Last updated on 10 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Todarodes pacificus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Japanese flying squid, Japanese Common Squid

COMMON NAMES

Japanese common squid, Pacific flying squid

Although further study is required, there is a possible homogeneity of the population structure in the Yellow sea-East/Japan Sea (Gong and Choi 2008). This can be classified as a transboundary fish stock, in that is to be found in two or more EEZs, with undefined stock management units. This is a relevant shared fish stock of the Northwest Pacific, an important pelagic resource shared by two or more countries and by two or more coastal states in the Region, extending in to the high seas, adjacent to the coastal state EEZs.The Yellow Sea is included in this profile as the northern part of the East China Sea.

In Japanese waters, squids are mainly caught in summer-autumn squid fishery; coastal catches are landed fresh while catches from offshore waters are landed as frozen blocks. In addition to squid jigging and net fishing in Japanese waters they are also caught in multi-gear fisheries within Chinese and Korean waters.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Regular stock assessments are conducted and the stock is well managed through annual TAC limits in Japanese waters (Fisheries Agency of Japan 2012a,b).

Weaknesses

There is shortage of information on stock assessments in Chinese and Korea waters. Extent of IUU catches may be high and remain unquantified in this fishery, esp., in Korean and Chinese waters.

Options

A more rigorous study of both Government reports and published literature is necessary for Chinese waters. Studies need to be conducted to evaluate seasonal movements of this stock across all three jurisdictions of Korean, Chinese and Japanese waters. Governance measures also remain unknown for this stock in Chinese and Korean waters. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assessment possible in the near future across its distribution range.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Conduct scientific studies to define the stock structure over the full range of the species and to evaluate seasonal movements of this stock across all jurisdictions.
  • Encourage managers to collect and publish detailed fishery data by fishing method (e.g. catch, effort and fleet size,) and biological data (length, sex, maturity, age) to support stock assessment development and improve accuracy of third-party, independent sustainability evaluations.
  • Work with managers to design and implement fishery management plans in all relevant jurisdictions, including harvest strategies and harvest control rules suitable for short-lived species; ensure the management plans consider impacts of this fishery on the overall ecosystem structure and function. This management plan should be sensitive to the transboundary nature of these stocks and ideally would be implemented by a regional fishery management body which would coordinate conservation measures amongst all harvesting nations.
  • Estimate the scope of any illegal fishing and under-reporting, and implement effective monitoring, control, and surveillance measures.
  • Implement data collection programs to enable evaluation of bycatch, especially of protected or endangered species.
  • Ensure your supply chain is represented in SFP’s Global Squid Supply Chain Roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
East China Sea and Japan Sea China China Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Midwater trawls
Japan West Coast Japan Gillnets and entangling nets
Purse seines
Single boat midwater otter trawls
Republic of Korea Korea, Republic of Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Strengths

Regular stock assessments are conducted and the stock is well managed through annual TAC limits in Japanese waters (Fisheries Agency of Japan 2012a,b).

Weaknesses

There is shortage of information on stock assessments in Chinese and Korea waters. Extent of IUU catches may be high and remain unquantified in this fishery, esp., in Korean and Chinese waters.

Options

A more rigorous study of both Government reports and published literature is necessary for Chinese waters. Studies need to be conducted to evaluate seasonal movements of this stock across all three jurisdictions of Korean, Chinese and Japanese waters. Governance measures also remain unknown for this stock in Chinese and Korean waters. Suggest increased data collection to gather information to make an analytical assessment possible in the near future across its distribution range.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Conduct scientific studies to define the stock structure over the full range of the species and to evaluate seasonal movements of this stock across all jurisdictions.
  • Encourage managers to collect and publish detailed fishery data by fishing method (e.g. catch, effort and fleet size,) and biological data (length, sex, maturity, age) to support stock assessment development and improve accuracy of third-party, independent sustainability evaluations.
  • Work with managers to design and implement fishery management plans in all relevant jurisdictions, including harvest strategies and harvest control rules suitable for short-lived species; ensure the management plans consider impacts of this fishery on the overall ecosystem structure and function. This management plan should be sensitive to the transboundary nature of these stocks and ideally would be implemented by a regional fishery management body which would coordinate conservation measures amongst all harvesting nations.
  • Estimate the scope of any illegal fishing and under-reporting, and implement effective monitoring, control, and surveillance measures.
  • Implement data collection programs to enable evaluation of bycatch, especially of protected or endangered species.
  • Ensure your supply chain is represented in SFP’s Global Squid Supply Chain Roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Until stock assessments are conducted throughout the distribution range, determining stock status is not feasible.

Regular stock assessments are in place in Japanese waters (AFFRC 2012a,b), but there is shortage of information on stock assessments, distribution and landings in Chinese and Korean waters.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 10 August 2016

There is a need to define biological reference points within all three maritime limits (Japan, Korea, China) before any realistic stock assessment can be undertaken for this transboundary stock.

Reference Points

Last updated on 10 Aug 2016

Reference points for stock in Japanese waters

F = 0.17
Fmed = 0.37
Blimit = 187,000 tonnes

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 14 July 2016

Although the stock is relatively well managed within Japanese maritime limits through TAC quotas; reliable estimates of status of the stock are not available in Chinese and Korean waters hence status of the stock cannot be determined.

Trends

Last updated on 14 Jul 2016

Modelling of trends is only possible after getting catch and landing data across its entire distribution range from China to Japanese waters.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 14 July 2016

Management Decisions in Japanese waters

1. Fishing permit is required for all commercial vessels.
2. Fishing gears used include purse seine and jigging gear in Japanese waters.
3. Resource condition is evaluated each year using landings and survey vessel data.
4. ABC (Acceptable Biological Catch) limits are calculated each year using Fmedand Fcurrent estimates.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 14 Jul 2016

None are reported in the current management plans across all three jurisdictions of Japan, China and Korean waters.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 14 July 2016

Compliance is moderately good in Japanese waters, but MCS effectiveness in Chinese and Korean waters remains unknown.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 14 July 2016

There is no information on impacts of squid fishing over PET species in all three jurisdictional limits.

Other Species

Last updated on 14 July 2016

Such information is not available for all three jurisdictions in the East China / Japan Sea.

HABITAT

Last updated on 14 July 2016

The impact of the squid fishery in a multi-gear fishing across all three jurisdictions is difficult to quantify until more information is made publicly available on types of gear used within limits of this fishery.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 12 February 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Estimated biomass in the Sea of Japan is at a high level compared to the historical series. The CPUE and exploitation rate remain unknown for this stock in Korea and Chinese waters.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Based on stock assessments in Japanese waters current fishing mortality is not expected to cause the stock to drop below Blim in the next five years, and an increase in fishing effort could be sustained.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for catch and tac
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Qualitative scores have been assigned for this stock due to absence of reliable scientific and management quality information within Korean and Chinese waters. Stock assessments have been conducted on a regular basis within Japanese limits but a precautionary score has been applied for the whole stock here due to transboundary nature of the stock, which straddles Korean, Chinese and Japanese maritime limits. Management measures could not be evaluated for Chinese and Korean waters hence precautionary scores are applied for 1 to 3.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Fisheries Agency of Japan and Fisheries Research Agency, 2011. Resource Assessment 2010 (Digest). http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests22/html/2219.html

  2. Fisheries Agency of Japan and Fisheries Research Agency, 2012a. Todarodes pacificus 冬季発生系群 Resource Assessment 2012 (Digest).http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests24/html/2418.html

  3. Fisheries Agency of Japan and Fisheries Research Agency, 2012b. Todarodes pacificus 秋季発生系群 Resource Assessment 2012 (Digest).http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests24/html/2419.html

  4. Gong, Y., H.D. Jeong, K.H. Choi, K.T. Seong and S.W. Kim, 2006. Fluctuations in the Abundance of Common Squid, Todarodes pacificus and Environmental Conditions in the Far East Regions during 52 Years. J. Ecol. Field Biol. 29 (1): 1-16. http://210.101.116.28/W_ftp42/0n101050_pv.pdf

  5. Gong, Y. & K.H. Choi, 2008. Fluctuations in abundance of common squid, Todarodes pacificus in the far east. Journal of Environmental Biology 29(4): 449-452.http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200807_jul08_spl/paper_05.pdf

  6. Kidokoro, H. 2009. Impact of climatic changes on the distribution, migration pattern and stock abundance of the Japanese common squid, Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan, Bull. Fish. Res. Agen. No. 27, 95-189.http://www.fra.affrc.go.jp/bulletin/bull/bull27/kidokoro.pdf

  7. Yang, L., Jiang Y., Cheng J., 2010. Population structure and reproductive biology of Todarodes pacificus in Southern Yellow Sea. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 29(6):1167-1174.http://www.cje.net.cn/CN/article/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&id=2361

References

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