 million tonnes in winters (IMARPE, 2014c).

According to IMARPE, landings and exploitation rates have been decreasing since 1994, due to more precautionary fishing policies (IMARPE, 2014c). Fishing mortality or exploitation rates are not published; however, fishing effort and CPUE are informed for each fishing season (IMARPE, 2016b,d). Landings peaked in 1970 (around 10 million tonnes), dropped to a minimum in 1978 (480,000 tonnes), and peaked again in 1994 (around 9 million tonnes). Over the past decade, landings peaked at 8 million tonnes in 2000 and 2004, from 2006 to 2009 have stabilized around 5 million tonnes and dropped to an average of 3 million tonnes since 2010.

The species is strongly dependent on environmental variables, resulting in rapid fluctuations in biomass. Since 2009 an increase in variability amplitude and a trend to more positive anomalies is being observed and more pronounced fluctuations have characterized biomass estimates (IMARPE, 2014c,d). Cumulative adverse environmental conditions have affected the stock from late 2013 to early 2016 leading to significant changes in distribution patterns, however, the stock has shown ability to recover rapidly even from prolonged unfavorable conditions (IMARPE, 2014d; 2015d) (IMARPE 2016)(IMARPE 2016)(IMARPE 2016). After only less than a year with neutral environmental conditions, a new El Niño event is currently being observed (IMARPE 2017). This reinforces the dominance of climate instability and unpredictability in environmental conditions, and raises uncertainty in anchoveta stock status. 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Fisheries in Peru are managed by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) and the Vice-Ministry of Fisheries. Anchoveta is managed by an adaptive system to account for highly ecosystem variability and consequent uncertainty and rapid fluctuations in biomass, typical of this resource and the Humbolt ecosystem (EUR-OCEANS, 2008).

A quota is set for the industrial fleet in the northern-central stock of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) and Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) for indirect human consumption (fishmeal and fishoil). Longnose anchovy account for only a few percent of total landings. As of 2009, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel regime has been implemented; changing the way the global quota is used, with the aim to reduce the pressure on the fishery and the environment by spacing out the effort over the season (PRODUCE, 2010). Two fishing seasons are set each year for which IMARPE biannually estimates a TAC over a target escapement biomass to the next reproductive event of 4-6 million tonnes of anchoveta (IMARPE 2016). PRODUCE, based on the scientific reports issued by IMARPE, establishes fishing seasons’ periods and length, based on a close monitoring of the anchoveta spawning process and the presence of juveniles. The first fishing season in 2016 (June-July) had a TAC of 1.8 million tonnes and the second fishing season (November-January 2017) TAC was 2.0 million tonnes (PRODUCE 2016)(PRODUCE 2016).

Main changes in regulations in 2016 were implementation of an electronic log system for all fleets r to enforce controls and the permission to the industrial fleet to fish within the 5 and 10 nm as exploratory fishing activities to collect data on species distributions patterns (PRODUCE 2016). The former regulation provides permission for landing of juveniles or bycatch in percentages above those allowed (10% and 5% respectively) if timely informed through the electronic log that would allow managers to define proper closures (PRODUCE 2016), and aims to reduce incentives to discarding. During both fishing seasons of 2016, the high incidence of juveniles led to around a hundred transitory fishery closures (Diario Gestión 2016)(Diario Gestión 2017).

Other statutory management controls  include :i) spatial (industrial fishing operations off 10 nautical miles from the coast), ii) temporal closures (to protect juveniles when the proportion is more than 10% of landings in numbers); iii)  minimum mesh size (13 mm), iv) minimum landing size of 12cm;v)  landings from artisanal fleets only for human consumption; vi) effort control (one trip per day, satellite positioning system on board and vii) a discard ban of fishing resources at sea (PRODUCE, 2012d), with incidental catches limited to 5% of total landings, viii) closed entry for new fishing boats in both the industrial and the artisanal, ix) monitoring by third-party operators  to verify landing statistics at 134 unloading points.

Since 2015 both institutions IMARPE and PRODUCE are gradually improving transparency regarding the management of this fishery. IMARPE publish daily landing records from both industrial and artisanal/small-scale fleets (IMARPE 2017). However, the decision making process is not communicated; there is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort if spawning stock biomass drops to the limit level (4 million tonnes) nor mechanisms explaining how catch levels are defined among the alternative scenarios presented by IMARPE before a fishing season is opened.

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Management measures previous to April 2017 that regulated the artisanal and small-scale vessels  (≤ 10 m3 and 10-32.5 mtonnage capacity, respectively) were: spatial restriction allowing only artisanal boats to operate within five nautical miles of the coast and small-scale boats from 5 to 10 nautical miles; landings exclusively destined for direct human consumption; and mandatory vessel monitoring system (Supreme Decrees Nº10/2010, Nº5/2012 and Nº01/2013). These fleets have not been managed under a catch limit program; and although a TAC reserve was defined in 2015 for the artisanal and small-scale fleets for strengthening the overall management of the resource(PRODUCE 2016), no quota seems to have been reserved in 2016 fishing seasons.

A new set of management measures for these two fleets was recently approved. Among these: i) the change in fleets’ definition, with a maximum 32.6 m3 tonnage and 15 mts length and differentiation between small-scale and artisanal fleets, based on the use or not of mechanized fishing operations; ii) anchoveta extractive activities are only allowed from three miles off the coastline for all fleets, iii) mandatory registration of all authorized vessels in a national system, and iv) an annual total allowable catch limit for direct human consumption (PRODUCE 2017). As well, an electronic/radio log is required for these component of the fishery (PRODUCE 2016).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Adaptive management is used for this stock due to its strong dependence on environmental variables and rapid fluctuations in biomass (EUR-OCEANS, 2008). Some precautionary measures have been taken to allow the recovery of the stock from adverse environmental conditions, such as closure of the second fishing season in 2014 and lower TAC in second fishing season of 2015 (IMARPE, 2014c-e; IMARPE, 2015b-d).

Two FIPs have been implemented recently to improve management of the industrial and for the artisanal and small-scale fleets.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

TAC and Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel are applied to the industrial fleet; landings by this fleet are for indirect human consumption and represent 99% of total anchoveta catches (Avadí et al, 2014). Landings in both fishing seasons of 2016 were below set TACs (Diario Gestión 2016IMARPE 2017)

Mendo and Wosnitza‐Mendo (2014) estimated correction factor for unreported catches , including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. In 2010, the estimate was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Artisanal and small-scale fleets’ correction factor is on average 35%. These two fleets by law target anchoveta only for direct human consumption, however, the catches are also illegally sold for reduction fishmeal plants. 

Discarding of fishing resources at sea is not allowed and maximum allowable percentages of anchoveta juveniles in catches is 10% (PRODUCE, 2012c,d). In consequence of anomalous environmental conditions, increased mixture of juvenile and adult anchoveta is been observed in recent years, leading to high proportions of juveniles in catches (Paredes, 2014). Thus, to reduce discarding incentives, landing of juveniles was allowed if timely reported through the electronic log to allow quick closures where the fleet reports high percentage of juveniles (PRODUCE 2016). During both fishing seasons of 2016, the high incidence of juveniles led to around a hundred of transitory fishery closures  (Diario Gestión 2016; Diario Gestión 2017).

The incidence of juveniles in landings has been between 1 and 14 % in 2016 (IMARPE 2016)(IMARPE 2017). Still, these figures should be considered minimum estimates, as are calculated based on landing sampling, and some discarding can still be occurring (Oceana 2017). However, as catches have been well below set TAC in 2016, real catches are likely below set and advised limits.

In 2016, catches attained 75% of the annual total quota, but usually TAC use is in the order of 98%. Therefore, the estimated correction factor for unreported catches of around 10% should be taken into account in the quota limit setting process.

Monitoring and compliance regarding discards and zone invasions (industrial vessels operating within the 10nm from the coastline, or small-scale vessels entering in the 5 nm) are expected to increase with the electronic log system and mandatory positioning system on board for all fleets. As well, intensive inspections are being conducted at landing points and on-board; with most infractions related to excess of juveniles without prior notification (Diario Gestión 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Peru recognizes different ETP species susceptible to direct or indirect interactions with the anchoveta fishery, as a key prey species of the Humboldt Current ecosystem of some Endangered, Protected and Threatened (ETP) species. National legislation, based on the IUCN Red List, prohibits the capture of protected species (seabirds, turtles and marine mammals) for commercial purposes, including Peruvian Diving Petrel, Humboldt penguin, Guanay cormorant, pelican, Peruvian booby, green sea turtle, South American sea lion and Southern fur seal. Commercial catch, processing and marketing of small cetaceans is prohibited by a national law since the mid-1990s (PERU 1996).

The main threat posed by this fishery consists of reduction of food availability to protected predator species (Gislason, 2003). An inverse relationship was also found between the anchoveta fishing mortality and populations of seabirds and pinnipeds, however the high environmental variability, such as El Niño events, is considered the main factor driving the Humboldt Current ecosystem associated with ETPs populations viability of rebuilding (IMARPE, 2010b).  IMARPE highlights the difficulties to predict environmental variability and notes that focus should be on preservation of resilience of key species in the ecosystem, such as anchoveta. This should be done under an adaptive management system that ensure he protection of coastal areas, where this and many other species refuge, particularly under unfavorable oceanographic conditions, and spawning events and juvenile fraction of the population, to maintain the intrinsic  species capability to recover within a highly variable ecosystem environment (IMARPE, 2014a) (PRODUCE 2016).

Anomalous environmental conditions since 2013 are considered the main cause for the increased diversity in the pelagic ecosystem, and therefore a higher number of non-target species caught as bycatch in the anchoveta fishery in 2014 and 2015 (IMARPE, 2015c,d), e.g. Smooth hammerhead (tiburón martillo, Sphyrna zygaena) which is categorized as “Vulnerable” by IUCN (IUCN, 2016) (PRODUCE, 2015e). In mid-2014, Peru approved the National Plan of Action for the conservation and management of chondrichthyes (PRODUCE, 2015e).

There is an IMARPE on-board observer program since 1996, which covers about 4-6% of the overall fishing effort (Hervás and Medley 2016). However, there is no regular reporting of interactions of the anchoveta fishery with ETPs species. A recently announced FIP aim to conduct actions for a better understanding of the fishery impacts on protected species and habitats (SNP and CeDePesca 2017).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 12 April 2017

There is an IMARPE on-board observer program since 1996, which covers about 4-6% of the overall fishing effort (Hervás and Medley 2016). Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured along with anchoveta and are managed together under one quota in the industrial fishery.  The proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known. 

Peruvian law allows just up to 5% of non-target species bycatch in weight for all fleets in the anchoveta fishery (e.g. PRODUCE, 2015b,c), however, there are no regular reporting of bycatch related to the maximum allowed percentage and bycatch rates for these species. Saldarriaga (2015) estimated a bycatch rate of around 5% in the industrial fishery, using landings data from 2003 to 2011, and a decreasing trend in recent years. However, using bootstrapping and delta models, bycatch rates  were around 10% with an increasing trend in the 2005-2011 period.

Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), squid and Carrot squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) are mentioned as the main incidental species in the anchoveta industrial fishery (IMARPE 2014a, 2015c). In the artisanal and small-scale fleets, there are numerous species , including : silverside (Odontesthes regia), bonito (Sarda chilensis), squid (Loligo gahi), Jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), flounder (Paralichthys adspersus), Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), red squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon), butterfish (Trachinotus paitensis), mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), eagle rays (Myliobatis spp. among others, (CeDePesca 2010). Around 98 - 99% of the observed catch in the small-scale fishery was anchoveta (nearly 100% for the artisanal fleet) in recent fishing trips and bycatch species were Lorna drum (Sciaena deliciosa), longnose anchoveta (Anchoa nasus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and silverside (Odontesthes regia) (IMARPE 2015).

Anomalous environmental conditions since 2013 are considered the main cause for the increased mixture of juvenile and adult anchoveta, and therefore a higher incidence of juveniles in catches. As well, observers recorded a higher number of non-target species, similarly to in the fishing season 2014, associated with higher diversity in the pelagic ecosystem due to prolonged warm anomalous conditions (IMARPE, 2015c,d). Thus, IMARPE has recommended a strict control of landings, discarding and fishing within the 5 nm, as well as bycatch incidence (IMARPE, 2016c,d).  

Implementation of the electronic log system to allow setting of timely closures and intense inspection in ports and on-board is a precautionary strategy recently in place to minimize the impact of the fishery. However, full implementation within the small-scale and artisanal fishery and improvement of bycatch data collection, analysis and reporting is required (Hervás and Medley 2016). In this regard, an analysis for estimation of optimum sample size for the program of observers on board fishing vessels targeting anchoveta was recently published (Joo et al. 2016).

Ecuador
Purse seines

Last updated on 2 March 2015

Anchoveta is caught by the mixed small pelagics purse seine fishery in Ecuador in the southern coast since 2001 Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009).

In recent years, the most important species in catches have been chub makarel (Scomber japonicus, bullet mackerel (Auxis spp.), thread herring (Ophistonema ssp.), Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus) and Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi. Anchoveta has been the most significant species in total catches in 2007/2008 (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009), however currently is a secondary species for this fleet with occasional catches, ranging from 0 to 6% from total small pelagics landings (around 200,000 tons) since 2010 (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 12 April 2017

There is no direct impact on bottom habitats from purse seine, unless it is used in waters shallower than the nets height. Since 2012, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast; small-scale vessels (10 to 32.3 m3) between 5 and 10 nm, while the artisanal fleet (less than 10 m3) can operate from the coastline. The aim of this regulation is to protect coastal habitats and breeding zones for several species (PRODUCE, 2012b; IMARPE, 2014a). However, new management authorities are keen to derogate this measure and have given permissions in 2016 for the industrial fleet to operate within the 5-10 nm zone (IntraFish 2016). Thus, as the artisanal fleet can operate from mile zero and the industrial and small-scale fleets can operate between miles 5 and mile 10 and the morphology of the platform along the Peruvian coastline and associated habitats vulnerable to fishery impacts are not well known, concerns have been raised (Hervás and Medley 2016).

The main impact of the fishery on the ecosystem occurs via the impacts on the trophic chain, as anchovy is a forage species. A negative trend was observed for anchoveta landings from 1990 to 2012, what was also seen for other commercial species, which rely on anchoveta directly or indirectly through the trophic chain, underpinning the key role of anchoveta in Peruvian marine ecosystem (IMARPE, 2014a).

Anchoveta is highly dependent on environmental events; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Spatiotemporal variability affecting anchoveta at different temporal scales has been studied by several authors (Ballón et al., 2011; Bertrand et al., 2011; IMARPE, 2012a,b; Espino and Yamashiro, 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand, 2014; etc). During ENSO events, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events, decadal shifts towards less productive conditions and overfishing (Bertrand et al., 2011).

Prolonged warm anomalous conditions since late 2013 have led to higher diversity in the pelagic ecosystem, higher mixture of juvenile and adult organisms in anchoveta schools, diet change by anchoveta (from euphasids to copepods), more coastal distribution and increased consumption of anchoveta by coastal species due to its accessibility. These changes seem to increase risk upon the anchoveta stock (IMARPE, 2014a,c; 2015d). IMARPE highlights that difficulties to predict environmental variability are more evident in recent years, and indicates that focus should be on preservation its resilience by protecting coastal areas, spawning events and juveniles (IMARPE 2016; PRODUCE 2016).

Hervás and Medley (2016) have raised concerns about the justification of these reference points in relation to the impact on predators and the need to take into account in the definition of the reference points the role of anchoveta in the ecosystem. Associated to this, they also indicate the need of explicit ecosystem-based objectives within the harvest strategy. A recently announced FIP aims to conduct actions to accomplish these recommendations in coordination with the management authorities (SNP and CeDePesca 2017).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 12 April 2017

There are two Marine Reserves in Peru: Paracas Marine Reserve – extension of 335,000 ha of which 65% correspond to sea waters, created to protect especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin; and the National Reserve of Islands, Islets and Guano Headlands System – contains 22 islands and islets and 11 headlands (140,833 ha) and was created to preserve the continuity of the biological cycle of species that inhabit it and to help preserve straddlling fish stocks (Cedepesca, 2010). The creation of a new marine reserve has been proposed to protect an area within the tropical sea ecoregion in Peru (Peru Pesquero, 2015).

The Nature Conservancy has been working to address sustainable fisheries and marine conservation issues in Peru, promoting marine protected areas and is working with the IMARPE to predict how fish stocks will behave given certain environmental changes (TNC 2017).

In 2016, the implementation of the electronic log and the high incidence of juveniles led to the establishment of around a hundred transitory fishery closures during each fishing seasons (Diario Gestión 2016)(Diario Gestión 2017). As well, anchoveta extractive activities are now only allowed from three miles off the Peruvian coastline for all fleets, constituting a permanent spatial closure (PRODUCE 2017).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 5 April 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 6.0.

An adaptive management system is used for anchoveta (EUR-OCEANS, 2008), taking into account the intrinsic rapid biomass fluctuations of the species, dependent of oceanographic conditions. In-year management measures such as fishing season periods, TACs and closures for juveniles’ protection are deployed in accordance with scientific recommendations, which are based on real-time monitoring of environmental, biological and fishery data. IMARPE uses different estimates of natural mortality and growth parameters, associated to different environmental conditions’ scenarios and different remnant spawning stock biomass targets (4.5, 5, 5.5 or 6 million tonnes); that generate alternative catch levels for a fishing season (IMARPE, 2015a). A recently published protocol establishes also a target exploitation rate at 0.35, the historical average level (IMARPE, 2016a). However, current exploitation rates are not published, although this has been recommended by an international expert audit (FAO, 2014). There is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort if spawning stock biomass drops to the limit level (4 million tonnes) or how catch levels are defined by managers within the alternative scenarios presented by IMARPE before a fishing season is opened.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 3800 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 3340 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 114%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 2880 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 3800 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 75.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 6.0.

Stock status is not defined through biomass estimates from stock assessments but by real-time monitoring of environmental and biological indicators to account for the rapid natural biomass fluctuations of this species. Since 2013, anomalous warm environmental conditions have dominated, causing changes in distribution and spawning patterns. However, the stock has shown ability to recover rapidly. In May, IMARPE reported normal size structure and expanded spatial distribution; however, biomass estimates were lower than historical average. Summer spawning was delayed and weak, but was above average in winter, with high abundance of juveniles observed in October-November. Biomass estimates were at or above average in June and November. This general stock recovery was related to colder favorable environmental conditions (IMARPE, 2016b-d). In February 2017, warmer conditions and an alert of another potential El Niño event have been reported, thus uncertainty on current stock status is high (IMARPE, 2017).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 6.0.

Target exploitation rate was recently set at 0.35, the historical average level (IMARPE, 2016a) and this reference point has been used by PRODUCE for setting the TAC, based on IMARPE catch option tables (PRODUCE, 2016a,b). Landings have been at or below set TAC for several years. However, some sources of fishing mortality, such as discards and illegal captures magnitude could not be estimated (IMARPE, 2015c). Since 2009, there is an increase in variability amplitude and more pronounced biomass fluctuations of anchoveta, leading to higher uncertainty about stock status in the long-term (IMARPE, 2014c,d; 2016b-d, 2017).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. There are no fishing mortality reference points set for the stock, thus score #1 and #5 could not be determined quantitatively, and qualitative scores were assigned.
  2. There are two fishing seasons per year, with specific TAC recommendations and set TACs. Data shown is the sum of the Advised TAC and Set TAC for both fishing seasons, except for 2014 as only the first fishing season was opened. Set TAC refers only to the industrial fleet (small-scale and artisanal fleets are not yet managed under a quota system), however it represents 99% of total anchoveta catches.
  3. No formal stock assessment model is conducted for this stock. Spawning stock biomass values in the datasheet from 2009 onward refer to biomass direct estimates from hydroacoustic surveys, thus might not be comparable to the time-series shown up to 2008, obtained from an exploratory model (Diaz et al., 2010).
  4. Landings up to 1999 are approximate values, taken from IMARPE (2009b).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 4 Jan 2017
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP is under a year old and has stage 3 activity, rating is therefore C.

1.
FIP Development
Mar 17
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 17
Jan 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Jul 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Additional sources:

  1. González, N., Prado, M., Castro, R., Solano, F., Jurado, V., Peña, M. undated. Análisis de la pesquería de peces pelágicos en el Ecuador (1981-2007), Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Investigación de Recursos Bioacuáticos y su Ambiente, 40 pp.
  2. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Estado poblacional del stock norte-centro de anchoveta y proyecciones de pesca de anchoveta para la temporada abril-septiembre 2009”. 4 pages.
  3. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Desarrollo de la pesquería de anchoveta en el litoral peruano (enero – 12 de julio de 2009)”. 3 pages.
  4. IMARPE. 2009. Informe “Incidencia del evento El Niño 2009/2010 y sus efectos sobre el desarrollo de la pesquería de la anchoveta”. 8 pages.
  5. Serra. R.; Aguayo, M .; Rojas, O.; Cañón, J.; Inostroza, F. 1979. Anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns) Teleostomi Clupeiformes Engraulidae. En: CORFO-IFOP (eds). Estado actual de las principales pesquerías nacionales. Bases para un desarrollo pesquero: I Peces. AP 79/18: 1-52.
  6. Avadí, A., Fréon, P., Tam, J. 2014. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case. PloS ONE 9(7): e102057. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102057. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102057&representation=PDF
  7. Ballón, M., Bertrand, A. Lebourges-Dhaussy, A., Gutiérrez, M., Ayón, P., Grados, D., Gerlotto, F. Is there enough zooplankton to feed forage fish populations off Peru? An acoustic (positive) answer. Progress in Oceanography 91 (2011) 360–381. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661111000279
  8. Bertrand, A., Chaigneau, A., Peraltilla, S., Ledesma, J., Graco, M., Monetti, F., Chavez, F.P. 2011. Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern Tropical Pacific. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29558. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029558. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029558
  9. Bertrand, S. Joo, R., Arbulu Smet, C., Tremblay, Y., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H. Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging. Journal of Applied Ecology 2012, 49, 1168–1177. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x/abstract
  10. BirdLife International 2005. Spheniscus humboldti. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  11. Birdlife International 2007. Pelecanoides garnotii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 14 April 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  12. Bren School of Environmental Science & Management (BSESM), 2013. Assessing Management Strategies for the Artisanal Sector of the Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery, Submitted in partial satisfaction of the degree requirements for the Master in Environmental Science and Management at the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, 87 pp.http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/research/2013Group_Projects/documents/Anchoveta_Final_Report.pdf
  13. Cahuin, S.M.; Cubillos, L. A.; Escribano, R. 2015. Synchronous patterns of fluctuations in two stocks of anchovy Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in the Humboldt Current System. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31, 45–50, ISSN 0175–8659.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jai.12646/pdf
  14. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010. Anchoveta (sur del Perú/norte de Chile) Engraulis ringens: Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería [in spanish]. Mar del Plata, Argentina, December 2010. 20 pp.http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/anchoveta_stock_sur_Peru-norte_Chile_Informe_CeDePesca_diciembre_2010.pdf
  15. Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur (CPPS), 2010. Red Nacional de Áreas marinas y costeras protegidas del Pacífico Sudeste, Secretaría Ejectuva del Plan de Acción para la protección del Medio Marino y Áreas Costeras del Pacífico Sudeste (Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru), Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, 26 p.http://www.cpps-int.org/spanish/planaccion/docs2010/Red.regional.AMCP.PSE.version2010.pdf
  16. Corrales, M.B., Peña, C., Díaz, E., Limache, J. 2013. On Board Fisheries Observer Program: "Logbook": Towards the Ecosystem-Based Approach in Perú, 7th International Fisheries observer & Monitoring Conference, 26 pp.http://www.ifomc.com/presentations/3bBouchon.pdf
  17. Correo, 2013. Suspenden extracción de anchoveta en zona norte - centro del litoral, 27th January 2013[Assessed on 21st March 2013]http://diariocorreo.pe/ultimas/noticias/3193360/suspenden-extraccion-de-anchoveta-en-zona-no
  18. De La Puente, Ó., Sueiro, J.C., Heck, C., Soldi. G., De La Puente, S. 2011. Evaluación de los sistemas degestión pesquera en el marcode la certificación a cargo del Marine Stewardship Council, La pesquería peruana de Anchoveta. Centro para la Sostenibilidad Ambiental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. [Document available online 21st March 2012]http://www.scribd.com/doc/101686776/La-Pesqueria-Peruana-de-Anchoveta
  19. Díaz, E., 2009. Assessment and Management of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Peruvian Marine Research Institiute (IMARPE).http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/paita/reportes/cedepesca/docs/13.pdf
  20. Díaz E, García C, Espinoza D, Guevara-Carrasco R, Csirke J, Ñiquen M, Vargas N, Argüelles J. 2010.- Assessment of the north – center stock of Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens Jenyns) using an age - structured model. Bol Inst Mar Perú. 25(1-2):57-61. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  21. Espino, M., Yamashiro, C. 2012. La variabilidad climática y las pesquerías en el Pacífico suroriental. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 40(3): 705-721. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-560X2012000300018
  22. Espinoza, P., Bertrand, A. 2014. Ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability in anchoveta Engraulis ringens diet off Peru. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.12293. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24446662
  23. EUR-OCEANS, 2008. Fact Sheet Nº9: Adaptive management in pelagic fisheries. 2 pp.http://www.eur-oceans.info/medias/documents/FS9_Adaptative_management_low.pdf
  24. Fablet, R., Gay, R., Peraltilla, S. Peña, C. Castillo, R. Bertrand, A. 2012. Bags-of-Features for fish school cluster characterization in pelagic ecosystems: application to the discrimination of juvenile and adult anchovy (Engraulis ringens) clusters off Peru. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 69.11 pp. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010057141
  25. FAO, 2014. Auditoría Técnica Internacional del Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE) - Informe Final (May, 2014). 29 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_inf_final_auditoria_fao_a_imarpe_(may_14).pdf
  26. FIS, 2013. Captura de anchoveta juvenil representa 90% de las infracciones pesqueras, Perú, February 05th, 2013 [Assessed online 21st March 2013]http://www.fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?l=s&id=58592&ndb=1
  27. Fish Information & Services (FIS), 2010. Noticias: Autorizan pesca de anchoveta; fijan cuotas de jurel y caballa.http://fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=&day=19&id=36250&l=s&special=0&ndb=0
  28. Gislason, H. 2003. The effects of fishing on non-target species and ecosystem structure and function, University of Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, 21 pp.ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/reykjavik/pdf/15Gislason.pdf
  29. IMARPE, 1970. Boletín VOL. 2(6), Diciembre 1970, Informe del Cuadro de Expertos sobre Dinámica de la Población de la Anchoveta Peruana.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/index.php?id_detalle=00000000000000006696
  30. IMARPE, 2009a. Estimación de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el Método de Producción de Huevos (MPH), 26 Agosto- 30 Setiembre 2009, Talara – Paracas (BIC OLAYA 0908-09). http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_informe_crucero_mph_0909.pdf
  31. IMARPE, 2009b. Desarrollo de la Pesquería Pelagica (Enero – Octubre 2009); Resultados del Crucero de Estimacion de Biomasa Desovante de Anchoveta BIC Olaya 0908-09 (26 Agosto – 30 Setiembre 2009); Resultados del V Panel Internacional de Expertos para la Evaluación de la Anchoveta.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/exposicion_Nov09.pdf
  32. IMARPE, 2010a. Estimacion de la Biomasa Desovante de la anchoveta por el metodo de produccion de huevos entre Talara y Punta Paracas (Pisco), 16 Agosto‐21 de Setiembre 2010. Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 33 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_infcruc1008_09_anch.pdf
  33. IMARPE, 2010b. Boletín Instituto del Mar del Perú. Quinto panel internacional de expertos en evaluación de la anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns. Callao, 10–14 agosto 2009. Lima: Instituto del Mar del Perú.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_boletin_vol25_num1_2.pdf
  34. IMARPE, 2010. Programa Bitácoras de Pesca (PBP), IMARPE, 7 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_otropr_bitaco_otro_progra_set10.pdf
  35. IMARPE, 2011a. Estado poblacional del Stock norte-centro de anchoveta y sus proyecciones de pesca para la temporada abril – setiembre 2011. (Resultados del Crucero de Evaluación Hidroacústica de Recursos Pelágicos BIC Olaya 1102-04 y Crucero Evaluación de estructuras de cardúmenes de anchoveta (BIC SNP-2). Informe Ejecutivo. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). 7 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_infor_inf_ejec_cr_1102_210311_tmp.pdf
  36. IMARPE, 2011c. Resultados principales del POI – PTI - Anual 2010: 1. Seguimiento de pesquerias y evaluacion de recursos pesqueros. Instituto de Mar del Perú (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 175 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_eval_anual_resu_2010.pdf
  37. IMARPE, 2013b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Noviembre 2013-Enero 2014, 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_nor_sur_nov13ene14.pdf
  38. IMARPE, 2014a. Informe Análisis Poblacional de la Pesquería de Anchoveta en el Ecosistema Marino Peruano”. 38 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/info_anal_pob_anchov_1.pdf
  39. IMARPE, 2014b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo Abril - Julio 2014, 9 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  40. IMARPE, 2014c. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Octubre del 2014. 45 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_anch_aoctub2014.pdf
  41. IMARPE, 2014d. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana a Diciembre del 2014. 25 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/anch_situa_adic2014.pdf
  42. IMARPE, 2014e. Informe de la Operación EUREKA LXVII. Talara (05°S) – Punta San Juan (16°S). 19 – 23 November, 2014.21 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/eureka19al23nmov2014.pdf
  43. IMARPE, 2015a. Estimación de la captura total permisible del stock norte centro de la anchoveta peruana. PROTOCOLO IMP-DGIRP / AFDPERP. April, 2015. 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe/estim_cap_anch_abr2015_.pdf
  44. IMARPE, 2015b. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana. Estado actual y recomendaciones de manejo para la primera temporada de pesca 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_public_evalanch_temp1_2015.pdf
  45. IMARPE, 2015c. Situación del stock norte - centro de la anchoveta peruana a setiembre del 2015. 37 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/situa_anchov_aset15.pdf
  46. IMARPE, 2015d. Informe complementario sobre la situación del stock norte - centro de la anchoveta peruana a noviembre del 2015. 13 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/InfCompSituacionStockN-CAnchovPeruNov2015.pdf
  47. IMARPE, 2015e. Crucero 1508-10 de Evaluación Hidroacústica de Recursos Pelágicos. 39 pp. http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_infor_ejec_cr_1508_10.pdf
  48. IMARPE, Seabird Department. Threats to Peruvian Seabirds. Consulted on 14 April 2008.http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/aves/Threats.html
  49. INRENA, Punto Focal CMS (2005). Report of Peru: implementation of the convention on the conservation of migrating wild animals [in Spanish, o.t. - Informe del Perú: Puesta en Práctica de la Convención sobre la Conservación de las Especies Migratorias de Animales Silvestres (CMS)]. Downloaded on 13 April 2008.http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop8/documents/meeting_docs/NR/NationalReport_Peru05.pdf
  50. Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), 2012a. Desarrollo de la Pesquería de Anchoveta en la región Norte-Centro del litoral Peruano (02 Mayo – 19 Junio del 2012). Ministério de la Producción, 7 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_pesq_anch_02may_19jun12.pdf
  51. Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), 2012b. Proyecciones de pesca de anchoveta en la Región Norte Centro (Temporada: Noviembre 2012 – Enero 2013). Ministério de la Producción, 9 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/proy_pesca_nor_centro_afeb13.pdf
  52. Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), 2013a. Situación actual del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana y perspectivas de explotación para el periodo mayo-julio 2013, 12 pp.http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_proy_pesc_ajul13.pdf
  53. Instituto del Peru (IdP), 2009. La industria de la anchoveta en el Perú. http://www.institutodelperu.org.pe/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=554&Itemid=117
  54. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2009. La pesquería de peces pelágicos pequeños en Ecuador durante 2008. Boletín Centífico y Técnico (2009), 20 (4) 25 pp. http://www.oceandocs.org/bitstream/1834/4784/1/PPP%20Informe%202008.pdf
  55. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, 2015. Estadística Pesqueras - Desembarques Peces Pelágicos Pequeños. Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuacultura y Pesca (MAGAP) de Ecuador. [Assessed on 19 February 2015]. http://www.institutopesca.gob.ec/programas-y-servicios/estadisticas/
  56. IUCN, 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-2. [Accessed on 6 April 2016].http://www.iucnredlist.org
  57. La Primera Digital, 2014. Sección Economía: Produce evitó la captura de 25 mil toneladas de anchoveta juvenil. 14 de octubre del 2014 [Assessed 23 February 2015].http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/economia/produce-evito-la-captura-de-25-mil-toneladas-de-anchoveta-juvenil_142682.html
  58. Mendo, J.; Wosnitza-Mendo, C.. Reconstruction of total marine fisheries catches for Peru: 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre The University of British Columbia Working Paper Series Working Paper #2014 – 21. 24 pp. http://publications.oceans.ubc.ca/webfm_send/377
  59. Ministerio de la Producción, 2010. Resultados de la Aplicación del Leg. Nº1084, Correspondente a la 2da Temporada de Pesca 2009, en la Zona Norte-Centro. Ministerio de la Producción, Dirección General de Extracción y Procesamiento Pesquero.http://www.produce.gob.pe/RepositorioAPS/3/jer/LISTADO/2daTemporada/result_dl1084_nc.pdf
  60. Ministério de la Producción, 2012a. Resolución Ministerial Nº 457-2012-PRODUCE. Lima, 28 de Octubre de 2012, 8 pp.http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/octubre/rm457-2012-produce.pdf
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