Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 27 September 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(S)

Anchoveta

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al., 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al., 2015):

1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/Northern Chile stock, managed by both Peru and Chile, and,
3. the “Central-Southern Chile stock”, managed by Chile.

There is some evidence based on reproductive population parameters that two indepedent populations may exist in Central-Southern Chile (Canales and Leal, 2009); however, it is more likely, based on genetic and other studies, that there is only one stock (Ferrada et al., 2002; Cahuin et al., 2015). Still, Chilean authorities assess and manage anchoveta as different fishery units: as a central or Regions III and IV unit and as a southern or Regions V to X unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports are presenting the biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios and TAC advice given by CCT-PP was more clearly defined in 2016.
  • Five marine reserves are established and temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards was implemented.
Weaknesses
  • The stock assessment models do not include environmental information.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports are available upon request only.
  • Information on bycatch and fishery effects on PET species and habitats is scarce.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

8.2 - 10

Fishers Compliance:

0 - 10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

4.4 - 8.8

Future Health:

8 - 8.5


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner (i.e. before managers set catch limits) and should include a clearly defined methodology used to define the total allowable catch (TAC).

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean regions III and IV Chile III-IV Chile Purse seines
Chilean regions V-X Chile V-X Chile Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports are presenting the biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios and TAC advice given by CCT-PP was more clearly defined in 2016.
  • Five marine reserves are established and temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards was implemented.
Weaknesses
  • The stock assessment models do not include environmental information.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports are available upon request only.
  • Information on bycatch and fishery effects on PET species and habitats is scarce.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner (i.e. before managers set catch limits) and should include a clearly defined methodology used to define the total allowable catch (TAC).

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the work of the management committee and encourage their prompt action in the development and implementation of a management plan for the fishery with a clear management strategy.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables, and when adequately tested, ensure they form the basis of the management strategy
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch. 

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Encourage the prompt implementation of the recently approved Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan, including the development of a harvest strategy that considers the multi-species nature of the fishery, the reliance of the fishery on good recruitment, the role of the species in the ecosystem, and the recovery of the anchoveta stock.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables, and when adequately tested, ensure they form the basis of the management strategy
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Fisheries research at the national level is conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP) and also by some universities and private research institutes or centers such as the Fisheries Research Institute (Instituto de Investigación Pesquera, INPESCA and University of Concepcion). Through public bidding processes for projects, these bodies undertake state-commissioned monitoring of and research on the main fisheries resources under exploitation, Chilean anchovy among these.

Most recent IFOP reports are only available upon request, still executive summaries by the Scientific Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic Fisheries (Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos , CCT-PP) – are timely published.

There is some evidence based on reproductive population parameters that two independent populations may exist in Central-Southern Chile (Canales and Leal, 2009), however it is more likely based on genetic studies that there is only one stock (Ferrada et al., 2002; Cahuin et al., 2015). ). Still, the stock is assessed as two independent populations, a central unit (Chilean regions III and IV) and a southern unit (Chilean regions V-X) (IFOP 2016)(IFOP 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The Anchoveta stock in Chilean Regions III-IV constitutes a mixed fishery with South American pilchard Sardinops sagax, although mono-specific models are used to each of the fisheries. The stock assessment is conducted in September each year, using a statistical ADMB (Automatic Differentiation Model Builder) model. Input data include: length-at-age composition data from the fleet, updated CPUE indices, length-at-age composition data and biomass direct indices from an acoustic survey, RECLAN, conducted in February each year to measure recruitment , an abundance index from an annual research survey to assess spawning stock biomass (since 2015) and updated landings data.  Landings are considered to be good estimates of real catches, as discard of this species is not registered and that the levels of landings reported are reliable as it is not associated with other species of commercial importance such as Pacific Jack mackerel or Chub mackerel (IFOP 2016).

Intra-annual updates of the stock assessment may be conducted after the RECLAN survey, which can lead to revision in catch advise and revised quotas within the year (e.g. CCT-PP 2016). A high degree of consistency has been observed in the model and population parameters estimations (IFOP, 2015). Still, given the uncertainty associated with recruitment levels and growth parameters, IFOP called for a precautionary approach in levels of removal, particularly when high estimates of biomass are observed (IFOP 2016).

Parada et al. (2013) highlight the importance of including environmental conditions to understand stock’s trends and these species relationships by use of a biophysical model that could improve fisheries management.

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The Anchoveta stock in Chilean regions V-X constitutes a mixed fishery with Araucanian herring Strangomera bentincki, although mono-specific models are used to each of the fisheries, consisting in a statistical catch-at-age model, which allow the incorporation of information as spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruitment indices from acoustic cruises, fishing mortality (F) and Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) indices. Uncertainties are related to annual variability of survey results and recruitment estimates. SSB is estimated through the robust ‘Daily Egg Production Method’ (DEPM). 

The 2016 stock assessment included as input data: data series of commercial fishing landings (1990-2015), spawning biomass surveys (MPDH 2002-2012), Summer (RECLAS 2000-2016) and Autumn (PELACES (2003-2016) acoustic surveys, and annual age and size composition estimates (from commercial fishing and scientific surveys) (1990-2016) (IFOP 2016). IFOP conducts semester assessments (September 2015, March 2016 and July 2016) to monitor the progress of the stock taking into account the rapid growth and biomass fluctuations.  Intra-annual update assessments are used to adjust the quota if needed (SUBPESCA 2016). A research program was initiated in 2014 to study discards and bycatch rates in the anchoveta fishery in the V-X Chilean regions (MEFT, 2014b; MEFT, 2016). Results from this project are not yet available and were not added in the assessment model of 2016.

Arteaga et al. (2014) conducted a research to develop a strategic management of the multi-species fishery of Araucanian herring and anchoveta, including the identified elements regarding recruitment and environmental variables, instead of using a mono-specific model to each of the fisheries. Alternative strategies are being studied by the University of Concepcion (CCT-PP, 2014). Parada et al. (2013) also consider the importance of environmental conditions to understand stock’s trends and the use of a biophysical model.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The IFOP provides a series of catch options, based on different scenarios (IFOP, 2016a,b), that are assessed jointly by the Scientific-Technical Committees for Small Pelagics (‘Comité Científico-Técnico de Pequeños Pelágicos’, CCT-PP) ,which includes scientists and managers’ representatives, to make the catch recommendations. It consists on an advised TAC range with a lower limit of 20% of the actual TAC recommendation, in accordance to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The mechanism for selecting the advised catch option is defined jointly in an ad-hoc approach.

Last updated on 12 April 2017

For 2016, the CCT-PP has recommended a TAC range between 20,520 and 25,650 tonnes, using the precautionary proxy of FMSY, F60% SSBPR (= 0.54) and considering a 30% risk not to achieve the management objective. A strong recruitment event was observed from the summer survey, and an updated TAC range between 27,680 and 34,600 tonnes was advised in May (CCT-PP 2016).

For 2017, IFOP provided catch options based on mid-term projections under different current catch and recruitment scenarios, exploitation strategy = FMSY proxy and 5 risk probabilities of exceeding the exploitation level (IFOP, 2016a). However, the CCT-PP advised a lower TAC range of 40,560-50,700 tonnes, following a precautionary approach as recommended by IFOP, because projections are a result of the strong class observed in 2016 and may not be sustainable in the short-term and further information is needed to confirm the high recruitment estimates. If so, advice will be updated during the year (CCT-PP 2016; IFOP 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

For 2017, IFOP provided catch options based on mid-term projections (5 years) under three different recruitment scenarios, exploitation strategies F60% SSBPR (FMSY proxy), F50% SSBPR  and  F45% SSBPR, and 5 risk probabilities of exceeding the exploitation level (IFOP 2016). Preliminary advised for TAC range for 2017 is 46,720-58,400 tonnes(CCT-PP 2016), considering a low recruitment scenario and 20% risk of exceeding  the target exploitation level (F60% SSBPR).

Although current biomass is below Blim, there is no harvest control rule that indicate reduction of fishing mortality for calculations of advice TAC. In fact, the CCT-PP noted the difficulties in managing mixed fisheries of sympatric species that share in the same geographic area and that seem to overlap in their ecological niche. Particularly, the presence of anchoveta in southern Chile is considered a population expansion due to the current inter-decadal regime that favors this family in the South Pacific. However, in this expansion process anchoveta is competing with the Araucanian herring (common sardine), an endemic species naturally adapted to the environmental conditions of the central-southern Chile. Therefore, the collapse state of this stock is restricted only to the area of ​​spatial overlap with the Araucanian herring. In this scenario, the CCT-PP recognized that some flexibility in the anchoveta quota allocation criteria was required to make the Araucanian herring fishery viable, considering the mixed fishery situation (CCT-PP 2014). In 2016, the CCT-PP indicated that a 7-13% catch of anchoveta of the Araucanian herring quota coincides with the maximum sustainable yield, which is in accordance with the management objectives (CCT-PP 2016).

Landings are highly dependent on the summer season recruitment pulse. This determines a strong seasonality in landings with highs between February and May, conditioned since 2001 by fishing quotas and temporal closures to protect spawning peaks and recruitment. These measures have defined an intensive extractive activity, by both the industrial and artisanal components. For this reason, it is imperative to update each year and diagnose the status of the anchoveta and to establish an ad-hoc management strategy for the conservation of the resource and the sustainability of the fishery (IFOP 2016).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

In 2015, new reference points were adopted for main Chilean fisheries (MEFT, 2015a). These are MSY proxies dynamic reference points, relative to the virgin spawning biomass (SSB0). For both central and southern anchoveta stocks, the reference points are:

Biomass limit reference point Blim: 27.5%SSB0 
Biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy: 55%SSB0 (60%SSBPR)

Fishing mortality target reference point, FMSY proxy: F60% SSBPR 

Target reference points (BMSY and FMSY proxies) express the management objective to exploit the resources to the maximum sustainable yield. Blim helps defining stock status, but does not work yet as a limit level for triggering management measures to reduce fishing effort, as there is no harvest control rule adopted.

Last updated on 12 April 2017

For the central anchoveta unit, in 2015, the virgin spawning stock SSB0 was estimated at 102,300 tonnes (IFOP, 2015), much lower than previous update (CCT-PP, 2014) and in 2016 it was even lower, SSB0 = 92,100 tonnes (IFOP 2016). Therefore, reference points for 2016 were lower, set at: Blim = 22,500 tonnes, BMSY proxy = 45,000 tonnes and FMSY proxy = 0.48 (CCT-PP 2016)

Last updated on 12 April 2017

For the southern anchoveta unit, reference points for 2016 are very similar to the 2015 values, set at: Blim = 281,000 tonnes, BMSY proxy = 562,000 tonnes and FMSY proxy = 0.396 (CCT-PP 2016)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

An "El Niño" event was declared in 2015, generating positive anomalies of temperature and salinity along the coast of Chile. Unlike other "El Niño" events, in 2015-2016 was regionally strong and with a greater local effect in the south-central zone of Chile, evidencing an advance of masses of oceanic waters diagonally from the equator to the central-south zone, provoking proliferation of jellyfish, massive beaching and mortality of whales, fishes and crustaceans, and red tides, among other effects (CCT-PP 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

In 2015, spawning stock biomass (SSB) was 35% below the target level and fishing mortality estimate (F) was 39% over the fishing mortality target reference point. Total biomass and SSB were lower than the historical averages, and recruitment reached one of the lowest values of the historical series (IFOP, 2015; CCT-PP, 2015). The decreasing biomass observed in 2012-2015 was explained by the inflow of weak annual classes rather than by the removal of fish.

During 2016, this trend was substantially modified by increasing recruitment levels by more than five times and above the historical average. Total and spawning biomass increased by 152% and 40%, respectively, compared to 2015. SSB is estimated to be around the management objective (SSB2016/BMSY proxy = 1.20). Fishing mortality is close to the target (F2016 / FMSY proxy = 0.9). Therefore the stock is in full exploitation status (CCT-PP 2016; IFOP 2016).

Landings show a sustained decrease since 2011, from around 50 to less than 35 thousand tonnes in 2013 and 2014, and 20 thousand tonnes in 2015 and 2016, attaining since 2012 around 60-65% of set TAC in part due to a lower fishing activity(IFOP 2016; SUBPESCA 2017).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Recruitment estimates show a slightly increasing trend since 2012, although the 2016 estimate is considered highly uncertain. The stock assessment model estimated a total 2016 biomass of 433,000 tonnes and represent a 66% increase compared to the 2015. Spawning stock biomass has also been increasing since 2012; a 13% increase compared to 2015 is observed, estimated at 204,000 tonnes (IFOP 2016). However, as the biomass level is well below, only 36% of the target biomass reference point (55%SSB0 = 562,000 tonnes), the stock is still collapsed (CCT-PP 2016).

Fishing mortality in 2016 has shown a significant decrease, reaching the target level (CCT-PP 2016), but there is a strong seasonality in landings with peaking between February and May, conditioned since 2001 by fishing quotas and temporal closures to protect spawning peaks and recruitment. These measures have defined an intensive extractive activity, by both the industrial and artisanal components (IFOP 2016). Since 2014 landings have been increasing, and were well above set TACs (IFOP 2016; SUBPESCA 2017).

TRENDS

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The fisheries management authority in Chile is the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, MEFT) and the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, SUBPESCA) (Law 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b).

Annual TAC is split between the industrial and artisanal sectors and are allocated to the industrial fishery in periods taking into account the seasonality of the catch. Currently, new access to this fishery is prohibited (SUBPESCA, 2016a). Also, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Owner regime has been established for the industrial sector and an Artisanal Extraction Regime for the artisanal sector, through which artisanal individual fishermen or associations may obtain catch quotas. TAC is set preliminary in December; and revised after summer and/or autumn surveys provide updated information.

The Fisheries Law (Law 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b) requires that Management Plans be developed for the fisheries under a closed-access system, such as the anchoveta. Other management strategies include vessel monitoring systems (VMS), temporal closures set upon SUBPESCA and IFOP recommendation, recent implementation of mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards (MEFT 2015).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

For 2015, TAC was set at 30,000 tonnes (MEFT, 2014a) and was maintained for the rest of the year at this value. For 2016, an initial TAC of 25,650 tonnes was set in December (MEFT, 2015b). TAC was increased to 34,600 tonnes in June 2016 (MEFT 2016). For 2017, preliminary TAC was set at 50,700 tonnes (MEFT 2016). Set TACs were in line with the upper limit of the advised TAC range recommended by the Scientific Technical Committee for the Small Pelagics (CCT-PP) (CCT-PP 2016)(CCT-PP 2016).

Management Committee – composed of SUBPESCA and SERNAPESCA members, artisanal and industrial fishermen and the processing industry - has provided a proposal management plan, which is currently under revision by the CCT-PP (SUBPESCA 2017).

In this central stock annual TAC is split equally between the industrial and artisanal sectors, and temporal closures are set to protect the spawning peak (MEFT 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

TACs are in place since 2001 and are split at 22% for industrial and 78% for artisanal sectors since 2014 (MEFT 2016)(MEFT 2016). A Management Committee for the anchoveta and araucanian herring mixed fishery in regions V-X, composed by SUBPESCA and SERNAPESCA members, artisanal and industrial fishermen and the processing industry (SUBPESCA, 2016a) developed a management plan, which has been officially adopted (MEFT 2016).

The management plan set lines of action to addresses biological, economic, social and ecological matters, on which all the members of the committee reached consensus on the diagnosis and considerations that a future sustainable policy should have. Fixed and mobile temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and juveniles have also been included. Among the actions planned, there is the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery (SUBPESCA 2016).

For 2016, initial TAC was set at 34,400 tonnes, as in 2015 – 7,380 tonnes for the industrial sector and 26,160 tonnes for the artisanal sector; and the remaining volume for research purposes (MEFT, 2014a; 2015b). TAC was increased to 39,900 tonnes in May 2016 (MEFT 2016). For 2017, preliminary TAC was set at 58,400 tonnes (MEFT 2016). Set TACs were in line with the upper limit of the advised TAC range (CCT-PP, 2015) (CCT-PP 2016)(CCT-PP 2016).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

No recovery plan is in place for this stock. The stock was sub-exploited in the recent years (2012-2013), underwent a period of over-exploitation and over-fishing (CCT-PP, 2015) and due to a strong year class in 2016 it is currently in full exploitation (CCT-PP 2016). New access to this fishery is prohibited. Also, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Owner regime has been established for the industrial sector and an Artisanal Extraction Regime (SUBPESCA, 2016b). A management plan is under revision by the CCT-PP(SUBPESCA 2017).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The recently adopted Management plan includes the development of a recovery plan for the anchoveta (item 6.5)  (SUBPESCA 2016).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Although the TAC was regularly set above advised levels, TACs (set since 2002) have never been completely harvested, with the exception of 2003 when the TAC was slightly surpassed. The difference between set TAC and landings increased from 2005 to 2011. Since then, TAC has been reduced and landings have been around 65% of set TACs since 2012 (IFOP, 2015; (SUBPESCA 2017).

Although discards of this species are not recorded, landings are considered to be good estimates of real catches. Moreover, the landings of this species are not associated with other species of commercial importance such as Pacific Jack mackerel or Chub mackerel (IFOP 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

In general, the industrial sector has fished within its assigned TAC levels, while the artisanal sector- which accounts for 80% of the total TAC - has repeatedly overpassed the quota share since 2006 (IFOP, 2013b). In 2015, total TAC was exceeded by 83%, mainly by excess in artisanal catches (SUBPESCA, 2016b).

In 2016, final TAC was 39,900 tonnes, split as 8,574 tonnes for industrial fleet and 30,398 for the artisanal fleet. Landings were 5,288 tonnes and 68,347tonnes, respectively. In this mixed fishery of anchoveta and Araucanian herring Strangomera bentincki, if one of the TACs for these species is reached and the other is not, 20% of incidental catch of the species with no remaining quota is allowed for each fishing trip.

Discarding and misreporting of catches are of concern, so a  research program is in place since 2014 to estimate misreporting, discards and bycatch rates in the industrial and artisanal purse seine fisheries of anchoveta and Araucanian herring in the V-X regions (MEFT 2014; IFOP 2016). The data collection was extended to June 2017 (MEFT, 2016a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

The purse seine is a non-selective fishing gear in relation to fish size, since the mesh size used is small enough (1/2" or 9/16") to prevent a mass escape through the net, even of the smallest-sized juvenile specimens of anchovy or common sardine found in summer (as small as 5 cm total length). There is a rather strong possibility that the species to be caught can be previously selected, since both fishermen’s experience and the use of state-of-the-art echo sounders and sonar allow the species to be identified with some accuracy before setting the net. However, on some occasions, the catch trapped in the sack is released by opening the net when necessary.

Unlike purse seine fishing in other regions, in Chile the incidence of dolphins in catches is considered infrequent. The Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus, Near Threatened in IUCN Red List, 2014), among other 7 seabird species has been identified during sampling conducted on board artisanal purse seine boats.

Available information suggests impacts from purse seines are low (Arata and Hucke-Gaete, 2005), however there is limited research and no current information on the impact of this fishery on the species mentioned above.

Last updated on 27 April 2016

The availability of anchoveta as a prey is one of the major threats to Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Vulnerable; 2014 IUCN Redlist) (Luna-Jorquera and Culik, 2003; UNEP/WCMC, 2003; BirdLife International, 2012).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 26 April 2016

There is some risk of incidental mortality caused by purse seines. In general, pelagic fish are sensitive to contact with fishing gear, which easily results in scale loss and subsequent mortality. This may be related to the above-mentioned release of unwanted species or sizes; however, the primary cause of incidental mortality in purse seines is the escape of fish when a net gets torn due to very large catches and/or bad weather. The risk of ghost fishing by lost purse seine nets is extremely low.

In the III-IV regions, the Anchoveta and South American pilchard Sardinops sagax constitutes a mixed fishery. However, South American pilchard stock is collapsed for the last 10 years, what is related to environmental and biological adverse conditions for this species (IFOP, 2015).

No recent data on bycatch species for this fishery could be found – bycatch information is not systematically collected yet for the III and IV regions. IFOP is currently developing a project related to bycatch and discards and in purse seine fisheries of anchoveta and sardine in the V and X Chilean regions, both industrial and artisanal fleet. The research results are expected for 2017 (MEFT, 2016).

Last updated on 27 April 2016

Anchoveta and Araucanian herring in the V-X Regions are harvested as part of a mixed fishery, in the sense that these resources are caught during the same period and area by an artisanal and industrial fleet that fishes for both species using the same fishing gear (which is non-selective).

No recent data on other non-targeted species for this fishery could be found. IFOP is currently developing a project related to bycatch and discards and in purse seine fisheries of anchoveta and sardine in the V and X Chilean regions, including both industrial and artisanal fleets. The research results are expected for 2017 (MEFT, 2016a).

HABITAT

Anchoveta is a pelagic species distributed at water depths ranging between 15 and 70 m during the day and between 5 and 20 m at night. In Chile, artisanal purse seines can reach dimensions of 30 fathoms depth by 240 fathoms length (approx. 55 m x 249 m) while industrial purse seines can reach up to 60 × 500 fathoms (approx. 110 m x 915 m). In general, the impact of this fishing gear on the seafloor is not a subject under technical or scientific debate, since these nets are usually deployed at greater depths, where bottom contact does not occur (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003). However, it should be noted that in this particular fishery, “penetration windows” exist, where industrial operations within the first five nautical miles offshore is permitted. 

The stock is highly dependent on recruitment which in turn changes with environmental conditions and oceanographic conditions in the important Chilean upwelling ecosystem, like the El Niño and La Niña (Cury et al., 2000; Gatica et al., 2007; IFOP, 2015).

MARINE RESERVES

In Chile, there are five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Pullinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others, and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

Also, since the enactment of the General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture in 1991, a Reserve Zone for Artisanal Fishing has been established by law. It extends over 5 nautical miles measured from the coast from the I Region to 41º28,6’S (located in the first third of the X Region) and from south of 41°28,6’ up to 5 nm west of the straight baselines. This regulation is also in force around the oceanic islands and in inland waters. This measure, besides justifying the development and promotion of the artisanal fishing activity, prevents the industrial fleet from entering the coastal zone to carry out extractive fishing operations. It has also become a conservation measure for the bulk of fishery resources that spawn near the coast and in inland waters. This regulation is directly related to the opportunities of protecting and recovering coastal pelagic resources, being of benefit mainly to anchovy and common sardine. It may be temporarily suspended through authorizations for research fishing and dredging that allow the temporary entry of industrial vessels into the reserve zone, in specific areas and during specific periods. 

Last updated on 26 April 2016

There are temporal closures for this fishery to protect spawning and juveniles, set according to a close monitoring of biologic indicators. In 2014, the temporal closure was established between 8 August until 15 September (SUBPESCA, 2014b; MEFT, 2014b) and in 2015, it was set between 7 September until 15 October (MEFT, 2015c).

Last updated on 27 April 2016

There are annually temporal closures for this fishery to protect spawning and juveniles. These closures are mobile and depend on monitoring of the biologic indicators (MEFT, 2016b).

FishSource Scores

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MANAGEMENT QUALITY

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Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

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HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

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DATA NOTES
  1. Dynamic reference points of main Chilean fisheries were officially adopted since February 2015 (MEFT, 2015a). For both Anchoveta in III-IV and V-X assessment units these are: biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy (55% of the virgin spawning stock biomass SSB0). The limit reference point for biomass Blim is 27.5% of SSB0.
  2. There is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the target Fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit reference point so score #1 was determined qualitatively.
  3. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) assessment report does not provide a scientific advice, the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics provides an advised TAC range (CCT-PP 2016). Average of TAC range is computed for calculation of score #2. Intra-annual updates of stock assessment, advice and quota can be conducted as updated information becomes available, e.g. research cruises, and last update of the year is shown in the data sheet.

 

Last updated on 12 April 2017

  1. Landings 1986-2012 were obtained from the latest available IFOP report (IFOP, 2013). Landings data from 2013 are from sectorial reports (e.g. SUBPESCA, 2014a; 2016b) (SUBPESCA 2017) and are considered preliminary for 2015 and 2016. Volumes refer to official landings; there are no corrections rates for discarding or misreporting, but landings are considered to be a good estimates of real catches (IFOP 2016).

Last updated on 12 April 2017

  1. Landings 1986-2013 are from the latest available IFOP report (IFOP, 2015). Landings from 2014 are from sectorial reports (SUBPESCA, 2014a; 2016b) (SUBPESCA 2017) and are considered preliminary for 2015 and 2016. For 1998 to 2001, official anchoveta landings were corrected due to Chilean jack mackerel unreported landings in the multi-species fishery (IFOP 2016). No corrections for discarding are applied as no information is yet available from the discard research program.

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Sources

Credits
  1. IFOP. 2007. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2007. 82 pages.
  2. IFOP, 2007. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2007. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 100 pp. (In Spanish.)
  3. IFOP. 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2008. 69 pages.
  4. IFOP, 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro-sur, 2008. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 68 pp. (In Spanish.)
  5. IFOP. 2009. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2009. 73 pages. 
  6. IFOP. 2009. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2009. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 46 pp. (In Spanish.)
  7. IFOP, 2009. Investigación del estatus y evaluación de estrategias de explotación sustentables en anchoveta centro-sur, 2010. Pre-Informe Final. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 56 pp. (In Spanish.)
  8. IFOP. 2010. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2010. 59 pages. 
  9. IFOP, 2010. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2010. 66 pp. (In Spanish.)
  10. Ramírez, C.C. and Troncoso, F.C., 2012. Segundo informe (Septiembre) – Convenio: Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2013. Anchoveta V-X Región 2013, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, 137 pp. (In Spanish).
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  12. SUBPESCA. 2006. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2007. Technical Report N° 101 – November, 2006. 47 pages.
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  16. SUBPESCA, 2008. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 085/08. November 2008. 54 pp. (In Spanish.)
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  29. CCT-PP, 2012. Informe de la Reunión (Plenaria) del Comité Científico y Técnico de Pelágicos Pequeños (CCT-PP). [Meeting Report from the Scientific Committe on Small Pelagics, CCPP]. 5 November 2012. 14 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sitios.ifop.cl/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=891db1d7-3a0c-42ac-a5ae-b244a5bdf7d6&groupId=35476
  30. CT-PP, 2013. Reporte Técnico No. 1 del Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Valparaíso. 9 December 2013. 46 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82144_documento.pdf
  31. CCT-PP, 2014. Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Informe Técnico N° 01/2014: Situación y rango de captura Biológicamente aceptable de Recursos pelágicos pequeños, Año 2015. November, 2014. 27 pphttp://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/CCT_PP-Informe_Tecnico_01-2014.pdf
  32. CCT-PP, 2014. Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Informe Técnico N° 01/2014: Situación y rango de captura Biológicamente aceptable de Recursos pelágicos pequeños, Año 2015. November, 2014. 27 pp. http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/CCT_PP-Informe_Tecnico_01-2014.pdf
  33. CCT-PP, 2015. Informe Técnico N° 06/2015. Determinación del Estado de Situación y Rango de Captura Biológicamente Aceptable de Recursos Pelágicos pequeños, Año 2016. Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos. November 2015. 29 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-91246_documento.pdf
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  39. Decreto Exento N° 1074/2009. Modifica Decreto Exento N° 1675 de 2008 que estableció cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 10 July 2009. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=7297
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  41. Decreto Exento N° 1453/2010. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2011. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 27 December 2010. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=12082
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  44. Decreto Exento N° 195/2013. Modifica Decretos Exentos N° 1.336 de 2012, y N° 38 de 2013, ambos del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 18 February 2013. 15 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=14877
  45. Decreto Exento No. 195/2013. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 1336 de 2012 y nº 38 de 2013, ambos del Ministerio de Ecnonomia, Fomento y Tursimo. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Santiago. 11 February 2013. 15 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-80424_documento.pdf
  46. Decreto Exento No. 403/2013. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 35 de 2013 que establece veda biologica para recursos sardina austral, sardina comun y anchoveta en X region. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura. Santiago. 18 April 2013. 2 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-80474_documento.pdf
  47. Decreto Exento No. 669/2012. Modifica Decreto Exento No. 1251 de 2011 que establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesqueria que se indican sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2012. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 18 April 2012. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=14150
  48. Decreto Exento No. 747/2013, Modifica Decreto Exento nº 115 de 1998, del actual Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, respecto a la veda biológica de las especies Sardina común y Anchoveta, entre las regiones V y XIV, Santiago 25 Julio 2013, Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-80811_documento.pdf
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