Last updated on 3 August 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Panulirus argus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Caribbean spiny lobster

The complete stock structure of the Caribbean spiny lobster is not fully understood. Silberman et al. (1994) concluded that there is single genetic stock throughout its entire distribution area, however, a recent review of oceanographic and genetic available data indicates that Brazilian populations are characterized by a considerable degree of self-recruitment, and are assessed independently of the Caribbean populations (Andrade, 2015). Larval connectivity in the Caribbean has been described by (Kough et al. 2013): larval exchanges transcend international boundaries, nonetheless, self-recruitment of lobsters dominates larval recruitment in the Bahamas, Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela; while the Cayman Islands, Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica, Panama, and Puerto Rico lobter populations depend largely on larval subsidies from outside their borders. 

This profile considers the Caribbean lobster meta-population, and includes assessments conducted at national level, when available. The assessment unit and supposed stock along the Northern Brazilian coast is considered separately in the Northern SW Atlantic profile. 


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • There have been improvements in knowledge about larval dispersal and populations connectivity.
  • There have been improvements at regional level, such as the establishment of recent working groups on Fisheries Data and Statistics and on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing.
  • Stocks in 2014 were considered in better condition. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6 to ≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6 to 10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6 to 7.6


FIPS

  • Honduras Caribbean spiny lobster - trap:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

  • Mexico Quintana Roo spiny lobster - casita:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

  • Nicaragua Caribbean spiny lobster - trap:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Bahamian Spiny Lobster Fishery:

    MSC Certified

  • Sian Ka'an and Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserves spiny lobster:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western Central Atlantic Bahamas Bahamas Hand implements
Traps
Cuba Cuba Hand implements
Traps
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Hand implements
Traps
Honduras Honduras Pots
Mexico Yucatan Peninsula Mexico Diving
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hand implements
Traps
Nicaragua Nicaragua Traps
United States United States Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 August 2018

Strengths
  • There have been improvements in knowledge about larval dispersal and populations connectivity.
  • There have been improvements at regional level, such as the establishment of recent working groups on Fisheries Data and Statistics and on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing.
  • Stocks in 2014 were considered in better condition. 
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Conduct specific research on the biology of the species and the population, and conduct regular stock assessments to serve as the basis for the development of biological reference points for management purposes.
  • Ensure the continuous implementation of a harvest monitoring program to improve data inputs of catches and impacts of the lobster fishery upon coral reef habitats and ecosystems.
  • Make stock assessment and research outcomes publicly available in a transparent and timely manner.
  • Ensure implementation of measures included in the national management plan. A report on progress of management measure implementation should be conducted and made publicly available to foster compliance and transparency.
  • Strengthen the monitoring and control mechanism, with special emphasis on local community inspection and surveillance.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start or join an existing fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
  • Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 3 August 2018

The first meeting of the WECAFC Regional Fisheries Data and Statistics Working Group was held in May 2018 (FAO 2018).

Last updated on 3 August 2018

Stock assessment reports conducted for lobster in Bahamian waters are not publicly available. Information presented here comes from reports summarizing stock assessment results (DMR 2016)(Gascoigne et al. 2018). Since 2016, stock assessment is conducted applying an age-structured model. Input data include: three CPUE time series (monthly, August 1988-December 2016); total annual catch, 1957-1988; monthly catch by size category, 1996-2016; size, sex and maturity sampling data; a growth sub-model based on available data on a meta-analysis of spiny lobster age and growth; and estimates of natural mortality, female maturity and length-weight conversions, based on the data or the literature. The model infers stock biomass from catch and recruit information. 

Uncertainties derive from uncertainty in the CPUE abundance indices: until 2010, the only CPUE index available came from trip interviews, this method was replaced in 2010 by a system whereby processors collect catch and effort data from fishers and report it to the managers. These indices are inconsistent, the new index being much higher than the old one, what can be interpreted, either as: i) a consequence of different mean catchability across the trips reported in the two indices or ii) there has been an increase in recruitment at the same point as the indices change over. Two different model cases were run, considering these two different assumptions. Despite a marked difference in spawning stock biomass (SSB) between cases in the assessment, there was little difference in recruitment between the 2 cases and it was estimated to be at an average level over the time series, and weakly related to SSB.

Not all fishery removals from the Bahamian lobster population are included in the assessment model. Estimates of unreported local and foreign IUU catch of spiny lobster in The Bahamas is still needed (Gascoigne et al. 2018)

Last updated on 1 April 2018

There are two published stock assessments, from 2009 and 2012. A dynamic, non-linear, age-structured model was built to assess the lobster population (Panulirus argus). Catch, catch per unit of effort and individual mean weight time-series were used; natural mortality estimates and growth parameters of other fisheries were utilized for the parameterization of the model. Population size and exploitation rate for each fishing season were estimated and their dynamics given different management scenarios was analyzed. The assessment was made considering fishing zones and information available in each, and based on these factors, the area was divided into two zones: the Yucatan Platform and the North-Northeast Zone of Quintana Roo. In the first one, there are catch series (1976 - 2010), CPUE (catch per unit of effort) (1989 - 2010) and average weight (1987 - 2010) and a dynamic non-linear model structured by age was used. F or Quintana Roo, there is available a catch series (1982 - 2009) and CPUE (1994 - 2009), and a dynamic biomass model was used (Ríos-Lara et al. 2012).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Assessment and monitoring of the fishery indicate that the fishery is fully developed and the recommendation in recent years has been not to increase fishing effort in any of the fishing areas of Yucatan Peninsula. Maintainance of fishing effort is crucial to ensure renewal of the stock (DOF 2010)(DOF 2012)

In the lobster management plan, these recommendations to obtain an increase in biomass were included: a) respect for the minimum size, b) modification to the seasonal closure, and c) decrease use of traps (DOF 2014).

Reference Points

Last updated on 01 Apr 2018

In Yucatan, maximum sustainable yield of 495 tonnes of lobster tail and an exploitation rate of 0.40 have been used as reference points, while in Quintana Roo, the resource indicator used is the maximum tails caugth in the last ten years.  In 2012, this index was around 78% (517 tonnes / tails) (DOF 2012), based on the study from (Ríos-Lara et al. 2012). However, these reference points were not adopted, and research on alternative options was included as an action in the management plan (DOF 2014).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 3 August 2018

The first meeting of the OSPESCA/WECAFC/CRFM/CFMC Working Group on Caribbean Spiny Lobster, which was held in October 2014. The working group estimated in based on the best available information that the spiny lobster populations of in Anguilla, Antigua and Belize, Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico and Nicaragua are fully fished or stable; while stock status is unknown in Brazil, Caribbean Netherlands, Dominican Republic, France, honduras, Panama and United States. No local population is considered overfished (FAO 2015)

The 2nd meeting of the working group was scheduled for February 2018, but the meeting report is not publicly available yet .

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Last assessment in the Yucatan platform estimated an average vulnerable biomass for the period 2001-2010 of 1,145 tonnes of live lobster (~ 382 tonnes of tails) and for 2010, biomass was estimated at 1,410 tonnes (470 tonnes of tails); the average exploitation rate for the same period was F = 0.44 and for the year 2010 it was F = 0.39 (Ríos-Lara et al. 2012)

In the Yucatan platform, a sharp decreased in exploitation rate was observed from 2004 to 2009, after a a period of heavy exploitation. Vulnerable or fishable biomass (biomass available to the fishery at the beginning of each fishing season, taking into account management restrictions) shows a gradual increase from 2008 to 2010 (DOF 2014). This suggests that the population could be exploited at its maximum yield, and the fishery could be at risk in some fishing areas (DOF 2014).  

Trends

Last updated on 01 Apr 2018

The Caribbean region is considered the largest producer of spiny lobster in the world (~30,000 tonnes). According to FAO data until 2015, the main producer countries in the Caribbean region are the Bahamas (8,150 tonnes), Brazil (6,900 tonnes) and Cuba (6,240 tonnes). Mexico occupies the 8th place with an average catch of 700 tonnes (FAO 2017). Approximately 50% of the production is fished in Yucatan and the other 50% in Quintana Roo (DOF 2012).

An increasing trend in exploitation rate was observed from 1975 to early 2000's in Yucatan, a sharp decreased followed, from 2004 to 2009. Since then, a more stable period with exploitation rates around 0.4 has been reported. Vulnerable or fishable biomass (biomass available to the fishery at the beginning of each fishing season, taking into account management restrictions) shows a gradual decrease untiil 2005, and an increase from 2005 to 2010 (DOF 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 1 April 2018

The NOM-006-PESC-1993 (DOF 12/31/93) and its 4 published modifications were fully adopted in the management plan (DOF 2014), establishing the following regulations:

  • Lobster fishing can be done using traps that allow the remotion of living organisms and return smaller specimens, according to the established minimum fishing size and eagg-bearing females. In areas of federal jurisdiction of Quintana Roo and Yucatan, lobster fishing can be done by free diving or "apnea", autonomous diving with "scuba", diving with "hookah" and "casitas", being able to use hooks as complementary instruments. Any other equipment and / or fishing method requires authorization from SAGARPA-CONAPESCA.
  • Minimum fishing size for the Caribbean lobster (Panulirus argus) is 74.6 mm cephalothoracic length, equivalent to 223 mm total length.
  • Temporary closure in federal jurisdiction waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea that border the coastlines Yucatan and Quintana Roo, are defined from March 1 to June 30.
Recovery Plans

Last updated on 01 Apr 2018

There are no records of a recovery plan, further than the management measures that already exist (DOF 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 3 August 2018

The First meeting of the Regional Working Group on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing (RWG-IUU) was held in March 2017. It is a joint working group of the Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission (WECAFC), the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), and Organization for Fisheries and Aquaculture of Central America (OSPESCA). This first meeting contributed to: 1) increasing awareness and understanding of the IUU fishing problem in the Caribbean region; and 2) increasing capacity for a more effective collaboration in preventing, deterring and eliminating IUU fishing in the Caribbean region. The meeting also finalized and agreed on a work plan for the 2017–2018 RWG-IUU period, which includes the development of a draft regional plan of action to combat IUU fishing (RPOA-IUU), however it is not publicly available yet (FAO 2018).

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Since 1998, year in which minimum landing size was established, percentage of landed lobster below the minimum legal size decreased in all areas, indicating that there is a growing level of compliance by fishermen (Ríos-Lara et al. 2012). However, compliance with regulations is generally self-enforced by members of local cooperatives (Seafood Watch 2012), and there are records of undersized lobster catches, depending on the area (DOF 2014)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 1 April 2018

There are protected corals in the area where the fishery operates, see more information in Habitat section.

Mexico
Traps

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus), which has been classified as “vulnerable” by the IUCN (IUCN 2009) are caught by traps targeting lobster (DOF 2014).

Gillnets and entangling nets

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus), which has been classified as “vulnerable” by the IUCN (IUCN 2009) are caught by nets fishing lobster (DOF 2014).

Other Species

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Although the target species in all Mexican Caribbean lobster fishery is Panulirus argus, there are also records of P. guttatus in Quintana Roo and Alacranes reef. There are small captures of P. laevicauda in Quintana Roo, but these catches are not being recorded (Ríos-Lara et al. 2012). There is no updated information on bycatch species.

Mexico
Traps

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Traps have similar bycatch species as nets.

Hand implements

Last updated on 1 April 2018

The Caribbean spiny lobster fishery in Yucatan peninsula carried out inside Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), is a free-dive and hand-harvest fishery with the use of casitas for lobster shelter. Even in the areas in which casitas are used, animals move freely and are still harvested by hand with the use of nets and/or hooks. Thus, this fishery is extremely selective and results in very little incidental catch. Occasionally, fishermen may capture stone crab species for domestic consumption (Seafood Watch 2012).

Gillnets and entangling nets

Last updated on 1 April 2018

Outside MPAs, fishing nets are used also to fish lobster and significant volumes of other species with commercial value are caught as bycatch and retained, such as groupers (Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca microlepis and M. bonaci); snappers (Lutjanus sp.) and Hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus), which has been classified as “vulnerable” by the IUCN (IUCN 2009). In smaller volumes, Porgies (Calamus spp., mojarra) and Mexican four-eyed octopus (Octopus maya) are also caught. Bycatch species represent between 30% to 90% of total catch depending on the month and fishing zone (DOF 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 1 April 2018

In Mexico, spiny lobster’s fishery is either via trap or through hand diving with the use of casitas as shelters. Spiny lobster is generally found on rocky substrates and reefs, or wherever protection and shelter can be found. As such, traps and casitas are deployed in a variety of habitats including sandy bottoms, seagrass beds, and rocky reefs. Traps and casitas result in some damage to the benthic habitat, where protected corals are found, such as black corals (Antiphates bichitoea, A. grandis, A. ulex), elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), black sea rod coral (Plexaura homomalla) and double-forked sea rod (Plexaura dichotoma). Mexico has regulations protecting important ecological areas as part of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Programme. Impacts from traps and casitas are considered moderate.

Ongoing monitoring projects (Healthy Reefs Initiative, Oceanus, CONANP) in the reserves of Sian Ka’an and Banco Chinchorro collect sufficient information to demonstrate that the effects of (lobster) fishing upon coral reef habitats do not represent a significant risk (MRAG 2012). But in areas that do not belong to marine protected areas in which this fishery takes place, the potential effects on different types of corals are unknown.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 01 Apr 2018

In the Mexican Caribbean coast there are several Marine Protected Areas – 11 National Parks and one State Reserve cover 45% of the territorial sea of Quintana Roo. However, the total area protected from all fishing activities is relatively small (4% of the territorial sea). Another 1.2% is restricted to single species fishing. Working closely with fishers, priority areas for conservation were established in 2011 and 2012. With the establishment of 14 fish refuges in 2012, 2013 and 2015 an area of 154 km2 of the southern coastal waters of Quintana Roo have been brought under protection from fishing.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 3 August 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Improvements at regional level are being implemented, such as the establishment of recent working groups on Fisheries Data and Statistics and on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing, in addition to the working group on the Caribbean Spiny Lobster fishery (FAO, 2018a,b)..

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers in most countries follow scientific advice of harvest levels if available (FAO, 2006)

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

It is estimated that in the Wider Caribbean and Western Central Atlantic region, IUU fishing equates to 20–30 percent of the legitimate landings of fish. Improvements at regional level are being implemented, such as the establishment of recent working groups on Fisheries Data and Statistics and on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing (FAO, 2018a,b).

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fully fished or stable in Anguilla, Antigua and Belize, Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico and Nicaragua; unknown in Brazil, Caribbean Netherlands, Dominican Republic, France, honduras, Panama and United States. No local population is considered overfished (FAO, 2015).

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Fully fished or stable in Anguilla, Antigua and Belize, Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico and Nicaragua; unknown in Brazil, Caribbean Netherlands, Dominican Republic, France, Honduras, Panama and United States. No local population is considered overfished.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Total catches except for Brazilian catches, as stock from Brazil is considered to be not connected to the Caribbean metapopulation (FAO 2018).

Last updated on 3 August 2018

  1. Vulnerable biomass and exploitation rate from 1965 to 2010, belong to the Yucatan region only (DOF 2014).
  2. Landings are sum of Quintana Roo and Yucatan regions (CONAPESCA 2015).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Jul 2012
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP progress rating remains at A. Stage 4 results within past 12 months.

 

 

1.
FIP Development
Sep 11
2.
FIP Launch
Jun 11
Jun 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Mar 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Dec 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Apr 16
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Bahamian Spiny Lobster Fishery

STATUS

MSC Certified on 7 August 2018

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Free diving   Traps     
Principle 1 – Target Species 83.3
Principle 2 – Ecosystem 88.0 84.7
Principle 3 – Management System 82.7

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to Comunidad y Biodiversidad, A.C. for contributing to the development of the Mexican fishery profile.

 
  1. Andrade, H.A. 2015. Stock assessment of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) caught in the tropical southwestern Atlantic. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 43(1). 14 pp. http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v43n1/art17.pdf
  2. CEDRSSA, 2005. La pesca ilegal de langosta y caracol rosado en el estado de Quintana Roo: REPORTE. Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Rural Sustentable y la Soberanía Alimentaria (CEDRSSA). No. CEDRSSA/DSANR/IR/008/05. August 2005. 6 pp.http://www.cedrssa.gob.mx/includes/asp/download.asp?iddocumento=28&idurl=23
  3. CONAPESCA, 2005. Programa maestro del sistema producto de la pesqueria de langosta en Yucatán. Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca (CONAPESCA). Yucatán, Mexico. 114 pp.http://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx/work/sites/cona/resources/PDFContent/5715/Programa_Maestro_Langosta_Yucatan.pdf
  4. CONAPESCA-SAGARPA, 2010. Anuario Estadístico de Acuacultura y Pesca. Edición 2010. Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. Sinaloa, México. 288 pp.http://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx/work/sites/cona/resources/PDFContent/9269/Anuario_estadistico2010_151211.pdf
  5. Dowdell, N.R., 2010. Cooperativas pesqueras de Sian Ka’an y Banco Chinchorro, ejemplo de pesca sustentable. Parte 1. Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP). 4 pp.http://entorno.conanp.gob.mx/pdf/reportaje/1.pdf
  6. FAO/Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission. Report on the FAO/DANIDA/CFRAMP/WECAFC Regional Workshops on the Assessment of the Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus). Belize City, Belize, 21 April-2 May 1997 and Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, 1-12 June 1998. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 619. Rome, FAO. 2001. 381p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/x9186e/x9186e00.pdf
  7. FAO, 2006. Western Atlantic Central Fishery Commision. Report of the Fifth regional workshop on the assessment and management of the Caribbean spiny lobster. FAO Fisheries Report No. 826. 19–29 September 2006. Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. 109 pp.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1518b/a1518b00.pdf
  8. García Rivas, M.C, Hernández, A., Domínguez, J., Fonseca, F., García, G., Guerrero, G., Gallegos, E. , Ley, K., Muñoz, G., Priego, R., Ríos, G., L., Rodríguez and Vega, A., 2009. Manejo pesquero en la Reserva de la Biosfera Banco, Chinchorro Quintana Roo, Ejemplo De Desarrollo Sustentable En Sistemas Insulares. In: Encuentro Nacional para la Conservación y Desarrollo Sustentable de las Islas de México, Junio 2009 2009 Ensenada B.C., México. 44 pp.http://www.ine.gob.mx/descargas/islas/53_pres.pdf
  9. Gittens L. and M. Haughton. A regional overview of Spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) resources in CARICOM / CARIFORUM Countries. 20p.http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=2Rg3zsjjELw%3D&tabid=85
  10. INAPESCA, 2010. Carta Nacional Pesquera 2010. INAPESCA. December 2010. 319 pp.http://www.inapesca.gob.mx/portal/documentos/cartaNacionalPesquera2010.pdf
  11. Muller, R.G., Sharp, W.C., Matthews, T.R., Bertelsen, R., Hunt, J.H. 2000. The 2000 update of the stock assessment for spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the Florida Keys, Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute, 20 p.http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/2000%20spiny_lobster%20stock%20assessment.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  12. Saul, S. 2004. A Review of the Literature and Life History Study of the Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Panulirus argus. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Caribbean Southeast Data Assessment Review Workshop Report SEDAR-DW-05, Sustainable Fisheries Division Contribution No. SFD-2004-048, Preliminary Draft, 13 p.http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S8DW_05.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  13. Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca, 1998. Resolucion por la que se modifica la Norma Oficial Mexicana 006-PESC-1993, para regular el aprovechamiento de todas las especies de langosta en las aguas de Jurisdiccion Federal del Golfo de Mexico y Mar Caribe, asi como del oceano Pacifico incluyendo el Golfo de California. Diario Oficial, August 11, 1998. 2 pp.http://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx/work/sites/cona/resources/LocalContent/8739/6/006pesc1993LANGOSTARESOLUCION98.pdf
  14. Seafood Watch. 2005. Seafood Report Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus): United States, Brazil, Bahamas. Monterey Bay Aquariumhttp://www.seachoice.org/files/assessment/report/103/MBA_SeafoodWatch_CarribbeanSpinyLobsterReport.pdf
  15. Silberman, J.D., Sarver, S.K., Walsh, P. J. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA variation and population structure in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Marine Biology, 120(4): 601-608.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00350081?LI=true
  16. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC), 2010. Stock assessment of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the Southeast United States, SEDAR 8 Update Assessment Workshop Report, 122 p.http://www.safmc.net/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=VrXWrSxzWrw%3D&tabid=663
  17. Valle‐Esquivel, M., Adlerstein‐González, S., 2013. Surveillance Visit Report for Sian Ka’an and Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserves Spiny Lobster Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc., November 2013. 50pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/western-central-atlantic/sian_kaan_banco_chinchorro_biosphere_reserves_spiny_lobster/assessment-downloads-1/20140519_SR_LOB106.pdf
  18. Valle-Esquivel, M., González, S.A., 2015. Second Surveillance Audit Report for Sian Ka’an and Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserves Spiny Lobster Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc, May 2015. 59pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/western-central-atlantic/sian_kaan_banco_chinchorro_biosphere_reserves_spiny_lobster/assessment-downloads-1/Sian_Kaan-Banco_Chinchorro_Lobster_2nd_Surveillance_Audit_Final.pdf
  19. Wakeford, R., Valle-Esquivel, M., Adlerstein-González, S., Trumble, R.J. 2012. MSC Public Certification Report for Sian Ka’an and Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserves Spiny Lobster fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc, July 2012. 203pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/in-assessment/western-central-atlantic/Sian_kaan_and_banco_chinchorro_biosphere_reserves_spiny_lobster/assessment-downloads-1/20120730_PCR.pdf
References

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    Caribbean spiny lobster - Western Central Atlantic

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