Last updated on 24 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Merluccius hubbsi

SPECIES NAME(s)

Argentine hake

COMMON NAMES

Merluza común (Spanish), South of 41°S

There are four different Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) stocks in the South Atlantic Ocean, spanning from southern Brazil to southern Argentina (Bezzi et al., 1997; Hill et al., 2002; Vaz-dos-Santos et al., 2009;): 1) from 21°S to 29°S, in Southeastern Brazil, 2) from 29°S to 41°S, from North of 41°S to Rio Grande do Sul, 3) from 41°S to 54°S in Patagonian Argentina, and 4) Falkland Islands/ Malvinas stock.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The stock assessment uses well-accepted methods, including several surveys of different population segments that provide fishery-independent data. An electronic Vessel Monitoring System aids enforcement of closed zones. IUU fishing, foreign vessels catches, discards and hake bycatch estimates are included in the assessment since 2009. Managers appear to be setting TACs increasingly in line with scientists’ advice. Spawning stock biomass (SSB) has been increasing since 2012.

Weaknesses

Despite the increasing trend observed in SSB (likely related to management measures for protecting juveniles), the SSB estimates have been revised downwards compared to last year, and it is now estimated slightly below its target reference point. Global research cruises were not conducted in 2008, 2009 and again in 2014 and 2015. There are loopholes in monitoring and control of catches. Bycatch reduction devices are required but their use is in generalnot complied with nor sufficiently enforced, while there are high rates of bycatch and discards. Young individuals (age 2 and 3) predominate in catches, and age structure of the population is not recovered. Impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem are poorly known or informed.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.7

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Encourage the development and implementation of a comprehensive fishery management plan for Argentine hake that includes limit and target reference points and a harvest control rule.
  • Ensure full reporting of catches (landings and discards) with appropriate and timely submission to state authorities.
  • Work with the government and industry to improve compliance with existing management regulations, especially catch limits and use of bycatch reduction devices.
  • Promote and participate in research with scientists to increase the available knowledge on the environmental impacts of the fishery, with a special focus on the effects of trawl gear on sea floor habitats.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Patagonian Argentina - South of 41°S Argentina Bottom trawls
Spain Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 31 January 2016

Strengths

The stock assessment uses well-accepted methods, including several surveys of different population segments that provide fishery-independent data. An electronic Vessel Monitoring System aids enforcement of closed zones. IUU fishing, foreign vessels catches, discards and hake bycatch estimates are included in the assessment since 2009. Managers appear to be setting TACs increasingly in line with scientists’ advice. Spawning stock biomass (SSB) has been increasing since 2012.

Weaknesses

Despite the increasing trend observed in SSB (likely related to management measures for protecting juveniles), the SSB estimates have been revised downwards compared to last year, and it is now estimated slightly below its target reference point. Global research cruises were not conducted in 2008, 2009 and again in 2014 and 2015. There are loopholes in monitoring and control of catches. Bycatch reduction devices are required but their use is in generalnot complied with nor sufficiently enforced, while there are high rates of bycatch and discards. Young individuals (age 2 and 3) predominate in catches, and age structure of the population is not recovered. Impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem are poorly known or informed.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 7 August 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Encourage the development and implementation of a comprehensive fishery management plan for Argentine hake that includes limit and target reference points and a harvest control rule.
  • Ensure full reporting of catches (landings and discards) with appropriate and timely submission to state authorities.
  • Work with the government and industry to improve compliance with existing management regulations, especially catch limits and use of bycatch reduction devices.
  • Promote and participate in research with scientists to increase the available knowledge on the environmental impacts of the fishery, with a special focus on the effects of trawl gear on sea floor habitats.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 31 January 2016

The National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development (Instituto National de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, or INIDEP) is Argentina’s leading fisheries research institution and the official scientific advisor for the Federal Fisheries Council (Consejo Federal Pesquero, or CFP) and the Secretariat for Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca). The institute’s stock assessments and recommendations are based on data from annual surveys, statistics from the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Sub-Secretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura, SSPyA), onboard observers’ reports and dockside samplings.

The assessment of hake stocks is carried out by means of the Virtual Population Analysis (VPA) method combined with the Extended Survivors Analysis (XSA) implemented in the Lowestoft VPA program. From the 2009 assessment, nominal catches have been revised with onboard observers’ data to account for under and misreporting; this was motivated by regulations required to enter EU markets but has also resulted in improved confidence in the assessment. As well, FAO statistics data is used to incorporate hake catches by other countries and discards data from target and bycatch fisheries were included to correct catch-at-age estimates to obtain total catch estimates for the assessment model.

The model is calibrated with the abundance by age series obtained during the annual global surveys, Catches per Unit Effort (CPUE) by age from the commercial fleet and recruitment indices from a survey evaluating abundance of juveniles and from bycatch data from the red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) fishery (Santos and Villarino, 2015), calculated using data base from on-board observer programs of the different jurisdictions (Chubut, Santa Cruz provinces and Federal waters), which are coordinated under the “Technical Commission of Hake Bycatch in the Patagonian red shrimp fishery” (CFP, 2008).

The global scientific stock survey have had several breaks within 1996-2013, in particular this survey was not conducted between 2008 and 2010, as well as in 2014 and 2015 (Villarino and Santos, 2015), adding uncertainty to the stock assessment.

In the last stock assessment a statistical catch-at-age model using the AD-model builder (ADMB) platform was used in parallel with the traditional model used to assess the stock. Trends of total and spawning biomass are similar between both models, main differences observed in recent years’ estimates. This alternative model considers error in catch at age data and includes specific-age selectivity (Santos and Villarino, 2015). Biomass estimates have been revised downwards compared to last year.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 31 January 2016

Stock assessment and Acceptable biological catches (Captura Biológicamente Aceptable, CBA) options for 2016 were estimated using the traditional APV-XSA model. Three recruitment scenarios, ensuring a 90% chance of reaching 600,000 tonnes (Btrp) and 16% or 18% of older mature individuals, in either the short (3 years) or mid-term (7 years) were used for projections. As well, CBAs were calculated with an alternative statistical model (ADMB) using two of the recruitment scenarios.

CBAs from the APV-XSA model ranged between 131 and 240 thousand tonnes for a short-term recovery and between 230 and 285 thousand tonnes for a mid-term recovery. CBAs from the ADMB model ranged between 150 and 301 thousand tonnes for a short-term recovery and between 229 and 323 thousand tonnes for a mid-term recovery. Final Advised TAC was 290,000 tonnes, same as in 2015, closer to those estimated by the alternative model for a short-term recovery and 16% of older mature individuals, or to a mid-term recovery and 18% of older mature individuals, therefore following an intermediate precautionary approach. CBA options were obtained after deducting 10% of misreporting, 15% of discards and a projection of 10.000-19.000 tonnes of bycatch (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

INIDEP advises that additional measures are required to ensure the sustainability of the resource, such as: i) maintenance of current dimensions of the closed area to protect juveniles in the Patagonian area, ii) control the effective utilization of selective devices to diminish bycatch of juveniles both in target and bycatch fisheries and reduce hake discards, iii) increase control of catch and effort declarations to reduce under-reporting, iv) annual adjustment of on-board observers coverage in the hake and shrimp fishery to obtain reliable estimations of biological-fishery variables for the estimation of CBAs, and v) achieve an effective protection of adults during spawning within the spatial closure (Villarino and Santos, 2014; Santos and Villarino, 2015).

As well, INIDEP highlighted that the global hake survey has not been conducted between 2008 and 2010, as well as in 2014 adding uncertainty to the stock assessment results, therefore is highly recommended to ensure that annual research surveys for distribution and abundance estimation are conducted (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Reference Points

Last updated on 31 Jan 2016

Since 2010, the Spawning Biomass Limit (Blim) for this stock has been defined as 450,000 tonnes (Villarino et al., 2012). As for the biomass target reference point (Btrp), the recent increase in SSB has led scientists to consider 600,000 tonnes as current Btrp (replacing the previous Btrp of 550,000 tonnes). Coupled with these biomass reference points, is the objective that the percentage of older spawners (ages 5+) should be at or above 16% or 18% (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

There is neither a target reference point for fishing mortality in place nor a harvest control rule for managing the fishery.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 31 January 2016

Total biomass for 2014 was estimated in 904,400 tonnes, 2% lower than the previous year, but an 8% increase in spawning stock biomass (SSB) was estimated for 2014 in comparison to 2013, due to the 2010 and 2011 strong year classes reaching maturity. SSB for 2014 was estimated at 580,000 tonnes. Despite the increasing trend observed in SSB since 2012 (likely related to management measures for protecting juveniles), total biomass and SSB estimates have been revised downwards compared to last year, and SSB is now estimated at slightly below its target reference point (Btrp = 600,000 tonnes).

Fishing mortality (of totally recruited ages F3-6) in 2014 was estimated at 0.48, the lowest in the time series, however fishing mortality for age 2 group indicates increasing exploitation over this group in the last two years. Recruitment (age 2) since 2005 has been high, although due to the lack of global surveys in 2014 and 2015 it was not possible to follow these cohorts strength.

Discards levels and fishing mortality by the Argentine red shrimp showed a slight increase in 2014 (28,000 tonnes); hake discards by the hake fishery are higher than those caused by the shrimp fishery and have increased significantly in recent years; from 36,000 tonnes in 2012, to 46,500 tonnes in 2013 and 62,600 tonnes in 2014 (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Proportion of older spawners was estimated at 11% in 2013 and 2014, well below the target levels for the proportion of older mature individuals (ages 5 to 7+), set at 16 and 18%. INIDEP observed that despite high recruitment levels, most fish do not survive to become older spawners, therefore the current strategy is not allowing recovery to a balanced age structure population, due to high fishing pressure exerted in the past (Santos and Villarino, 2013; 2015).

Trends

Last updated on 31 Jan 2016

National landings have been corrected with estimates of IUU fishing and discard rates, allowing improved estimates for total catches. Up to 1996 they gradually increased reaching around 640,000 tonnes. Discards are also estimated to have peaked around this period, at around 140 – 160 thousand tonnes annually. A sharp fall was then registered, bottoming out in 2000 at 237,000 tonnes, followed by an increase to around 500,000 tonnes in 2004. A decreasing trend had been recorded until 2008, since then corrected national landings have stabilized at around 270,000 tonnes. Total estimated catches are in average 30% higher than corrected national landings, considering the complete time-series.

Fishing mortality (F) increased in the mid-1990s, remaining at close to 0.9. From then large oscillations have occurred, with F peaking at 1.02 in 2004. Since 2007, F shows a decreasing trend with F2014 being the lowest of the time series (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Between 1990 and 1997, spawning biomass was stable at levels between 552,000 and 620,000 tonnes. A gradual decrease was observed since then, reaching a time series low of 323,000 tonnes in 2002, followed by a significant increment up to 2006, and a decrease trend once again. Since 2008, reproductive biomass shows an increasing trend until present, over-passing Blim (450,000 tonnes) in 2013, and slightly lower than Btrp (600,000 tonnes) in 2014. Recruitment doubled from 1991 to 1994 and remained high until 1997, when SSB was around 600,000 tonnes. A sharp fall was observed from 1998 to 1999 to the lowest rates in the series, followed by a gradual positive trend and achieved the maximum value of the decade in 2004. Then large oscillations have occurred, and in general from 2000-2012 recruitment has been on average 21% lower than those observed in the 1990s. Recruitment indexes are not very reliable, since the global scientific stock survey was not conducted in 2014 nor in 2015, increasing uncertainty to the stock assessment and projections (Villarino and Santos, 2014; Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Before 1990 landings at age structure registered percentages of older mature individuals (ages 5+) higher than 20%, while between 1996 and 2013 the proportion ranged from 11% to 19%. The proportion of older mature individuals (ages 5 to 7+) has not achieved the target (%18); it was estimated at 15.2 % in 2011 and 17.7% in 2012, but significantly lower in 2013 and 2014, at 11% (Villarino and Santos, 2014; Santos and Villarino, 2015).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 31 January 2016

This stock is managed through Total Allowable Catches (TAC), established by the Federal Fisheries Council (Consejo Federal Pesquero, CFP) and applied by the Secretariat for Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Food (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos, SAGPyA). The TAC is assigned by Individual Transferable Quotas (CITC).

Basic management rules include a minimum mesh size of 120 mm, complementary restrictions for nets, bycatch reduction devices (CFP, 2010), and a minimum legal fish size of 35 mm. Also, hake fishing is permanently prohibited in the breeding area in order to protect adult and juvenile specimens and there is also an extensive no-trawling zone where juveniles feed, offshore San Jorge Gulf, although not in the Gulf itself, where juveniles are also predominant (CFP, 2009b and its modifications). The expansion of the closed area’s size in 2008 and 2009 has possibly led to an observed decrease in fishing mortality on juveniles (Villarino et al., 2012) and to an increase in stock biomass, as a result of the protection of strong year classes (Villarino and Santos, 2014). However, the outer part of this area is open to the Patagonian red shrimp fishery, which constitutes the main fishing zone of this fishery since 2011. It generates high discard levels (~11,000-35,000 tonnes between 2008 and 2013) of hake juveniles, being 100% returned to sea (Villarino and Santos, 2014).

Prior to 2013, Argentinean managers have set Total Allowable Catches (TAC) above or at the upper end of the range of values recommended by INIDEP, but since 2013 the specific advice has been followed. In 2014 and 2015, the 290,000 tonnes TAC (CFP, 2013; 2014) was set below INIDEP’s advised 310,000 tonnes (Santos and Villarino, 2013; Villarino and Santos, 2014). For 2016, TAC was set in line with the recommended catch level at 290,000 tonnes, as in the previous 2 years (CFP, 2015a; Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 31 Jan 2016

There is no formal recovery plan for the Southern stock of Argentine hake, however several management measures have been undertaken to allow the recovery of the stock after a collapse in 1999, namely: i) a minimum mesh size of 120 mm, ii) complementary restrictions for nets, iii) bycatch reduction devices, iv) and a minimum legal fish size of 35 mm, v) a permanent closure for vessels targeting hake to protect adults and juveniles, and an extensive no-trawling zone where juveniles feed (CFP, 2009b and its modifications).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 31 January 2016

Regarding monitoring of the fishing fleet, there is a Vessel Monitoring System working properly, but landings’ controls still have loopholes and are deeply affected by corruption. Selectivity is also not a well addressed matter (Santos and Villarino, 2015; CeDePesca, 2015).

Discarding of juveniles is not prohibited in the hake fishery, although use of devices to reduce it is in force to allow juvenile escapement (CFP, 2010). Observers or inspectors must be carried on all trips on vessels larger than 33 m (CFP, 2012a) but reports indicate that juvenile hake bycatch reduction devices use has low compliance and is not properly enforced and that many inspectors are frequently bribed (Santos and Villarino, 2015; CeDePesca, 2015). Discards estimates in the hake fishery have been increasing since 2010 and reached 62,000 tons in 2014 (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

Enforcement of EU Council regulation No. 1005/2008 is assumed to have contributed to a decrease in IUU activities, however the control system has been negatively evaluated by external auditors, which have stressed the malfunction of this sector, resulting in fishing unreliable declarations (CeDePesca, 2015). The use of on-board cameras to assist in control of catches and discards has been announced by managers but it has not been implemented (CeDePesca, 2015).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 31 January 2016

Although on-board observers are supposed to cover a significant amount of fishing trips (CFP, 2012a), information on interactions with PET species is not systematically published.

There is reported bycatch of sharks and skates (e.g., Crespi-Abril et al., 2013), and some of those species are on the endangered list as Data Deficient and are now included in the National Action Plan for sharks, rays and skates (PAN-tiburones).

The hake trawl fishery interacts with seabirds following fishing discards – Kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Least Concern on the 2013 IUCN Red list; BirdLife Int., 2012a), Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys (2013 IUCN Red list: Near Threatened; BirdLife Int., 2012b), white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis (2013 IUCN Red list: Vulnerable; BirdLife Int., 2012c) – and causing mortality – e.g., Great shearwater Puffinus gravis (2013 IUCN Red list: Least Concern; BirdLife Int., 2012d), imperial cormorant Phalacrocorax atriceps (2013 IUCN Red list: Least Concern; BirdLife Int., 2012e) and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (2013 IUCN Red list: Near threatened; BirdLife Int., 2012f), Black-browed albatross (González-Zevallos and Yorio, 2006; Favero et al., 2011; González-Zevallos and Yorio, 2011). A national plan to reduce interactions with birds (Gonzaléz Zevallos et al, 2007; PAN-Aves) includes potential mitigation measures including a warp cable modification which was shown to reduce interactions with these species by 89% and eliminate entanglement mortality (González-Zevallos et al., 2007).

A National Action Plan for the Conservation of Marine Mammals has been approved in Argentina (CFP, 2015b,c) and does not report significant interaction of the bottom trawl targeting hake north of the 41ºS with these animals, however, one of the planned actions is to update the diagnosis of operational interactions of fisheries and marine mammals.

Other Species

Last updated on 29 January 2015

Although on-board observers are supposed to cover a significant amount of fishing trips (CFP, 2012a), information on bycatch species is not systematically published.

According to 2007 observers’ reports, 91.3% of retained catches corresponded to juveniles of Argentine common hake Merluccius hubbsi, 2.1% to different species of skates, 1.9% of Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus, 1.7% of pink cusk-eel Genypterus blacodes and 3% of a set of various other species.

Available information suggests that the amount of non-commercial discarded species is less than 5% of the total catches, but specific research must be conducted to have a better knowledge of such interactions.

HABITAT

Last updated on 31 January 2016

The fishery uses bottom trawls and no specific research has been conducted on the impact on the sea floor; however, the trawling is executed only over muddy and sandy bottoms. Also, 35% of the offshore seabed is not feasible for trawling and a large no-fishing zone, which covers around 50% of the hake distribution area, is also protected (CFP, 2009b and its modifications).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 31 Jan 2016

There are no marine reserves, but there is an important area where vessels targeting hake is permanently banned, which act as protection zones for breeders and juveniles. This closed area was increased in size in 2008 and 2009 (CFP, 2009b), click here to see a map. However this area is open to the Patagonian red shrimp fishery, and since 2011 it is the main fishing zone of this fishery. It generates high discard levels of hake juveniles, being 100% returned to sea (Villarino and Santos, 2014; Santos and Villarino, 2015).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no specific target fishing mortality rate (or equivalent) set at the managerial and there is no harvest control rule that anticipates reducing Ftarget if biomass drops to Blim. There is no formal management or recovery plan for the Southern stock of Argentine hake, however several management measures have been undertaken to allow the recovery of the stock since the collapse in 1999, including a permanent closure to protect adults and juveniles, and an extensive no-trawling zone where juveniles feed (CFP, 2009b). Still, use of bycatch reduction devices is mandatory but is in general not complied with nor sufficiently enforced. Managers are following the scientific advice for setting TAC and SSB is increasing since 2012 and above Blim.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Average advised catch.

The Set TAC is 290 ('000 t). The Average advised catch is 290 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Average advised catch for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fishers' compliance in terms of reported landings against the set TACs appears to have improved. Since 2010, TAC was overshot, considering corrected national landings, only in 2011 and 2013 by 5%. There is low compliance and enforcement of use of juvenile hake bycatch reduction devices, while bycatch and discards are increasing in recent years (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 7.7.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the Brebuild.

The SSB is 581 ('000 t). The Brebuild is 600 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/Brebuild for this index is 96.8%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are no fishing mortality reference points set for the stock. Fishing mortality of totally recruited ages (F3-6) in 2014 was the lowest in the time series, however fishing mortality for age 2 group indicates increasing exploitation over this group in the last two years. The stock is recognizably being harvested at a level that if maintained will lead the stock to Btarget and target percentage of older adults, but fishing pressure is regarded as still high for young individuals (age 2 and 3) which predominate in catches, hindering recovery of population age structure (Santos and Villarino, 2015).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Advised TAC for 2011 and 2012 have been based on the average over three postulated recruitment scenarios and four recovery objectives as INIDEP did not provide a single advised limit. From 2013 onwards, a single advice limit was given.
  • Both Argentine nominal catches corrected with estimated rates for mis- and underreporting as well as total estimated catches are presented in the datasheet. Total catches include also bycatch estimates by the hake and shrimp fishery and foreign vessels catches. Fishers Compliance score was however assigned qualitatively.
  • Current biological biomass reference points are extended over the entire time series for comparative purposes. Biomass target is a recovery or rebuild objective (Brebuild) set at 600,000 tonnes. 
  • There is no fishing mortality reference point, therefore qualitative Management strategy and Future health scores were assigned.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Acknowledgements

SFP is grateful to CeDePesca for contributing to the development of this profile.

Additional credits:

  1. Bezzi, S., Irusta, G., Pérez, M., Renzi, M. 1997. Sobre la unidad de población de la merluza. INIDEP Informe Técnico DNI Nº25-1997. 12 pp. (In Spanish.)
  2. CeDePesca. 2009. Personal communications – Management decisions and the evolution of the Argentinean common hake fishery with emphasis on the Southern stock.
  3. Renzi, M.; Santos, B.; Villarino, M. 2008. Evaluación del estado del efectivo sur de 41° S de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente aceptable correspondiente al año 2008. Official Technical Report N° 046. INIDEP.
  4. Santos, B. A., Villarino, M. F., 2011. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41º S de la Merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de las capturas biologicamente aceptables para 2012. Informe Técnico Oficial 045, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP), 27 p.

References:

  1. BirdLife International 2012a. Larus dominicanus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003221/0
  2. BirdLife International 2012b. Thalassarche melanophrys. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003959/0
  3. BirdLife International 2012c. Procellaria aequinoctialis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003922/0
  4. BirdLife International 2012d. Puffinus gravis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003932/0
  5. BirdLife International 2012e. Phalacrocorax atriceps. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003685/0
  6. BirdLife International 2012f. Spheniscus magellanicus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 14 January 2014.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003863/0
  7. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2015. Comunicado: Ante una nueva etapa, propuesta para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad de las pesquerías argentinas. 30 November 2015. 6 pp.http://cedepesca.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CeDePesca-Ante-una-nueva-etapa-Noviembre-2015-V3.pdf
  8. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2008. Acta N° 42/2008 Item 5.2. 6 November 2008. 8 pp. (In Spanish). http://www.cfp.gob.ar/actas/acta42-2008.pdf
  9. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2009a. Resolución CFP N° 6/2009: Apruébase el Plan de Acción Nacional para la Conservación y el Manejo de Condrictios (tiburones, rayas y quimeras) en la República Argentina. Issued at Bs. As. on March 12th, 2009. Link accessed on September 13th, 2009. (In Spanish.)http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/150000-154999/151432/norma.htm
  10. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2009b. Resolución 26/2009 y modificaciones: Establécense medidas de manejo y administración para ser aplicadas a la especie merluza común. 16 December 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/160000-164999/161840/texact.htm
  11. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2010. Resolución 8/2010 Establécese el uso obligatorio de determinados dispositivos de selectividad para todos los buques pesqueros arrastreros cuya especie objetivo sea la merluza común. 20 May 2010 . 3 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/res08-2010.pdf
  12. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2011a. Resolution 15-2011. 7 December 2011. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2015%20%2807-12-11%29%20CMP%20merluza,%20m%20negra,%20m%20cola,%20polaca.pdf
  13. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2011b. Resolución 4-2011 Establécese l Captura maxima Permisible para el año 2011, de la especie merluza común. (In Spanish.)http://www.loa.org.ar/legNormaDetalle.aspx?id=16710
  14. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2012a. Resolución 16-2012: Modifica Res. 26-09 y 5-11- medidas merluza común. 16 August 2012. 2 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2016%20(16-08-11)%20Modif.%20Res.%2026-09%20y%205-11-%20medidas%20merluza%20comun.pdf
  15. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2012b. Resolución 26-2012. Establécese la Captura maxima Permisible para el año 2013, de las especies merluza común, merluza de cola, merluza negra y polaca. 19 December 2012. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2026%20(19-12-12)%20CMP%20hubbsi%20cola%20negra%20y%20polaca%202013.pdf
  16. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2013. Resolución 16-2013. Establécese la Captura maxima Permisible para el año 2014, de las especies merluza común, merluza de cola, merluza negra y polaca. 16 December 2013. (In Spanish.)http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/220000-224999/223799/norma.htm
  17. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2014. Resolución N°18/2014. Establécese la Captura Máxima Permisible para el año 2015, de las especies merluza común, merluza de cola y polaca. 11 December 2014. (In Spanish). http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2018%20(12-12-13)%20CMP%20cola,%20polaca%20y%20hubbsi%202015.pdf
  18. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2015a. Resolución N°13/2015. Establécese la Captura Máxima Permisible para el año 2016, de las especies merluza de cola, polaca, merluza negra y merluza común. 13 December 2015. 4 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2013%20%20(3-12-15)%20CMP%20negra,%20cola,%20polaca%20y%20hubbsi%202016.pdf
  19. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2015b. Resolución N°11/2015. Apruébase el Plan de Acción Nacional para Reducir la Interacción de Mamíferos Marinos con Pesquerías en la República Argentina (PAN-Mamíferos), cuyo texto se adjunta como Anexo I del Acta del Consejo Federal Pesquero N° 46/2015. 3 December 2015. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.cfp.gob.ar/resoluciones/Resolucion%2011%20(26-11-15)%20PAN-Mamiferos%20Marinos.pdf
  20. Consejo Federal Pesquero (CFP), 2015c. ANEXO I - ACTA CFP N° 46/2015. Plan de Acción Nacional Para Reducir La Interacción De Mamíferos Marinos Con Pesquerías En La República Argentina 13 December 2015. 162 pp (In Spanish.) http://www.cfp.gob.ar/actas/ANEXO%20I%20-%20Acta%20CFP%20Nro%2046-2015%20PAN%20MM.pdf
  21. Crespi-Abril, A.C., Pedraza, S.N., García, N.A. and Crespo, E.A., 2013. Species biology of elasmobranch by-catch in bottom-trawl fishery on the northern Patagonian shelf, Argentina. Aquatic Biology, 19, 3: 239-251.http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/ab/v19/n3/p239-251/
  22. Gonzalez-Zevallos, D. P., Yorio, G. C., 2006. Seabird use of discards and incidental captures at the Argentine hake trawl fishery in the Golfo San Jorge, Argentina, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 316: 175–183http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps2006/316/m316p175.pdf
  23. Gonzalez-Zevallos, D. P., Yorio, G. C., 2007. Seabird mortality at trawler warp cables and a proposed mitigation measure: A case study in Golfo San Jorge, Patagonia, Argentina, Biological Conservation, 136: 108-116http://www.bycatch.org/articles/seabird-mortality-trawler-warp-cables-and-proposed-mitigation-measure-case-study-golfo-san-
  24. Hill, S.; Agnew, D.; Middleton, D.; Portela, J.; Pierce, G.; Fuertes, J.R.; Wakeford, R.C.. 2002. Assessment of the Falkland Islands population of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi. ICES ASC 2002/L: 38. 8 pp. http://www.repositorio.ieo.es/e-ieo/bitstream/handle/10508/827/Assessment.pdf?sequence=1
  25. Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, 2011. Pesca Marítima: Desembarques Especie/Flota. Accessed August 29th 2011. (In Spanish.)http://www.minagri.gob.ar/SAGPyA/pesca/pesca_maritima/02-desembarques/anio.php?anio=2010
  26. Renzi, M.; Villarino, M. and Santos, B. 2009. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41° S de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de las capturas biológicamente aceptables correspondientes al año 2009 y 2010. Official Technical Report No. 046. 37 pp. (In Spanish.)INIDEP_Inf.tec_046_09.pdf
  27. Santos, B.A. and Villarino, M.F., 2013. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41ºS de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente acceptable para 2014. INIDEP Informe Técnico Oficial Nº29-2013. 30 pp. (In Spanish.)Inf_Tec_029_13.pdf
  28. Santos, B. and Villarino, M., 2009. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41° S de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente aceptable para 2014. Official Technical Report No. 029. 30 pp. (In Spanish.)Inf_Tec_029_13.pdf
  29. Santos, B.A., Villarino, M.F. 2015. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41º S de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente aceptable para 2016. INIDEP Informe Técnico Oficial Nº 32-2015. 40 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.inidep.edu.ar/publicaciones/catalogo/informes-tecnicos-2015/
  30. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos (SAGPyA), 2009a. Vessel Monitoring System. Link accessed on October 3rd, 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.sagpya.mecon.gov.ar/SAGPyA/pesca/pesca_maritima/05-monitoreo_satelital/zonas.php?imp=1
  31. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos (SAGPyA), 2009b. Landings by species and fleet. Link accessed on October 3rd, 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.sagpya.mecon.gov.ar/SAGPyA/pesca/pesca_maritima/02-desembarques/lectura.php?imp=1&tabla=especie_flota_2008
  32. Vaz-dos-Santos, A.M.; Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski, C.L.; Lima de Figueiredo, J. 2009. Merluccius hubbsi (Teleostei: Merlucciidae): Stock identification based on reproductive biology in the South-Southeast Brazilian region. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 57(1). 15 pp. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjoce/v57n1/03.pdf
  33. Villarino, M.F., B.A. Santos & M.A. Renzi, 2012. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41ºS de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente acceptable para 2013. INIDEP Informe Técnico Oficial Nº38-2012. (In Spanish.)inftec_038_12.pdf
  34. Villarino, M.F., Santos, B.A. 2014. Evaluación del estado de explotación del efectivo sur de 41ºS de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) y estimación de la captura biológicamente acceptable para 2015. INIDEP Informe Técnico Oficial Nº30-2014. 38 pp. (In Spanish.) Inf_Tec_030_14.pdf
References

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