Last updated on 18 January 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

Two genetic stocks are considered to exist in the Baltic Sea, assessed and managed separately: the western stock (ICES Subdivisions 22-24) is west of the island of Bornholm to the Sound and the Danish Belts and the eastern stock (SD 25-32) is localized east of Bornholm, and adapted to brackish waters. A third one is the Kattegat stock (SD 21) (Bagge et al., 1994; Hüssy, 2011). Mixing of the stocks may be occurring in SD 24 (ICES, 2014a).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Scientific advice is based on the MSY approach whereas the new management plan is in development. Management has been improving in some areas in the past few years, e.g. with separate catch limits now set for Baltic western and eastern stocks. Other management measures are in place (effort restrictions, seasonal closures, and technical measures). High-grading is not allowed in the Baltic Sea fisheries and the discard ban began in 1 January 2015. The minimum landing size was decreased to 35cm. A new multi-annual and multi-species management plan, consistent with both the MSY and ecosystem approaches, is under development; a proposal for a regulation of a management plan was adopted by the European Commission in October 2014 and is in place since 1st January 2015. The 2012 and 2013 year classes are above the estimates for 2004–2011 year classes.

Weaknesses

The set total catch limit is almost twice the advised limit in 2015. The management plan is no longer considered as precautionary and is not used to base the advice. Fishing mortality (F) has been decreasing but is still well above FMSY and Ftarget (defined by the management plan). Spawning stock biomass (SSB) is between the limit biomass reference point and the target biomass. There is no F reference point defined in relation to the precautionary approach. Uncertainty in both F and SSB estimates for older ages. There is still insufficient data on recreational catches, stock structure and age validation. Discarding increased in 2013 and only 65% of the TAC was utilized. Harbour porpoise is being impacted by bycatch in the gillnet fishery. Main environmental impacts are due to gillnets which represent about 40% of the total catch. Local spawners in Subdivision 22 need protection’s measures such as avoiding fishing concentration in the area.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

0

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

6.7

Future Health:

0


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Set the Total Allowable Catch according to scientific advice, including the recreational allowable catch.
2. Ensure the new multi-annual management plan follows the Common Fisheries Policy objectives and includes a harvest control rule with a requirement to lower the total allowable catch (TAC) when biomass is below the target.
3. Explore the use of acoustic pingers to deter harbour porpoise bycatch in the gillnet sector.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your national fisheries administration to work with the rest of the European Council set the Total Allowable Catch according to scientific advice.
2. Encourage your national fisheries administration to ensure the new multi-annual management plan follows the Common Fisheries Policy objectives and establishes a harvest control rule including a requirement to lower the total allowable catch (TAC) when biomass is below the target.
3. If you are sourcing from the gillnet fishery encourage the catch sector to minimize bycatch of harbour porpoise.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic sea western EU Denmark Bottom trawls
Gillnets and entangling nets
Germany Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Poland Bottom trawls
Gillnets and entangling nets
Sweden Gillnets and entangling nets
Longlines
Midwater trawls
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 21 January 2015

Strengths

Scientific advice is based on the MSY approach whereas the new management plan is in development. Management has been improving in some areas in the past few years, e.g. with separate catch limits now set for Baltic western and eastern stocks. Other management measures are in place (effort restrictions, seasonal closures, and technical measures). High-grading is not allowed in the Baltic Sea fisheries and the discard ban began in 1 January 2015. The minimum landing size was decreased to 35cm. A new multi-annual and multi-species management plan, consistent with both the MSY and ecosystem approaches, is under development; a proposal for a regulation of a management plan was adopted by the European Commission in October 2014 and is in place since 1st January 2015. The 2012 and 2013 year classes are above the estimates for 2004–2011 year classes.

Weaknesses

The set total catch limit is almost twice the advised limit in 2015. The management plan is no longer considered as precautionary and is not used to base the advice. Fishing mortality (F) has been decreasing but is still well above FMSY and Ftarget (defined by the management plan). Spawning stock biomass (SSB) is between the limit biomass reference point and the target biomass. There is no F reference point defined in relation to the precautionary approach. Uncertainty in both F and SSB estimates for older ages. There is still insufficient data on recreational catches, stock structure and age validation. Discarding increased in 2013 and only 65% of the TAC was utilized. Harbour porpoise is being impacted by bycatch in the gillnet fishery. Main environmental impacts are due to gillnets which represent about 40% of the total catch. Local spawners in Subdivision 22 need protection’s measures such as avoiding fishing concentration in the area.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Set the Total Allowable Catch according to scientific advice, including the recreational allowable catch.
2. Ensure the new multi-annual management plan follows the Common Fisheries Policy objectives and includes a harvest control rule with a requirement to lower the total allowable catch (TAC) when biomass is below the target.
3. Explore the use of acoustic pingers to deter harbour porpoise bycatch in the gillnet sector.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your national fisheries administration to work with the rest of the European Council set the Total Allowable Catch according to scientific advice.
2. Encourage your national fisheries administration to ensure the new multi-annual management plan follows the Common Fisheries Policy objectives and establishes a harvest control rule including a requirement to lower the total allowable catch (TAC) when biomass is below the target.
3. If you are sourcing from the gillnet fishery encourage the catch sector to minimize bycatch of harbour porpoise.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 21 January 2015

The latest ICES stock assessment used an Age-based analytical assessment (SAM) based on commercial landings, one commercial CPUE index, and two survey indices; discards and recreational catch were also included in the assessment (ICES, 2013a,b). Discards and by-catch data series are included in the assessment since 1970 for the main fleets (covering 73% of the landings) (ICES, 2014a). Recreational catch is only partially considered (i.e., only German data is included) (ICES, 2013a).

Mixing of the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks is considered to affect the quality of the assessment (ICES, 2012a,b; 2014a). New scientific evidences suggest that a distinct stock exists in SD 23 (The Sound) (ICES, 2012a). Lack of consistency of the data for older age groups (4+) in recent years is also considered to affect the quality of the assessment, resulting in considerable uncertainty in the Fishing mortality (F) and Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)estimates for older ages. In order to improve the stock assessment, more research should be conducted on the stock structure and age validation (ICES, 2014a).

Compared with last year, 2014 assessment results indicated a stock size reduction that is more evident on in Subdivision 24 where mixing between the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks takes place (ICES, 2014a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 29 January 2015

In 2010, ICES started a transition to a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach for this stock (ICES 2010c). In this transition period, ICES scientific advice will provide catch options according to the ICES MSY approach, the precautionary approach (PA) and the managing plan.

In 2014, ICES is not using the management plan as basis for advice. Instead, ICES advised on the basis of the MSY approach that total commercial catches should be no more than 8,793 tons in 2015. ICES MSY framework plan implies F to be reduced to 0.26, which is expected to lead to an SSB of 62,797 tons in 2016. For 2015, the advised Total Allowable Catch (TAC) represents almost a 50% reduction in relation to the previous year (ICES, 2014a).

As there is no Fpa defined for this stock the catch corresponding to the Precautionary Approach (PA) cannot be calculated. However, all catch scenarios are expected to result in an SSB above Bpa (= 36,400 tons) in 2016 (ICES, 2014a).

Following the long-term management plan (MP) strategy implies a TAC of 15,546 tons and is expected to lead to an SSB of 54,566 tons in 2016. According to the MP, a 10% reduction in fishing effort (days-at-sea) is to be carried out, resulting in 132 days at-sea (ICES, 2014a).

The agreed management plan for cod in the Western Baltic Sea in September 2007 (Regulation (EC) 1098/2007), aims for a reduction in F by 10% each year, resulting in a revision of the target F in the assessment to 0.77, a TAC of 19,140 tons and an expected SSB of 50,776 tons in 2016. ICES also noted the large difference between FMSY and Ftarget in the management plan. The plan is no longer considered as precautionary, as in previous years, due to underestimations of fishing possibilities and no F decrease as anticipated (ICES, 2014a; STECF, 2014).

Since different reproductive units in Subdivision 22 and 24 exist, ICES advises that measures should be implemented to protect the local spawners in Subdivision 22, namely, a temporal closure (i.e. February–April), a spatial spawning closure (deeper than 20 m) and avoiding concentration of the fishery in the area (ICES, 2014a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 29 Jan 2015

A target fishing mortality of Ftrp=0.6 has been in use since 2007 under the formal management plan agreed for the stock. In a recent benchmark, new MSY and PA reference points were discussed and revised for this stock (ICES, 2013d). The recently revised reference points are as follows (adapted from ICES, 2014a):

ParameterValueTechnical basis

 BMSY

36,400 t

Bpa

FMSY

0.26

based on stochastic simulations (reference F age range 3–5)

Multispecies FMSY

0.55

Multispecies model (SMS)

Blim

26,000 t

Break point of the stock–recruitment relationship

Bpa

36,400 t

Blim*1.4

Flim

Not defined

Fpa

Not defined

Ftarget (MGT plan)

0.6

based on stochastic simulations (reference F age range (3–6)


The European Commission requested ICES for advice on FMSY to include recommendations on the management plan in development. A provisional value at 0.26 (range 0.23-0.29) was presented and further notices will be provided in March 2015 (ICES, 2014d).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 21 January 2015

The stock is currently between the MSY biomass trigger (Bpa) and Blim and considered as in an “increased risk” (ICES, 2014a). Fishing mortality (F(3-6)), estimated at 0.861 in 2013, was above the Ftarget defined in the management plan (0.6) and well above the FMSY (0.26) used for advice. Despite the uncertainty in the estimates, fishing mortality for ages 3-5 (F(3-5)) was also well above the defined FMSY. The stock is highly dependent upon the strength of incoming year-classes (ICES, 2014b). The 2012 and 2013 year classes are above the estimates for 2004–2011 year classes but still below the long-term average (ICES, 2014a).

Trends

Last updated on 21 Jan 2015

During the 1970s the stock fluctuated with a record high of SSB in 1980, at 52,890 tons, and in a 12-year period decreased by more than 80% to a record low in 1992, at about 10,200 tons. After this dramatic drop the stock started to recover, and then settled between Blim and Bpa since 1998. Recruitment improved but is still below the long-term average (ICES, 2014a).

F for ages 3-6 decreased from a record high in 1997 to 2006. Since 2006, have been stabilized and fluctuated between 0.7 and 0.8, above the target F (0.6). F for ages 3-5 have been in a decreasing trend since 1997, but remains above FMSY. Landings have been oscillating between 15,000 and 55,000 tons but showing a decreasing trend, especially in the last years, when the minimum level was reached at 14,120 tons in 2010 (ICES, 2014a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 21 January 2015

This fishery is managed through TAC, effort, seasonal fisheries restrictions, and technical measures. The “Baltic Sea Cod Plan” (EC 1098/2007) regulates both TAC and quota and involves reductions in the fishing effort (10% in terms of number of fishing days per year) until reaching Ftarget at 0.60 (ICES, 2012a). This corresponded to 163 fishing days by year in the period between 2011 and 2013 (ICES, 2014b).

Since 2004, a separate TAC is assigned for the western and eastern stocks. In 2007-2009, the set TAC exceeded the advised TAC, since 2010 the set TAC has followed the advice but in 2015 the limit doubled the scientific recommendation, being set at 15,900 tons (Council Regulation (EU) No. 1221/2014).

Since 2009 the fishery is also regulated by a seasonal closure (during April) to protect spawning aggregations of cod and a small area (the triangle) in SD 23 (The Sound) has been closed to all fisheries in February and March (ICES, 2012b).

To enhance compliance and minimize discarding, the Bacoma window was increased from 110mm to 120 mm in 2010. However, the increasing trend in abundance of flatfish is considered to interfere with Bacoma function of selectivity, and may have caused an increase in discards of both unwanted flatfish and juvenile cod in German and Swedish fleets (ICES, 2014a). The rise of cod minimum landing size (from 35 to 38 cm) brought an increase in discards (Feekings et al., 2013 In ICES, 2014a). High-grading is not allowed in Baltic Sea fisheries (SETCF, 2014).

A multi-annual and multi-species management plan is in development, to consider cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea, biological interactions and environmental effects (EC, 2014a). The European Commission adopted a Proposal for a Regulation in October 2014 and implemented it since the beginning of 2015 (EC, 2014a), and requested ICES for advice on FMSY to include recommendations on the management plan. A provisional value and range were presented but further notices will be provided in March 2015 (ICES, 2014d).

Regulation No. 1396/2014 establishes the discard ban for cod fisheries (and other species) in the Baltic Sea and is in place since 1st January 2015. The main goal is to eliminate discards of all European Union fisheries, making mandatory landing of all species with assigned catch limits. Based on new scientific data and on the consequence of the new measure for discarding, the minimum landing size was reduced from 38cm to 35cm (EC, 2014b).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 21 Jan 2015

The western stock is covered by the same long-term management plan/recovery plan as the eastern stock (Regulation (EC) No. 1098/2007). During the first 4 years of its application (2008-2011), the plan was deemed to be a recovery plan based on a Ftarget of 0.6 (ICES, 2012a).There is a large difference between the FMSY and the target F in the management plan, regardless of the difference in reference age range (ICES, 2014a).

In 2014, ICES is not using the management plan as basis for advice since F reductions (10%) of the plan have been not enough to reduce F. A new management plan is under development (ICES, 2014a).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 21 January 2015

Catches are mainly taken by trawlers and gillnettersand to a small degree by Danish seines. The predominant fleets are Danish, German and Swedish (ICES, 2014b).

With the exception of 2008, when TAC was slightly overshot, fishers’ compliance has been strong since 2004, when separate TACs for Eastern and Western Baltic were first set (ICES, 2012a). Commercial landings in 2012 (17,070 tons) were 20% below the agreed TAC (21,300 tons) (ICES, 2013a) and in 2013, only 65% of the TAC was utilized, mainly due to a decrease in Subdivision 24 (ICES, 2014a).

Discards, available since 1996, are based on data collected by onboard observers (ICES, 2012b), and included in the stock assessment. In 2005, the discards represented about 22% of the total landings, the highest value of the time series.In 2012, discards (900 tons) represented 5.3% of the total catch (17,100 tons) (ICES, 2013a). In last years, there was an increasing trend; in 2013 discards by trawlers increased in Subdivision 24 and total discards represented about 13% of commercial catches (ICES, 2014a).

Recreational fishing catch is now also estimated (but only for Germany) and was included in the 2014 assessment. Even though neither catch nor discards are counted against TACs, total catch in 2013 (around 17,500 tons: commercial landings + rec. catch + discards) was still below the set TAC (ICES, 2014a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 21 January 2015

69 species or other assessment units are threatened and classified either as Critically Endangered (eight species or other assessment units), Endangered (18) or Vulnerable (43). They represent 3.9% of the 1753 species assessed by the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (Helsinki Commission, HELCOM). The species at the risk of extinction in the Baltic Sea include populations of three mammal species, 22 species of birds, 14 species of fish, seven macrophyte plants and 19 invertebrates (HELCOM, 2013).

The marine mammal diversity in the Baltic Sea is limited. At least three species of seals can be found in the Baltic sea, including the grey Seal Halichoerus grypus (“Least Concern” in IUCN red list; Thompson and Härkönen, 2008a), common (harbour) seal Phoca vitulina vitulina (“Least Concern” in IUCN red list; Thompson and Härkönen, 2008b) and Baltic ringed seal Phoca hispida botnica (“Least Concern” in IUCN red list; Kovacs et al., 2008) (HELCOM, 2009; HELCOM, 2013). The numbers of by-caught seals are also considerable (HELCOM, 2013). The grey seal populations have increased in the Baltic Sea in recent years (by 6% a year), from around 2000 animals in the early 1970s to close to 30,000 seals in 2012 (Härkönen et al., 2013 in ICES, 2014c). The increase of grey seals may have an impact in the cod condition with the increased of the dispersion of the anisakid nematodes (ICES, 2014b). On the other hand, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity (MacKenzie et al., 2011).

Bycatch of harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena (“Critically Endangered” in IUCN red list; Hammond et al., 2008) by all fisheries on the other hand, particularly in bottom set nets [gillnets], are suspected to be underestimated and are a serious threat to the populations’ viability and recovery (HELCOM, 2009; HELCOM, 2013; ICES, 2009c). Incidental bycatch in fishing gear is the most serious threat to harbour porpoises and is also an important factor for the other marine mammals. ICES has estimated the bycatch of harbour porpoises, for example in the Danish Straits and Kattegat, where the number of by-caught and drowned individuals is estimated to 242–423 each year (ICES 2011 in HELCOM 2013).

Considerable seabird mortality is reported, particularly with gillnets, with several species affected (e.g. common guillemot Uria aalge, Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis and Greater scaup Aythya marila) (Österblom et al 2002; Zydelis et al 2009; Helcom, 2011). Gillnets are the second most important fishing gear in terms of cod catches in the western Baltic. Impact of gillnets used in recreational fisheries is also considerable. Of the cod landed in 2013, 40 % was captured by gillnets (ICES, 2014a).

Other Species

Last updated on 21 January 2015

Western Baltic cod is taken in mixed demersal fisheries, mainly by trawls (60%), gillnets (40%) and to a smaller degree by Danish seine. Bycatch in Subdivision 22 consists of several flatfish species (flounder, plaice, dab, and turbot); in Subdivision 24 the main bycatch species is flounder (ICES, 2014a). Work is in progress to develop a new flatfish by-catch reduction device in Baltic cod-directed trawl fishery (Santos et al., 2014).

Denmark

Last updated on 12 June 2014

The Danish fleet operates in ICES Divisions 22-24, mainly with trawl but also with gillnets (ICES, 2012b). 

Germany

Last updated on 24 January 2015

The increasing trend in abundance of flatfish is considered to interfere with Bacoma function of selectivity, and may have caused an increase in discards of both unwanted flatfish and juvenile cod, in German and Swedish fleets (ICES, 2014a).

Poland

Last updated on 12 June 2014

The Polish fleet operates with trawl and gillnets and in ICES Division 24 (ICES, 2013b). 

Sweden

Last updated on 24 January 2015

The increasing trend in abundance of flatfish is considered to interfere with Bacoma function of selectivity, and may have caused an increase in discards of both unwanted flatfish and juvenile cod, in German and Swedish fleets (ICES, 2014a).

HABITAT

Last updated on 21 January 2015

The Baltic fish community is dominated by cod, herring and sprat and their trophic relationships are as such important factors driving the overall state of the fish stocks and impacting on lower trophic levels. The cod stock has been negatively affected by ecosystem effects on its reproduction in combination with continuously high fishing pressure and its prey species, particularly sprat, have benefited and come to dominate the fish community. Ongoing climatic changes causing decreased salinity and increasing temperature are the primary driving forces of the regime shift and are expected to continue to affect the Baltic Sea ecosystem, although fishing pressure may also be an important driver.

The BALANCE and EuSeaMap projects undertook the broadscale mapping of marine landscapes and seabed habitats for the Baltic (EUSeaMAp, 2010). A recent study indicates that the southern sub-basins of the Baltic Sea were more extensively impacted than the northern sub-basins. Over the entire sea area, deep sea habitats were more impacted than shallower infralittoral and circalittoral habitats as well as sand and coarse sediments were the seabed types relatively most impacted in the Baltic Sea scale (Korpinen et al., 2013).

Bottom-trawling is the fishing method that is most often mentioned as a threat for different organism groups. It heavily and directly impacts the bottom and the plants and animals living on or in the bottom. Eutrophication has been considered one of the main threats of the Baltic Sea biodiversity, (HELCOM, 2013).

There is a degree of mixing, not quantified, between the Eastern and Western Baltic stock, especially in SD 24. There are indications for movement of juvenile cod from the western Baltic to east, but also of adult cod moving the other way (ICES, 2010b; ICES, 2012a). A recent study suggests that the cod in the Sound (SD 23) might constitute a different resident stock (ICES, 2012a).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 21 Jan 2015

Baltic Sea protected areas include the Natura 2000 network, HELCOM Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPAs) as well as some Ramsar sites and sites protected solely under national legislation. Natura 2000 network together with BSPAs cover about 12% of the Baltic Sea. The state and functioning of these areas was assessed by HELCOM in 2010 and was concluded that HELCOM’s objective of an ecologically coherent network of well-managed marine protected areas has not yet been achieved (HELCOM, 2013). Management measures exist for the use of protected areas to mitigate or avoid environmental impacts. Although by the beginning of 2010 there were 159 areas chosen as examples of typical biotopes of ecological significance, to the moment few have been formally designated and/or have specific management plans (Helcom, 2010).

To deal with the decline in cod numbers and spawning grounds in the Baltic Sea, the EC has introduced a number of closed areas and seasons, aiming to maximize future spawning success of this species in the area (ICES, 2008g). There is now a fishery seasonal closure in order to protect spawning aggregations of cod, from 1st to 30th of April in 2009 and 2010. Since 2009, a small area (the triangle) in SD 23 (The Sound) is closed for all fisheries in February and March. Three main spawning sites are considered for this stock: The Sound (SD 23), Western Baltic (SD 22) and the Arkona Basin (SD 24) (ICES, 2014a).

Between 2006-2008, ICES with the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) developed the project Environmentally Sound Fishery Management in Protected Areas [EMPAS] aimed at developing fisheries management plans for each of ten Natura 2000 sites within the German EEZ of the North Sea and Baltic Sea (ICES, 2011b).

Fishermen argued that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been inefficient in conservation of cod stock. The enlargement of Bornholm MPA in 2005 caused substantial effort displacement towards areas dominated by smaller sized fish, contributing to the increased discarding of juvenile cod. Enlarged MPAs also intensified competition between different fleet segments and reallocated fishing areas (Suuronen et al., 2010).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The management plan is no longer considered as precautionary. For 2015, ICES is not using the management plan as basis for the advice since F reductions to achieve the target have been not enough to decrease Fishing mortality. Instead, ICES advice is based on the MSY approach whereas the new management plan is in development. This fishery is managed through catch limits, effort, seasonal fisheries restrictions, and technical measures (ICES, 2014a,b). A proposal for a regulation of a management plan was adopted by the European Commission in October 2014 and is in place since 1st January 2015 (EC, 2014a). Efforts are in place to develop a multi-annual and multi-species management plan, consistent with both the MSY and ecosystem approaches (EC, 2014a; ICES, 2014d).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 0.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 15.9 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 8.79 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 181%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 13.0 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 20.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 64.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 6.7.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 29.8 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 36.4 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 81.8%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 0.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.861 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.260 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 331%.

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
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DATA NOTES

Notes:
1) Previous advised TACs were based on the precautionary management plan but for 2015 is based on the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach and for commercial catches (ICES, 2014a).
2) Landings represent commercial catches, excluding discards and recreational catches (ICES, 2014a).
3) Fishing mortality F(3-6), estimated at 0.86 in 2013, was above the Ftarget defined in the management plan (0.6) and well above FMSY (0.26) used for advice (ICES, 2014a).
4) Set TAC until (and including) 2003 refers to total Baltic Sea (western and eastern stocks) but since then TACs are attributed to each of the stocks separately (ICES, 2014a).
5) Biomass reference points correspond to the recently revised reference points for this stock. Bpa = MSY Btrigger (ICES, 2014a).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

ICES Response to EU on selectivity of active gears targeting cod in the Baltic Sea http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2007/Special%20Requests/EC%20gear%20selectivity%20Baltic%20cod.pdf

ASCOBANS, 2002. Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises (Jastarnia Plan), Bonn, July 2002 http://ascobans.net/pdf/recoveryplan.pdf

Bagge, O., Thurow, F., Steffensen, E., and Bay, J. 1994. The Baltic cod. Dana, 10: 1 –28 http://www.aqua.dtu.dk/~/media/Institutter/Aqua/Publikationer/Dana/dana_vol_10_pp_1_28.ashx

European Commission (EC), 2013. Council of The European Union. Press release. 3265th Council meeting Agriculture and Fisheries. Luxembourg, 17 October 2013. 15pphttp://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/EU/XXV/EU/00/14/EU_01459/imfname_10422199.pdf

European Commission (EC), 2014a. Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a multiannual plan for the stocks of cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks, amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2187/2005 and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007, 2014/0285 (COD), 19pp. [Accessed 20 January 2015] http://www.fishsec.org/2014/10/06/multispecies-plan-for-the-baltic-sea-proposed-by-the-commission/

European Commission (EC), 2014b. Commission delegated Regulation (EU) No 1396/2014 of 20 October 2014 establishing a discard plan in the Baltic Sea, Official Journal of the European Union, 2pp. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32014R1396&from=EN

EUSeaMap, 2010. EUSeaMap Final Report. Version 2. Preparatory Action for development and assessment of a European broad-scale seabed habitat map . EC contract no. MARE/2008/07 . December 2010. 233pp. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/system/files/20101215_FinalReport_EUSeaMap_v2.0.pdf

Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S., Wilson, B. 2008. Phocoena phocoena (Baltic Sea subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 January 2015] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17031/0

Hammond, P.S., G. Bearzi, A. Bjørge, K. Forney, L. Karczmarski, T. Kasuya, W.F. Perrin, M.D. Scott, J.Y. Wang, R.S. Wells, & B. Wilson, 2008. Phocoena phocoena (Baltic Sea subpopulation). In: IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013 http://www.iucnredlist.org

HELCOM, 2006. Baltic Sea Protected Areas Database. Helsinki Commisssion – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission. http://bspa.helcom.fi/flow/bspaindex.index

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References

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