Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Merluccius gayi peruanus

SPECIES NAME(S)

South Pacific hake, Peruvian hake

COMMON NAMES

Merluza peruana (Spanish)

Peruvian hake (Merluccius gayi peruanus) latitudinal distribution extends from northern Ecuador (01 °N) to central Peru (14 °S). A stock is considered to occur between the northern limit of Peru (03 °S) and Huarmey (10 °S) (Guevara-Carrasco and Lleonart, 2008).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Cooperation between the Fisheries Management entity and the Fisheries Research body is strong.
  • Surveys are regular, well-organized and conducted in cooperation with the fishing industry.
  • Recovery of the stock has been stated as a management aim but specific objectives in terms of stock recovery and timelines are not defined.
Weaknesses
  • The stock condition is considered to have been improving since 2012, but it is not clear to what extent as estimates of spawning biomass against reference points are not available.
  • Latest available estimates (2007) of fishing mortality indicated that it was well above potential targets; fishing mortality rates since 2008 are unknown.
  • Panels of external experts are regularly consulted but recommendations in 2009 seem not to have been taken into account by the Fisheries Research body.
  • Associated risk analyses for the stock assessments do not appear to be performed, nor uncertainty for the models evaluated. There is still lack of transparency in the stock assessment results and scientific advice on management of this stock.
  • Environmental impacts of the fishery are not fully understood.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press IMARPE to implement an appropriate, biologically-based target reference point in line with scientific advice.
  • Ask IMARPE to follow the recommendations from the 2014 FAO peer review*, especially with respect to timely publication and peer review of stock assessments.
  • Work with PRODUCE to develop and implement a strategy to reduce or eliminate IUU fishing.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research to increase knowledge on the environmental impacts of the fishery.

*http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_inf_final_auditoria_fao_a_imarpe_(may_14).pdf


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Peruvian Peru Peru Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Strengths
  • Cooperation between the Fisheries Management entity and the Fisheries Research body is strong.
  • Surveys are regular, well-organized and conducted in cooperation with the fishing industry.
  • Recovery of the stock has been stated as a management aim but specific objectives in terms of stock recovery and timelines are not defined.
Weaknesses
  • The stock condition is considered to have been improving since 2012, but it is not clear to what extent as estimates of spawning biomass against reference points are not available.
  • Latest available estimates (2007) of fishing mortality indicated that it was well above potential targets; fishing mortality rates since 2008 are unknown.
  • Panels of external experts are regularly consulted but recommendations in 2009 seem not to have been taken into account by the Fisheries Research body.
  • Associated risk analyses for the stock assessments do not appear to be performed, nor uncertainty for the models evaluated. There is still lack of transparency in the stock assessment results and scientific advice on management of this stock.
  • Environmental impacts of the fishery are not fully understood.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 14 June 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press IMARPE to implement an appropriate, biologically-based target reference point in line with scientific advice.
  • Ask IMARPE to follow the recommendations from the 2014 FAO peer review*, especially with respect to timely publication and peer review of stock assessments.
  • Work with PRODUCE to develop and implement a strategy to reduce or eliminate IUU fishing.
  • Work with scientists to conduct research to increase knowledge on the environmental impacts of the fishery.

*http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_inf_final_auditoria_fao_a_imarpe_(may_14).pdf

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 6 January 2015

IMARPE, the marine research institute of Peru, is in charge of the assessment of Peruvian hake populations. Assessments are based on direct and indirect methods and process studies, and research is oriented towards the assessment of abundance, distribution and availability of resources and their relationship with their environment. Cohort analysis and VPA are used to assess the stock and a Thomson and Bell model is then employed to produce projections of short-term stock status (IMARPE, 2013b, 2014a).

Two annual survey cruises are conducted solely by IMARPE, and at least two complementary surveys are run with the help of the trawl fleets for verification purposes. IMARPE uses swept area and acoustic methods, and Virtual Population Analysis along with information from commercial fishing is used as the assessment model. In addition, Panels of International Experts are summoned from time to time to assess the stock and make further recommendations (CeDePesca, 2010). Stock assessments results are not regularly made available, however.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 6 January 2015

The results of IMARPE’s assessments and projections are the basis of the management system for Peruvian hake. As a complement, International Panels of Experts are summoned from time to time to give further advice on the fishery. The most recent panel took place in 2008 (IMARPE, 2009a).

In 2013, there was a transition in the management format, in which the fishing year will correspond to the ‘biological year’, i.e., from July to June next year. As in previous years, IMARPE has provided a decision table for the 2014/15 fishing season, based on various catch forecasts. Based on this table, IMARPE advised an exploitation rate of E=0.15, corresponding to expected catches of 54,359 tonnes (IMARPE, 2014b). Under this scenario, SSB is expected to increase by 19% in 2015 (IMARPE, 2014b). IMARPE’s 2015 assessment report could not be obtained but it reportedly advised that an exploitation rate between 0.15 and 0.18 be applied, given the evidence of a more balanced age structure (PRODUCE, 2015a).

For the Industrial fishing sector, IMARPE has recommended the implementation of square mesh in the trawl nets, in order to increase selectivity. The minimum size of 28 cm (as a provisional measure with the intent of implementing a gradual increase to 35cm as part of the recovery plan), as well as the juvenile bycatch limit (20%) and closed areas currently in place, were advised to be maintained (IMARPE, 2014b).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 6 January 2015

A Limit Reference Point for spawning biomass was defined as 100,000 tons by the 2008 Panel of Experts (IMARPE, 2009a), but the means of determining current levels are still under debate. No target spawning biomass level is yet defined.

Fishing mortality reference points F0.1=0.258 and Fmax=0.481 have been defined but neither is currently formally used as a target for the fishery (IMARPE, 2015a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Peruvian hake’s status has been associated with high uncertainty in recent years due to environmental variability and population changes in response to fishing pressure (IMARPE, 2012a). Spawning has been mainly sustained by specimens of ages 2 and 3, given the lack of older specimens, and 2011 spawning biomass (most recent estimates available) was well below its Limit Reference Point (100,000 tonnes), at 45,300 tonnes. Both 2013 and 2014 autumn surveys, have indicated that the stock condition has been improving since 2012, and assessment authors noted that the objective of recovering the stock by 20% – 30% since 2012 has been achieved. Total survey biomass in 2015 was estimated to be around 294,744 tonnes,  below the 2014 estimate of 400 thousand tonnes, but the 2015 age structure showed a more stable structure, including older age groups than in 2014, when age 2 individuals appeared to dominate the abundance (PRODUCE, 2015a; IMARPE, 2014a,b); however, no specific estimates of SSB against reference points were made available.

In the recent past, fishing mortality was at very high rates and the last available value, for 2007, was at 1.64, well above Fmax=0.48. No fishing mortality estimates have been made available in recent years.

TRENDS

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Both total and spawning biomass (SSB) have shown large oscillations throughout their time series as a result of environmental changes and of fishing intensity (IMARPE, 2012a), with SSB ranging from over 620,000 tonnes in 1978 to nearly 80,000 tonnes in 1983 back to over 450,000 tonnes in 1996. In 2002, SSB fell to historically low levels, below Blim of 100,000 tonnes, and has not recovered from the 28,000 – 45,000 tonnes level since then (IMARPE, 2011a). Other biological indicators show a decrease in mean size from ~43 cm at the start of the fishery’s exploitation to ~25 cm in recent years, an increase in natural mortality and lower reproductive success (IMARPE, 2011a).  Stock biomass has reportedly been increasing since 2012 (IMARPE, 2012b), but more recent estimatesof SSB have not been made publicly available.

In regards to Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE), both fleets exploiting the resource (coastal trawling ships and medium scale trawling ships) show the same trend: a steep decrease with a minimum in 2006, followed by a slight increase and stabilization for the period 2007-2009. Both fleets also show increases since 2011, thought to be due both to greater hake availability and to technological improvements (IMARPE, 2012a, 2013a).

A peak in the landings series of over 120,000 tonnes was recorded in 2001, corresponding to over-exploitation; then, in 2002, a sharp decline was observed due to the depletion of the stock and the fishery was closed in 2003. From 2005 to 2013, landings have stabilized around 30,000 tonnes. On the other hand, landings for the artisanal fleet have been strongly decreasing since 2000, presenting occasional and progressively smaller peaks in 2005 and 2007 (CeDePesca, 2010).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Government control of fisheries in Peru is exerted by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE), by means of its Vice-Ministry of Fisheries, both of which are informed and advised by the Peruvian marine research institute, IMARPE (PRODUCE, 2003). Many regulations and decrees apply specifically to the Peruvian hake fishery, establishing, for example, fishing periods, fishing areas, Total Allowable Catches (TAC) and Individual Fishing Quotas. Other management measures include minimum mesh sizes for trawl nets (90 mm), a minimum landing size of 28 cm, vessel monitoring systems (VMS), real-time closures of the fishery (if catches of juveniles exceed 20% of the total hake catch), a discard ban, and a closed season to protect the stock during spawning (PRODUCE, 2013a; IMARPE, 2014b). All management decisions published as Ministerial Resolutions are approved and signed by the Minister of Production. As of 2003, Peruvian hake’s fishery is managed in accordance with the Fishery Management Rules stated in Supreme Decree (D.S.) No. 016-2003-PRODUCE, modified later by D.S. No. 018-2006. These rules aim to reduce fishing effort so that recovery to sustainable levels is achieved in the medium-term via setting a TAC and defining the fishing season (PRODUCE, 2003).

Management of the industrial fishery is based on a system of non-transferable individual quotas. The TAC is set based on IMARPE’s assessment of the Peruvian hake stock, and participation percentages for each ship-owner are calculated by the Ministry of Production. According to the Ministry of Production, TACs are set in line with scientific advice. The artisanal fishing sector is not subject to a TAC, however (PRODUCE, 2014b), and there is some lack of transparency in the scientific advice process, as IMARPE’s reports are not regularly made public.

A 2012 decree (PRODUCE, 2012c) includes provisions for more adaptive management, allowing for real-time changes to the fishing season and TACs based on IMARPE’s recommendations, and requiring that uncertainty due to environmental variability be factored in. The 2012 TAC was subsequently increased mid-season from 14,723 tons to 25,800 tons upon reported advice from IMARPE (PRODUCE, 2012b), after having been increased from an earlier provisional 8,600 tons (PRODUCE, 2011a). From 2013 and upon IMARPE’s recommendation, TACs will be set by biological and not calendar year. An interim TAC of 13,748 tons was set for the first semester of 2013, corresponding to advised levels, after which the TAC will be set from July 1st to June 30th of the following year (PRODUCE, 2012d). The TAC for 2013/2014 was set at 38,957 t (PRODUCE, 2013a). Further in the fishing season an extra 5,000 tons were authorized (PRODUCE, 2014a), to be deducted from the 2014/2015 TAC – set at 47,129 tons (PRODUCE, 2014b) and in line with the scientific recommendation (IMARPE, 2014b).

Two seasonal closures have been established to protect the stock during spawning (PRODUCE, 2003, 2013b, 2014b), in accordance to IMARPE recommendations, one in August between 4°30’S to 6°00’S (PRODUCE, 2014c) and a second one in October from the northern border of Peruvian coast to 4°30’S (PRODUCE, 2014d).  In 2015 a spawning closure ran from September 26th to November 17th, from the northern extent of Peruvian waters down to 7ºS, with monitoring of the reproductive state of the stock determining both the closure and reopening (IMARPE, 2015; PRODUCE, 2015b; 2015c).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Peruvian hake is considered to be in a recovery phase, although the current stock status in not fully known. The current management rules, aiming to achieve recovery in the medium-term, include the setting of individual quotas, with no fleet increments or issuance of new permits, the enforcement of technical measures such as minimum mesh size and minimum landed fish size, real-time closures (based on the presence of juveniles), discard ban, seasonal closures and permanently closed areas (PRODUCE, 2003, 2014b).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 6 January 2015

In regards to fishers’ compliance with set TACs, in 2003 and 2004 landings surpassed the quota, negatively affecting Peruvian hake during a very vulnerable period. Since then landings have generally been below the set TAC (with the exception of the first semester of 2013). A system of fines and sanctions is in place for infractions and this has been strengthened by new regulations (PRODUCE, 2012c).In addition, PRODUCE has recently developed a surveillance plan to improve inspection efficacy, e.g. intensify controls in transportation vehicles from port to processing plants (PRODUCE, 2014e) to dissuade the small fraction of the fleet that is known to still be engaging in IUU fishing activities.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 6 January 2015

No significant direct effects are known on PET species, but available information is very scarce. Interactions with several species of seabirds (e.g., waved albatross Phoebastria irrorata, IUCN red List: Critically Endangered; BirdLife International, 2014) are known to occur in the artisanal demersal longline fisheries for hake (Mangel, 2012), but no estimates on seabird bycatch mortality are available for Peru (IMARPE, 2014c). Interactions with sea turtles are considered low in the Peruvian trawl; Green turtle (IUCN red List: Endangered; Seminoff, 2004) was the only species reported to be captured by this fishery (Sara, 2011).

In terms of indirect effects of the fishery, one threat posed by hake removals would consist of reduction of food availability (CeDePesca, 2010). PET species known to feed on Peruvian hake are black porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis (IUCN red List: Data Deficient; Hammond et al., 2012) and bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (IUCN red List: Least Concern; Hammond et al., 2012).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Peruvian hake’s Fishery Management Rules contain a list of other target and bycatch species related to Peruvian hake, which are only allowed to be used for direct human consumption. Among these are groupers (Epinephelus spp.), flounders (Hippoglossina spp.), fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus), eagle rays (Myliobatis spp.) and sand-skates (Psammobatis spp.) (PRODUCE, 2003; CeDePesca, 2010). The main bycatch species in the fishery are lumptail searobin (Prionotus stephanophrys), groupers (Epinephelus spp.), humpback smooth-hound (Mustelus whitneyi), Peruvian weakfish (Cynoscion analis), Peruvian rock seabass (Paralabrax humeralis), southern rock bass (P. callaensis), fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus), bigeye flounder (Hippoglossina macrops), Peruvian banded croaker (Paralonchurus peruanus) and black cusk-eel (Genypterus maculatus) (Salas, 2012). . The industrial trawl fleet’s bycatch early in the 2015/2016 season included lumptail searobin, drums Larimus sp. and Ctenosciaena peruviana and spottedtail angler (Lophiodes caulinaris) besides 84.1% hake (PRODUCE, 2015b). In the first semester of 2013, industrial catches were composed of 97.5% hake, and the main bycatch species included Lumptail searobin (0.3%), Bigeye flounder (0.2%), Shorthead lizardfish Synodus scituliceps (0.2%), and Paco box crab Platymera gaudichaudii (0.2%) (IMARPE, 2013a). Of these, IUCN define humpback smoothhound as Vulnerable, and Pacific Goliath grouper (Epinephelus quinquefasciatus), Peruvian rock seabass and Southern rock seabass as Data deficient (IUCN, 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 6 January 2015

Peruvian hake, Merluccius gayi peruanus, is a benthic-demersal species which inhabits continental platform waters between 0 and 600 m of depth. Its distribution is seasonal and highly affected by climatic events and is also linked to the stage of its life-cycle, leading to a size/area stratification. Spawning is also affected by climatic factors, whether seasonal or occasional – as demonstrated by El Niño events.

The industrial fleet uses bottom trawling, which can have considerable negative effects on benthic habitats, particularly in hard-substrate sessile communities such as corals and sponges (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003; Althaus et al., 1999). No specific research is known to have been conducted on the potential impacts of this specific fishery, however.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 11 December 2014

There is only one marine reserve in Peru, the Paracas Marine Reserve, located in the province of Pisco, department of Ica. It was created in 1975, covering over 335,000 hectares (217,594 of which correspond to sea waters) in order to protect wildlife, especially seabirds, but its effects on the Peruvian hake population are not known (CeDePesca, 2010).

In terms of the Peruvian hake fishery, all trawling fishing operations are prohibited within 5 nm (10 nm for factory trawlers) from the shore, south of parallel 6°S (PRODUCE, 2014b). In addition, all hake fisheries are restricted within 8 nm from the shore of Islas Lobos de Tierra and Lobos de Afuera, in order to protect the species’ main growth and recruitment areas.

Seasonal closures may be established to protect the stock during spawning, in accordance to IMARPE recommendations (PRODUCE, 2003, 2013b, 2014b) through monitoring the reproductive status of females in catches. In 2015, a closure was established between September and November (PRODUCE, 2015b, c). In 2014, two closures were established, one in August between 4°30’S to 6°S (PRODUCE, 2014c) and a second one in October from the northern border of Peruvian coast to 4°30’S (PRODUCE, 2014d). Closures last until monitoring by IMARPE indicate that the reproductive peak ended (PRODUCE, 2014d; 2015).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Several recovery measures have been adopted, but no harvest control rule is used to set catch limits or reduce fishing mortality and no clear management objectives are known to be in place.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 47.1 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 54.4 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 86.7%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Reported landings have generally been below the set TACs, although 2014 values are not available. Despite not officially being recognized as a major problem, IUU fishing activities are known to still be taking place in a small fraction of the fishery.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

According to IMARPE’s recent assessments, the stock condition has been improving in recent years. Total survey biomass in 2015 was estimated at around 295 thousand tons (PRODUCE, 2015a), below the ~400 thousand tonnes estimated in 2014 (IMARPE, 2014a, b) but close to the 276 thousand tonnes in 2013 (IMARPE, 2013a). The 2015 survey indicated a more balanced age structure in the population than had been detected in previous years, considered to be a positive sign (PRODUCE, 2015a).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Fishing mortality levels are not made public and no management target is known to be in use. In the past, fishing mortality was at very high rates and the last available estimate, for 2007, was at 1.64, well above potential biological targets Fmax=0.48 and F0.1=0.26 (IMARPE, 2009a).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. A data series for fishing mortality (F) is only available up to 2007, and no target fishing mortality is defined (the datasheet shows the 2011 estimate of Fmax, one of the F points used by IMARPE in their advice). Score #5 has thus been determined qualitatively, as has score #1 due to the lack of a F harvest control rule.
  2. Advised TACs, set TACs and catch for 2013 refer only to the first semester of the year, due to a transition in management format. Accordingly, the advised and set TACs for 2014 in the scores datasheet refer to the fishing season from July 2013 to June 2014.
  3. Score #3 has also been determined qualitatively, based on the lack of recent landings and the presence of some IUU fishing.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to CeDePesca for contributing to the development of this profile.

  1. Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T., Kloser, R., Green, M., Barker, B., Bax, N., Brodie, P. and Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M., 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397: 279-294.http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m397p279.pdf
  2. BirdLife International 2014. Phoebastria irrorata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Downloaded on 08 August 2014.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  3. CeDePesca, 2010. Merluza peruana Merluccius gayi peruanus - Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca). (In Spanish.) http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/merluza_peruana_Informe_CeDePesca_Septiembre_2010.pdf
  4. Cetacean Specialist Group. Phocoena spinipinnis (1996). 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed on May 6th 2008 at URL:http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/17029/summ
  5. Cetacean Specialist Group. Tursiops truncatus (1996). 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed on May 6th 2008 at URL:http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/22563/summ
  6. Chuenpagdee, R., Morgan, L.E., Maxwell, S.M., Norse, E.A. and Pauly, D., 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 10: 517-524.http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295%282003%29001%5B0517:SGACIO%5D2.0.CO%3B2
  7. FIS, 2010. Perú: Fijan cuota de merluza para 2010.http://fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=3-2010&day=4&id=35747&l=s&country=0&special=&ndb=1&df=0
  8. Gestion, 2009. El diario de economía y negocios del Perú. La cuota de captura de merluza será de 40,000 toneladas el 2010. News article. 25 December 2009. (In Spanish.)http://gestion.pe/noticia/385981/cuota-captura-merluza-40000-toneladas-2010
  9. Guevara-Carrasco, R., Lleonart, J. 2008. Dynamics and Fishery of the Peruvian Hake: Between Nature and Man. Journal of Marine Systems 71, no. 3–4, 11 pp. http://www.icm.csic.es/rec/lleonart/Scientific%20papers/J.Mar.Sys_71_249_259_2008.pdf
  10. Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. 2012a. Phocoena spinipinnis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 30 January 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17029/0
  11. Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. 2012b. Tursiops truncatus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 30 January 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22563/0
  12. Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. 2012. Tursiops truncatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Downloaded on 08 August 2014.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  13. IMARPE, 2009a. Informe del III Panel Internacional de Expertos de Evaluación de merluza peruana Merluccius gayi peruanus: Manejo precautorio de la merluza peruana. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 60 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/terce_panel_merlu_mar09.pdf
  14. IMARPE, 2009b. Nota informativa mensual de la pesqueria de merluza noviembre 2009. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_not_inf_merlu_nov09.pdf
  15. IMARPE, 2010. Resultados principales del POI – PTI - Anual 2010. 1. Seguimiento de Pesquerias y Evaluacion de Recursos Pesqueros. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 175 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_eval_anual_resu_2010.pdf
  16. IMARPE, 2011a. Estado de la población Propuesta de manejo de la merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus) a diciembre del 2011 y diferentes propuestas de manejo. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 6 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sfpcms.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2012/03/08/Propuestas%20de%20manejo%20merluza-984d583c.pdf
  17. IMARPE, 2011b. Nota informativa mensual de la pesqueria de merluza diciembre 2011. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_not_inf_merlu_diciembre11.pdf
  18. IMARPE, 2012a. Pesquer¡a de la Merluza Durante el 2012 y Recomendaciones para Su Manejo Pesquero en el 2013. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 11 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/reportes/imarpe_not_inf_merlu_dicie12.pdf
  19. IMARPE, 2012. Informe Final Crucero de Evaluación de Merluza y Otros Demersales en el Otoño del 2012. Cr1205-06 BIC José Olaya Balandra. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 17 pp. (In Spanish.)Informe_final_Cruceros_de_evaluacion_Merluza_-_Oto_o_2012.pdf
  20. IMARPE, 2013a. Situación actual de la poblacion de la merluza peruana (merluccius gay peruanus) y perspectivas de explotación durante Julio 2013- Junio 2014. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 14 pp. (In Spanish.)of.PCD.100-346-2013-PRODUCE-IMP_21.06.2013__1_.pdf
  21. IMARPE, 2013b. Tabla de Valores con Puntos de Referencia Biológicos y Limites de la merluza peruana (Merfuccius gayi peruanus) para el periodo Julio 2013 - Junio 2014. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). 2 pp. (In Spanish.)Oficio_PC-300-353-2013-PRODUCE-IMP_26.06.2013.pdf
  22. IMARPE, 2014a. Crucero de evaluación de merluza y otros demersales en el Otoño del 2014. Informe Ejecutivo. Cr1205-06 BIC Humboldt. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). June 2014. Callao, Perú. 83 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/inf_crmerlu_2014_humbo.pdf
  23. IMARPE, 2014b. Situación actual de la poblacion de la merluza peruana (Merluccius gay peruanus) y perspectivas de explotación durante Julio 2014- Junio 2015. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 7 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/stuac_merlu_jul14_jun15.pdf
  24. IMARPE, 2014c. Mortandad de aves marinas en las playas del litoral”. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). June 2014. Callao, Perú. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/np_mortandad_aves.pdf
  25. IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  26. Mangel, J.C., 2012. Interactions of Peruvian small scale fisheries with threatened marine vertebrate species. PhD Thesis, University of Exeter. 169.https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/3483/MangelJ.pdf?sequence=1
  27. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2003. DECRETO SUPREMO Nº 016-2003-PRODUCE. Aprueban Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Recurso Merluza. 11 pp. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/per66045.doc
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  38. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2008b. Decreto Supremo N° 016-2008-PRODUCE. 15 August 2008. Accessed on July 5th 2009. (In Spanish.)http://www.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2008/ds016-2008-produce.pdf
  39. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2008c. Resolución Ministerial Nº 874-2008-PRODUCE. 30 December 2008. Accessed on July 3rd, 2008. (In Spanish.)http://www.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2008/diciembre/rm874-2008-produce.pdf
  40. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009a. Resolución Ministerial Nº 196-2009-PRODUCE. 05 May 2009. 14 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2009/intranet_sg/resoluciones/rMinisteriales/29713.pdf
  41. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009b. Resolución Ministerial Nº 338-2009-PRODUCE. 17 August 2009. 5 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2009/agosto/rm338-2009-produce.pdf
  42. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009c. Resolución Ministerial Nº 145-2009-PRODUCE. 02 April 2009. 24 pp. (In http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2009/intranet_sg/resoluciones/rMinisteriales/28868.pdf
  43. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009d. Resolución Ministerial Nº 377-2009-PRODUCE. 9 September 2009. 2 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.asesorempresarial.com/web/adjuntos-sumilla/2009-09-09_YZJHQXY.pdf
  44. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009e. Resolución Ministerial Nº 017-2009-PRODUCE. 14 January 2009. Accessed on July 3rd, 2008. (In Spanish.)http://www.produce.gob.pe/portal/portal/apsportalproduce/dispositivoslegalespopup?id=15569&codigo=10
  45. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009f. Resolución Ministerial Nº 047-2009-PRODUCE. 30 January 2009. Accessed on July 3rd, 2008. (In Spanish.)http://www.produce.gob.pe/portal/portal/apsportalproduce/dispositivoslegalespopup?id=15767&codigo=10
  46. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2009g. Resolución Ministerial Nº 109-2009-PRODUCE. 6 March 2009. Accessed on July 3rd, 2008. (In Spanish.)http://www.produce.gob.pe/portal/portal/apsportalproduce/dispositivoslegalespopup?id=16033&codigo=10
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  52. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2012d. Resolución Ministerial N° 549-2012-PRODUCE Establecen Régimen Provisional de Pesca del Recurso Merluza correspondiente al primer semestre del año 2013 y autorizan actividad extractiva. (In Spanish.)http://elperuanolegal.blogspot.pt/2012/12/resolucion-ministerial-n-549-2012.html?m=0
  53. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2013a. Resolución Ministerial No. 220-2013-PRODUCE: Estabelecen Régimen Provisional de Pesca del Recurso Merluza Julio 2013 – Junio 2014 y Limite Máximo de Captura Total Permissible (LMCTP). 26 June 2013. 4 pp.http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/per125437.pdf
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Additional references:
  1. Aliaga A., Salazar C.M., Ganoza F. 2007. Aplicación de técnicas acústica en la evaluación de la merluza (Merluccius gayi peruanus) 2002-2006. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  2. Balandra, J. O., 2012. Informe final Cruceros de evaluación de merluza y otros demersales en el Otoño del 2012, Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE), June 2012, 17 pp. (In Spanish.)
  3. Benites, C., undated. Personal Communication/Chief of the Cruiser Campaign 07-0102. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  4. Benites, C. 2008. Actualidad y Proyecciones de la merluza y de otras especies en la Región Piura. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  5. Caccha, L. 2009. Aspectos biológico-pesqueros de la merluza (Merluccius gayi peruanus). Powerpoint presentation. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  6. Castillo R., Sáname M. & Fernández F., 2001. Forum La merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus): Distribución y Estructura poblacional de la merluza peruana. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  7. Castro J., Lassen H. & Lleonart J. 2003. Informe del Panel Internacional de Expertos “Evaluación de la Merluza Peruana”. IMARPE.
  8. Espino M., Sáname M. & Castillo R., 2001. Forum La merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus): biología y pesquería. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  9. Fernández, F. 2009. La merluza peruana, investigación y manejo. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  10. IMARPE, 2007. Informe Ejecutivo. Crucero de evaluación de la merluza y otros recursos demersales en el verano 2007. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  11. IMARPE, 2008a. Informe Ejecutivo: Crucero de investigación multidisciplinario asociado a los recursos demersales en el verano del 2008 (Cr0801-02). . Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). February 2008.
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  13. IMARPE, 2008b. Informe Ejecutivo: Crucero de evaluación de merluza y otros demersales en el otoño del 2008 (Cr0805-06). Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). June 2008. (In Spanish.)
  14. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE), 2007i. Resolución Ministerial No. 005-2007-PRODUCE: Amplió hasta el 31 de marzo de 2007, el área de pesca del recurso merluza hasta el paralelo 07° 00’ 00’’ Latitud Sur. 10 January 2007. (In Spanish.)
  15. Morón O., Vásquez L. & Tello E. 2001. Forum La merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus): La Extensión Sur de la Corriente de Cromwell (ESCC) en el mar del Perú. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  16. Palacios J., Barriga E., Rodríguez F., Fernández F. & Medina A. 2007. Caracterización de la Pesca Artesanal de la merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus) 1997-2005. Conferencia en el X Congreso de Ingeniería Pesquera. (In Spanish.)
  17. Sáname M., Ayon P. & Rodríguez F., 2001. Forum la merluza peruana (Merluccius gayi peruanus): Reproducción de la merluza peruana. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE). (In Spanish.)
  18. Wosnitza-Mendo C., Guevara-Carrasco R. & Ballón M. 2004. Causas posibles de la drástica disminución de la longitud media de la merluza peruana en 1992. Bol. Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE), 21 (1-2): 1-26. (In Spanish.)
References

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