Last updated on 20 August 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

Two genetic stocks are considered to exist in the Baltic Sea, assessed and managed separately: the western stock (ICES Subdivisions - SD 22 to 24) is west of the island of Bornholm to the Sound and the Danish Belts and the eastern stock (SD 25-32) is localized east of Bornholm, and adapted to brackish waters. A third one is the Kattegat stock (SD 21) (Bagge et al., 1994; Hüssy, 2011). Mixing of the stocks is substantial in subdivision 24 and as the bulk of the eastern Baltic cod stock and catches is concentrated in southern Baltic Sea (SDs 24 to 26). Since 2015, ICES assessment and advice for eastern Baltic cod include partial catches of eastern Baltic cod stock in 24, which is part of the western Baltic management area (ICES 2015; ICES 2018).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A large-scale project is underway to improve aging methods and update growth and natural mortality estimates.
  • Efforts have been made to develop more robust alternative interim assessment methods than survey trends, until results from the project are available.
  • Management has been improving in the past few years, with separate catch limits now set for western and eastern stocks. A multi-annual and multi-species management plan has been approved in 2016 for cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea, and higher monitoring in smaller vessels is expected in the short term.
  • Due to a re-definition of the biological stock boundaries the eastern portion of ICES subdivision 24 (southern Baltic Sea) is included in the Eastern Baltic assessment since 2015.
  • High-grading is prohibited since 2010 and the discard ban began in 1 January 2015, aiming to protect young cod.
  • Mechanisms to collect recreational fisheries data is being developed.
  • Data on habitat and ecosystem impacts in the Baltic Sea is improving.
Weaknesses
  • Fishing pressure on the stock is above FMSY proxy; and spawning stock size in 2018 is below MSY Btrigger proxy.
  • Uncertainty on growth and natural mortality population parameters remains high.
  • Discarding still takes place despite the fact that the landing obligation has been in place since 2015, estimated at 11%, based on observer data. 
  • Overlapping of cod and pelagic stocks is currently reduced and the mean weight of cod has been declining suggesting weak prey availability.
  • Poor quality and small average size of cod resulted in an increase of discards in last years.
  • The total catch limit (for EU and Russia) was set 31% above ICES recommendations.
  • Recreational fisheries data is scarse, thus is not included in assessments, but are estimated to be comparable to commercial volumes.
  • Impacts of gillnets on harbour porpoises and seabirds is significant, are probably hindering the recovery of this endangered species harbour porpoises. 
  • Impacts of demersal trawling is considered to be moderate to high in fish reproduction areas and vegetated habitats.
Options
  • STECF evaluated a number of technical measures including gear limitations (e.g. mesh sizes). Most measures were found to have a positive impact on stocks, however, the increase of mesh size in Bacoma escape windows from 110 mm to 120 mm in the cod fishery was found to have adverse effects, i.e. increased fishing pressure on larger fish and increased unwanted bycatch of juveniles. Thus this measure should be repealed.
  • Given the present distribution pattern of cod, sprat and herring (cod mainly concentrated in southern Baltic sea and clupeids in the more northern areas), indicate that a reduction of herring and sprat landings in the central Baltic Sea is likely to have a positive impact on growth and condition of cod, and perhaps also reduce cod cannibalism.
  • Support correct implementation of the the updated Data Collection Multiannual Plan to improve knowledge on bycatch impacts.
  • Support implementation of measures to reduce/mitigate impacts of bottom trawling on threatened benthic invertebrates and on harbour porpoise by gillnets.
  • Support establishment of marine protected areas in offshore sub-basins.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

2.7

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

5.8

Future Health:

3.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Place strong pressure on regulators to follow scientific advice on the setting of 2019 catch limits, act to eliminate discarding and ensure in the longer term that fishing mortality is consistently at or below the fishing mortality target reference point.
  • Support and/or participate in the on-going international tagging study (TABACOD) to better define the growth and natural mortality population parameters to enable an appropriate stock assessment and estimation of new biologically-based reference points.
  • Ask managers to ensure estimates of recreational catch are included in all future stock assessments and to quickly implement recreational data collection to better inform the stock assessment.
  • Support ongoing habitat and impact studies, and use these to develop improved management for key areas and types of benthic habitats including, for example, seagrass beds and fish spawning/nursery areas.
  • Press managers and fishers to improve compliance with the discard ban to reduce or eliminate the discarding of small cod.
  • Request managers to collect better quality data on the interactions between setnets and marine mammals and seabirds. 

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • DFPO Denmark Eastern Baltic cod:

    Withdrawn

  • Germany Eastern Baltic cod:

    Withdrawn

  • Küstenfischer Nord eG Heiligenhafen Eastern Baltic cod:

    Withdrawn

  • LFA Latvia trawl eastern Baltic cod:

    Suspended

  • Poland Eastern Baltic cod:

    Suspended

  • Swedish Fisherman's Producer Organisation (SFPO) Eastern Baltic cod:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic Sea eastern EU Denmark Longlines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Germany Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Seine nets
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Latvia Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)
Poland Bottom trawls
Longlines
Midwater trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)
Sweden Longlines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Traps
Russia Russian Federation Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Strengths
  • A large-scale project is underway to improve aging methods and update growth and natural mortality estimates.
  • Efforts have been made to develop more robust alternative interim assessment methods than survey trends, until results from the project are available.
  • Management has been improving in the past few years, with separate catch limits now set for western and eastern stocks. A multi-annual and multi-species management plan has been approved in 2016 for cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea, and higher monitoring in smaller vessels is expected in the short term.
  • Due to a re-definition of the biological stock boundaries the eastern portion of ICES subdivision 24 (southern Baltic Sea) is included in the Eastern Baltic assessment since 2015.
  • High-grading is prohibited since 2010 and the discard ban began in 1 January 2015, aiming to protect young cod.
  • Mechanisms to collect recreational fisheries data is being developed.
  • Data on habitat and ecosystem impacts in the Baltic Sea is improving.
Weaknesses
  • Fishing pressure on the stock is above FMSY proxy; and spawning stock size in 2018 is below MSY Btrigger proxy.
  • Uncertainty on growth and natural mortality population parameters remains high.
  • Discarding still takes place despite the fact that the landing obligation has been in place since 2015, estimated at 11%, based on observer data. 
  • Overlapping of cod and pelagic stocks is currently reduced and the mean weight of cod has been declining suggesting weak prey availability.
  • Poor quality and small average size of cod resulted in an increase of discards in last years.
  • The total catch limit (for EU and Russia) was set 31% above ICES recommendations.
  • Recreational fisheries data is scarse, thus is not included in assessments, but are estimated to be comparable to commercial volumes.
  • Impacts of gillnets on harbour porpoises and seabirds is significant, are probably hindering the recovery of this endangered species harbour porpoises. 
  • Impacts of demersal trawling is considered to be moderate to high in fish reproduction areas and vegetated habitats.
Options
  • STECF evaluated a number of technical measures including gear limitations (e.g. mesh sizes). Most measures were found to have a positive impact on stocks, however, the increase of mesh size in Bacoma escape windows from 110 mm to 120 mm in the cod fishery was found to have adverse effects, i.e. increased fishing pressure on larger fish and increased unwanted bycatch of juveniles. Thus this measure should be repealed.
  • Given the present distribution pattern of cod, sprat and herring (cod mainly concentrated in southern Baltic sea and clupeids in the more northern areas), indicate that a reduction of herring and sprat landings in the central Baltic Sea is likely to have a positive impact on growth and condition of cod, and perhaps also reduce cod cannibalism.
  • Support correct implementation of the the updated Data Collection Multiannual Plan to improve knowledge on bycatch impacts.
  • Support implementation of measures to reduce/mitigate impacts of bottom trawling on threatened benthic invertebrates and on harbour porpoise by gillnets.
  • Support establishment of marine protected areas in offshore sub-basins.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Place strong pressure on regulators to follow scientific advice on the setting of 2019 catch limits, act to eliminate discarding and ensure in the longer term that fishing mortality is consistently at or below the fishing mortality target reference point.
  • Support and/or participate in the on-going international tagging study (TABACOD) to better define the growth and natural mortality population parameters to enable an appropriate stock assessment and estimation of new biologically-based reference points.
  • Ask managers to ensure estimates of recreational catch are included in all future stock assessments and to quickly implement recreational data collection to better inform the stock assessment.
  • Support ongoing habitat and impact studies, and use these to develop improved management for key areas and types of benthic habitats including, for example, seagrass beds and fish spawning/nursery areas.
  • Press managers and fishers to improve compliance with the discard ban to reduce or eliminate the discarding of small cod.
  • Request managers to collect better quality data on the interactions between setnets and marine mammals and seabirds. 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Stock assessments of Eastern Baltic cod are conducted by ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS). Several factors of uncertainty have led to the rejection of the age-based assessment used in the 2013 stock assessment (ICES, 2014a,b). As interim solution, since 2014, assessments and advice are based on surveys trends (ICES 2018).  

The stock was benchmarked in 2015 but up to the present it has not been possible to conduct an age-structured analytical assessment of the stock, as the main areas of concern - growth and natural mortality estimates - remain (ICES 2015; ICES 2016; ICES 2017; ICES 2018). A large-scale project, TABACOD, involving several scientific institutes, is underway to attempt to improve aging methods and update growth and natural mortality estimates. Though complete results are expected to be available in 2019-2020, preliminary analysis of new available information could allow to have for a benchmark in 2019 (ICES 2018).

Mixing of the eastern (Subdivisions 25-32) and western Baltic cod stocks (Subdivisions 22-24) is substantial in Subdivision 24 (SD 24) and as the bulk of the eastern Baltic cod stock is concentrated in southern Baltic Sea (i.e. SDs 24-26)SD 24 has been integrated in the assessment and advice for the eastern Baltic cod stock since 2015 (ICES 2015; ICES 2018) by allocating partial catches to the eastern stock. 

Recreational fisheries data is limited, thus is not included in eastern Baltic cod stock assessments, but are considered to be comparable to commercial volumes, thus mechanisms to collect recreational fisheries data are being developed (ICES 2016). No updates on this aspect were presented in 2018 (ICES 2018). Discards are available and used to provide catch advice, with data series from all the main fleets but not from all countries, thus discard estimates are considered underestimates values for the stock (ICES 2018).

The SPICT (surplus production model) assessment method - proposed at WGBFAS 2017, which provides relative estimates for stock status (F/FMSY and B/BMSY), was applied to define stock and exploitation status in 2018 (ICES 2018)

As a result of the 2015 benchmark stock assessment being rejected, five fisheries within the Eastern Baltic cod stock which were certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in 2011, lost certification in December 2015. A corrective action plan was signed in March 2016 by the certified fisheries supporting the development of alternative reference points, the large-scale project to attempt to solve current uncertainty and inconsistencies in the age‐determination and the adoption of the new Management Plan. The certificate was withdrawn in 2017 because of the lack of progress needed to maintain the certified status.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Scientific advice is provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the European Commission’s Scientific Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF).

References points defined in the EU Management Plan (EC, 2007) were rejected in 2014 due to high uncertainty in the stock assessment. A multi-species and multi-annual management plan for the Baltic Sea was promulgated in July 2016 (European Commission 2016), however reliable reference points are still not defined for the eastern Baltic cod stock as growth and natural mortality changes could yet not be quantified; the plan defines that the precautionary approach should apply in such cases. Thus, since 2014, the basis for the advice is the ICES methodology for data-limited stocks detailed in (ICES 2012). The advice is based on a comparison of the two latest survey index values with the three preceding values, multiplied by the latest catch advice. In 2018, the index was estimated to have decreased by more than 20% and thus an uncertainty cap (20%) was applied to calculate the catch advice. The fishing mortality was above and the biomass below proxies of the MSY reference points; therefore, an extra precautionary buffer of 20% was applied to the advice. This resulted in a recommended catch level of 16,685 tonnes for the entire eastern Baltic cod stock, 36% lower than the 2018 advice (ICES 2017; ICES 2018)

To account for the mixing between eastern (EB) and western (WB) stocks for setting catch advice, catches of EB cod in subdivision 24 (SD 24) of the western stock management area are taken into account. The ratio EB cod / WB cod catch in SD 24 (based on genetics and otolith shape analysis) in the three most recent years (2015-2017) is used as splitting factor. As well, the same relative geographical distribution of the WB cod stock commercial catch in 2019 as observed in recent years and the same recreational catch of WB cod in 2019 as in 2018, is assumed. The amount of EB cod fished in SD 24 in 2019 is estimated at 8,520 tonnes, thus the resulting advised catch of cod in SDs 25–32 is 8,165 tonnes (ICES 2018).

Different scientific studies support the importance of ecosystem-based fisheries management for this stock as well as the inclusion of environmental conditions (Lindegren et al, 2009; Eero et al, 2012; Möllmann et al, 2013). The present distribution pattern of cod, sprat and herring (cod mainly concentrated in southern Baltic sea and clupeids in the more northern areas), indicates that a reduction of herring and sprat landings in the central Baltic Sea is likely to have a positive impact on growth and condition of cod, and perhaps also reduce cod cannibalism (ICES 2018).

STECF evaluated a number of technical measures including gear limitations (e.g. mesh sizes), minimum landing size and maximum bycatch percentages For cod, STECF concluded that most of these measures have a positive impact. However, the increase of mesh size in Bacoma escape windows was found to have adverse effects, i.e. increased fishing pressure on larger fish and increased unwanted bycatch of juveniles (ICES 2018).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 20 August 2018

In 2018, Eastern Baltic cod stock and exploitation status is defined from a recently developed SPiCT model. Results indicate that fishing pressure on the stock is above FMSY proxy; and spawning stock size in 2018 is below MSY Btrigger proxy. Population structure has deteriorated during the last years and shows no improvement. Since 2017, biomass based on the two latest surveys shows a decline in most length groups. The stock size indicator used to calculate catch advice, shows an overall decrease since the peak in 2010, and the value for 2018 is the lowest observed in the time-series. The index for small cod has continuously declined from its highest value (in 2013) until 2017, with a slight increase in 2018.

A  steep decline in the harvest rate between 2004 and 2009 was followed by a slight increase until 2015, and with no clear trend afterwards. However, the relative harvest rate for larger cod (especially cod > 45 cm) is higher than the average relative harvest rate of the stock (ICES 2018).

From 1965 to 1979, total annual catches in SD 25-32  (landings and discards) were at around 200,000 tonnes, and almost doubled between 1980 and 1984. A steady decline occurred up to 50,000 tonnes in 1993. Since then, total catches of eastern Baltic cod in SD 24-32 have been fluctuating between 65 and100 thousand tonnes until 2013, and between 37 and 50 thousand tonnes since 2013. Catches in 2017 at stock level were 30,889 tonnes, lowest value in the time-series (ICES 2018).  

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Baltic Sea fisheries management is under the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and Russian legislation. The CFP, first introduced in the 1970s, was revised in 2013 to achieve Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) for all commercial exploited stocks and ban discards, which took effect on 1 January 2014 (European Commission 2013). In Russia, the manager authority is the Ministry of Agriculture.  The EU fisheries management includes input from the Regional Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum (BALTFISH) and the Baltic Sea Advisory Council. Coastal fisheries are managed nationally.  

Highgrading has been prohibited since 1st January 2010 in all Baltic fisheries. The discard ban (landing obligation) for cod fisheries (as well as for herring, sprat and plaice) in the Baltic Sea started in January 2015 (European Commission 2014). Temporal and spatial closures are implemented to protect spawning cod and also to preserve benthic habitats. Spawning closures for cod are beneficial for recruitment by improving spawning conditions by for example avoiding disruption of spawning aggregations.

European Union (EU) and Russia set unilateral TACs. Set TAC by the EU have been decreasing in recent years as scientific advice is currently based on a precautionary approach (European Commission 2015; European Commission 2016; European Commission 2017). Russian TACs have been set at around 6 thousand tonnes in the last 3 years (MARF 2015; MARF 2016; ICES 2018). Totoal TACs have decreased from 55 thousand tonnes in 2015, to 46.9, 36.9 and 34.2 thousand tonnes in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively (ICES 2018). These represent significant decreases and the total TAC for 2018 is the lowest in the time-series. However, EU and total TACs have been well above ICES’ recommendation since 2014, when the precautionary approach started to be applied for catch advice calculations. In 2018, global TAC is 30% above the advised catch level. 

The EU recovery/management plan implemented in January 2008 (Regulation (EC) 1098/2007) has been replaced by a multi-annual and multi-species management plan (European Commission 2016) approved in July 2016 for cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea. This plan establishes target fishing mortality ranges consistent with achieving maximum sustainable yield (FMSY), following ICES advised precautionary FMSY ranges, for stocks that has valid stock assessments (ICES 2015). Eastern Baltic cod stock still lacks an accepted age-based analytical stock assessment due to uncertainties in growth and in natural mortality parameters (ICES 2017; ICES 2018). As such  the application of the precautionary approach has been used for catch advice calculations (European Commission 2016). Monitoring of smaller vessels will increase as part of this new plan.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Mis- and underreported landings were identified as a “significant problem” in 1993-1996 and 2000-2007. Total catches, including discards, have been below the total set TAC since 2011. In 2017, catches in SD 25-32 were 28,700 tonnes and represented 83% of the total set TAC, but were above advised TAC (ICES 2017).

As of 2015, there is a landing obligation for cod in the Baltic Sea. Thus there is no minimum landing size, but a minimum conservation reference size (MCRS) of 35 cm is in force. Cod below MCRS cannot be sold for human consumption and have to be landed as a separate fraction of the catch (ICES 2018). However, landing reports of fish below MCRS are very small. The discard rate in 2015 was estimated at approximately 15% and in 2016 at 10%. The estimated discard amount of 3,452 tonnes in 2017 (approximately 11%) was based on observer data. However, as there have been problems gaining observer access in some countries. As such, these discards estimates should be considered as underestimates (ICES 2017; ICES 2018).

Denmark

Last updated on 26 February 2017

MSC Condition 1 regards the refine of unreported landings due to uncertain data. MSC Condition 2 requires the improvement of season and area sampling of discarding data minimizing uncertainties in F estimates (Medley et al., 2011). Both conditions were closed by the third surveillance (Medley et al, 2012). This unit of certification represents about 15% of the total catch.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Information on ETP species is mainly descriptive for these fisheries. There are monitoring programs since 2011, however information coming from these monitoring programs in the Baltic Sea region is limited. Reasons for this include focus on wrong fishery segments, insufficient coverage by fisheries observers, lack of monitoring of small boat fisheries, and lack of bird bycatch monitoring (ICES 2017)

The Baltic harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is the most critically endangered small cetacean population in Europe and is protected under regional, European and International Conventions (HELCOM, 2013). Incidental bycatch in fishing gear is considered the most serious threat to harbour porpoises and is also an important factor for the other marine mammals, mostly in the coastal fisheries (HELCOM 2013; ICES 2017). Grey seal Halichoerus grypus and common (harbour) seal Phoca vitulina vitulina in southern Baltic Sea were considered threatened until 2013, while currently their populations are increasing. Baltic ringed seal Phoca hispida botnica is categorized as vulnerable in the Baltic sea and Eurasian otter Lutra lutra is near threatened in the Baltic, and bycatch and physical interaction with vessels are among threats (HELCOM 2013)

ICES Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC) recently applied a qualitative evaluation the magnitude of marine mammal and seabird bycatch interactions with fishing métiers in the Baltic Sea Ecoregion based on expert opinion and available case studies (ICES 2017)

For 26 fish species, additional information and, in some cases (twaite shad Alosa fallax and razor fish Pelecus cultratus) positive development, have led to a change in status from threatened to least concern. Considering other groups, 19 macrozoobenthic species were considered threatened. Bottom trawling is recognized among the most important threats for many red-listed benthic invertebrates in areas where trawling is very intense, such as the southern Baltic Sea. It has a direct impact on benthic fauna on the actual site of trawling and causes turbidity and increased sedimentation over much larger areas (HELCOM 2013; ICES 2017).

Lost and discarded nets are considered a major component of seafloor litter. These ’ghost nets’ pose a threat to marine life since they continue fishing not only fish, but also birds and marine mammals and can be considered as posing an especially large risk to marine life. Experiments have shown that the catching efficiency of lost gillnets amounts to approximately 20 % of the initial catch rates after three months, and around 6 % after 27 months. No information on amount of lost nets is available (ICES 2017)

Measures implemented to mitigate ETP bycatch were: use of driftnets in the Baltic has been prohibited since 2007 and mandatory use of acoustic deterrent devices from gillnets since 2005 - though vessels <12 m were exempted, and are currently considered to have significant bycatch of ETP species (ICES 2017). Also a network of marine protected areas exists in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 2017).  

Better data is expected to become available on bycatch species in coming years with the strict application of the updated data collection program (European Commission 2016; ICES 2017), in force since 2017, as it requires that all fleets provide information on bycatch.

Other Species

Last updated on 20 August 2018

Cod is predominately a demersal species targeted by bottom trawls. In 2001, the International Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission introduced fishing gear modifications, including the “Bacoma” cod-end, but in 2015 the Baltic Sea Advisory Council (BSAC) advised that these measures on regulated cod-ends, i.e. the increase of mesh size in Bacoma escape windows, was found to have adverse effects, namely, increased fishing pressure on larger fish and increased unwanted bycatch of juveniles (ICES 2018).

In the Baltic Sea, cod fisheries often capture flounder (Platichthys flesus), and occasionally take plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus(ICES 2018). While no quota has been set for flounder, ICES conducts stock assessment and provides advice for data-limited stocks for four flounder assessment units (subdivisions- SD: 22-23, SD24-25, SD-26, 28 and SD27,29-32). Main catches occur in SD24-25, where survey index shows a positive trend since 2011. Discarding is known to take place, discard rates have been estimated in recent years and included in the advice when possible. Catches in 2016 were below advised level (ICES 2017; ICES 2018)

Flatfish by-catch reduction devices for trawl nets have been developed and tested in Baltic (Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries 2015), but their use is not mandatory. 

HABITAT

Last updated on 20 August 2018

The Eastern Baltic seabed habitat is characterized by sand, hard clay and mud and clay sediments and consists of several deep basins. Habitat types have been studied and various projects have mapped and classified habitat distribution and topographic features (Medley et al, 2011). Also, a red list of Baltic Sea underwater biotopes, habitats and biotope complexes is available (HELCOM 2013). Southern areas, where cod is mostly fished, are dominated by marine species, such as polychaete worms and molluscs, including the bivalves Arctica islandica and Astarte borealis, and eelgrass (Zostera marina), an important species on shallow sandy bottoms (HELCOM 2017). Seagrass meadows play a significant role in supporting fisheries productivity at a global scale (Unsworth et al. 2018), and proved to be benefitial for Atlantic cod stocks as nursery habitat (Lilley and Unsworth 2014)

The Baltic Sea Action Plan is a joint programme of HELCOM countries and the EU which started in 2007 to restore the good environmental status of the Baltic marine environment. Among the plan goals is the establishment of an ecologically coherent and effectively managed network of marine protected areas (MPAs). In 2017, the area protected through MPAs is 12%, above the United Nations target 10%. The protection is however not evenly distributed between sub-basins or between coasts and open sea, and the aim remains to reach the target in all offshore sub-basins (HELCOM 2017).

Available information indicates that the impact of anchored gillnets and longlines on the seabed habitat is minimal (Medley et al, 2011).

Historically, most of the trawl fishery for cod was conducted in the water column in the southern central Baltic sea, however, due to recent hydrological changes, trawl fisheries have become more demersally-focused (MRAG 2016). In the coastal zone trawling is forbidden in most of the countries (ICES 2016). Impact of bottom trawling in offshore waters is under assessment under the BalticBOOST project, as a first step the spatial extent of potential physical disturbance to the seabed was estimated (HELCOM 2017) and then a tool was developed to estimate the severity of these disturbances to the benthic habitats; so far three test cases were conducted in western Baltic Sea. All the three case studies showed reduction of benthic fauna by fishing due to the abrasion which causes direct mortality, bycatch of larger features and abrasion of the seafloor (both surface and sub-surface). The impact is moderate to high disturbance because the seabed morphology is altered and mortality takes place, in sandy and muddy bottoms, as well as in fish reproduction areas and vegetated habitats (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018). These results should be used to generate science-based management recommendations for maintaining functioning of priority habitats, such as seagrass (Unsworth et al. 2018)

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 20 August 2018

The Baltic fish community is dominated by cod, herring and sprat and their trophic relationships are as such important factors driving the overall state of the fish stocks and impacting on lower trophic levels. Cod is the main predator on sprat and herring. The Baltic cod stock has been negatively affected by decreased salinity and increasing temperature, due to a drastic decline of North Sea water influx over recent decades, leading to anoxic conditions and resulting in very poor cod recruitment.  At the same time, elevated nutrient loading in the Baltic Sea has intensified anoxic conditions, which prevail in vast areas of the Baltic seafloor. Herring and sprat has benefit from the cod decrease. Overlapping of cod and pelagic stocks is currently reduced and the mean weight of cod has been declining suggesting weak prey availability (ICES, 2014a) (ICES 2016)

A multispecies and multiannual management plan has been adopted in the Baltic Sea (European Commission 2016) including key commercial and some bycatch species, however, focus continues to be at single-species assessments. Significant efforts have been undertaken to understand ecosystem status and threads of different human activities in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018). The assessment of status of the environment, in terms of pressures as well as ecosystem components, is based on HELCOM core indicators and associated threshold values, which have been developed and agreed in HELCOM over the last decade (HELCOM 2017). For biodiversity, eutrophication, and hazardous substances, integrated assessments are already being carried out. Indicators for loss and disturbance of benthic habitats are under development (HELCOM 2018). However, there is at least some information allowing for assessment of the main impacts of the fishery on ecosystem structure and processes (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018)(Lilley and Unsworth 2014)(Unsworth et al. 2018). The demersal trawl fishery disrupts key elements of ecosystem structure and function, such as the seabed, as morphology is altered and mortality takes place in sandy and muddy bottoms, as well as fish reproduction areas and vegetated habitats, which are also being highly affected by to other activities such as eutrophication (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018)

According to Möllmann et al. (2014) the data, knowledge and tools for integrated ecosystem assessments and ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) are readily available in the Baltic Sea and should be applied and implemented without further delay. While the reference state is still being defined by the management bodies, the current state has been used in some recent studies as a reference state from which comparisons can be drawn in the near future. (Bauer et al. 2018) applied ecopath models incorporating both fishing an eutrophication, and results indicate that nutrient load reduction would increase the spatial extent of the areas suitable for the commercially most valuable demersal fish predator and all types of fisheries.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 9 July 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The European Union (EU) and Russia set unilateral TACs. A EU multi-annual and multi-species management plan has been approved in July 2016, but as regards the Eastern stock of Baltic cod, due to changes in its biology, the ICES has not been able to establish biological reference points and has instead advised that the TAC for this stock be based on a data limited approach, detailed in ICES (2012). ICES is providing advised TAC in accordance with the precautionary approach since 2014, TACs and catches have been significantly reduced since then, but still set TACs are above advised catch levels. Taking into consideration current uncertainty and stock indicators trends, advice for 2019 included a - 20% extra precautionary buffer (ICES, 2018).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 2.7.

This measures the Sum of unilateral TACs as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Sum of unilateral TACs is 34.3 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 23.5 ('000 t) .

The underlying Sum of unilateral TACs/Advised TAC for this index is 146%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Estimated catch as a percentage of the Sum of unilateral TACs.

The Estimated catch is 28.7 ('000 t). The Sum of unilateral TACs is 37.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Estimated catch/Sum of unilateral TACs for this index is 77.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 5.8.

This measures the Ratio B/Bmsy as a percentage of the .

The Ratio B/Bmsy is 0.486 . The is .

The underlying Ratio B/Bmsy/ for this index is .

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 3.6.

This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F=Fmsy.

The Ratio F/Fmsy is 2.10 . The F=Fmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F=Fmsy for this index is 210%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Click on the score to see subscore

×

Bycatch Subscores

Cod is predominately a demersal species targeted by bottom trawls and gillnets. Main bycatch fish species are flatfish, oftenly captured is flounder (Platichthys flesus), and only occasionally plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus(ICES 2018)

There are monitoring programs since 2011, however information coming from these monitoring programs in the Baltic Sea region is limited. Reasons for this include focus on wrong fishery segments, insufficient coverage by fisheries observers, lack of monitoring of small boat fisheries, and lack of bird bycatch monitoring (ICES 2017). ICES evaluated qualitatively the magnitude of marine mammal and seabird bycatch interactions with fishing métiers in the Baltic Sea Ecoregion based on expert opinion and available case studies (ICES 2017).

The Red List of Baltic Sea species report summarizes current available information on protected species at a regional level (HELCOM 2013)

More up to date and detailed data - at country and fleet level - is expected to become available in coming years with with a strict application of the landing obligation and the updated Data Collection Multiannual Plan 2017-2019 (European Commission 2016; ICES 2017).

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

The probability that the cod fishery would jeopardize the viability of main bycatch species  - flounder, plaice and whiting - is considered low. Flounder is mainly caught in SD24-25, where survey index shows a positive trend since 2011, and catches in 2016 were below advised level (ICES 2017). Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Baltic sea present good stock status (ICES 2018). Whiting is not assessed, but bycatch has not been flagged as a problem (ICES 2018)

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

×

Habitat Subscores

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

The Eastern Baltic seabed habitat is characterized by sand, hard clay and mud and clay sediments and consists of several deep basins. Habitat types have been studied and various projects have mapped and classified habitat distribution and topographic features (Medley et al, 2011). Also, a red list of Baltic Sea underwater biotopes, habitats and biotope complexes is available ((HELCOM 2013)(HELCOM 2017).

Available information indicates that the impact of anchored gillnets and longlines on the seabed habitat is considered minimal (Österblom et al 2002; Zydelis et al, 2009; Medley et al, 2011), however more evidence is needed.  

The designation of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a measure aimed at protecting valuable habitats and biological and genetic diversity, such as benthic invertebrates, threathened by bottom trawling. Among the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) goals, is ”the establishment of an ecologically coherent and effectively managed network of marine protected areas (MPAs) that aim to minimize the fisheries impact on habitats” (HELCOM 2017). In 2017, the area protected through MPAs was 12%, above the 10% target, however, it is not evenly distributed between sub-basins or between coasts and open sea. The aim to reach the target in all offshore sub-basins is still to be met (HELCOM 2017)

The ecological coherence of the network was evaluated in 2016 based on four aspects: representativity, replication, adequacy, and connectivity. Representation of different types of geographical features and broad scale habitats, and replication of a set of indicative species, biotope complexes and broad-scale habitats, was assessed at an acceptable level. However, evaluations of adequacy, which considers the quality of the network, and connectivity, which measures how well the network supports the migration and dispersal of species, indicate that the network is not yet ecologically coherent. In 2016, HELCOM agreed on a set of new actions for consideration including ‘Coordination of management measures of pressures and impacts on MPAs, in particular for adjacent transnational MPAs’ which is being taken forward under the regular work of the State and Conservation Working Group (HELCOM 2018).

×

Ecosystem Subscores

There is some reliable qualitative information allowing for assessment of the main impacts of the fishery on ecosystem structure and processes (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018), such as qualitative analysis of impacts of gillnets to mammals and of bottom trawl fisheries on key habitats. 

The assessment of status of the environment, in terms of pressures as well as ecosystem components, is based on HELCOM core indicators. For each indicator, good status is defined by setting a threshold value against which the current status is assessed. HELCOM core indicators and associated threshold values have been developed and agreed in HELCOM over the last decade (HELCOM 2017). For biodiversity, eutrophication, and hazardous substances, integrated assessments are already being carried out. Indicators for loss and disturbance of benthic habitats are under development (HELCOM 2018). While the reference state is still being defined by the management bodies, the current state has been used in some recent studies as a reference state from which comparisons can be drawn in the near future. (Bauer et al. 2018) applied ecopath models incorporating both fishing an eutrophication, and results indicate that nutrient load reduction would increase the spatial extent of the areas suitable for the commercially most valuable demersal fish predator and all types of fisheries.

Different components has different justification at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

A multispecies and multiannual management plan has been adopted in the Baltic Sea (European Commission 2016) including key commercial and some bycatch species, however, focus continues to be at single-species assessments. Significant efforts have been undertaken to understand ecosystem status and threads of different human activities in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 2017)(HELCOM 2018). According to Möllmann et al. (2014) the data, knowledge, and tools for integrated ecosystem assessments and ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) are readily available in the Baltic Sea and should be applied and implemented without further delay. 

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. A EU multi-species and multi-annual plan was approved in 2016, but no reference points could be set for Eastern Baltic cod (European Commission 2016) due to uncertainties on growth and natural mortality changes (ICES 2017; ICES 2018).
  2. Advised catches since 2014 are based on the precautionary ICES data-limited approach (ICES 2015; ICES 2016; ICES 2017; ICES 2018).
  3. Since 2015, ICES assessment and advice for eastern Baltic cod, include partial catches of eastern Baltic cod stock in subdivision 24, which is part of the western Baltic management area, as substantial mixing occurs in this region. Thus, assessment and management areas do not coincide exactly. However, ICES also provides advice for the management eastern Baltic cod area (SD 25-32), by deducting estimated catches of eastern Baltic cod captured in subdivision SD24 (ICES 2015; ICES 2016; ICES 2017; ICES 2018). Advised TAC for SD 25-32 area is computed in the datasheet for parallel comparison with set TAC and proper calculation of Managers Compliance score.
  4. Set TACs are the sum of the EU + the Russian quotas, which are set unilaterally (ICES 2018).
  5. The EU landing obligation started in 2015; until 2014 EU and Russian landings were computed to calculate the Fishers compliance score; while since 2015 fishery removals are informed as estimated catches (landings + discards). Landings also include fish above and below the minimum conservation reference size (MCRS, 35 cm). 
  6. Biomass and fishing mortality estimates are relative to MSY reference points (ICES 2018).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

DFPO Denmark Eastern Baltic cod

STATUS

Withdrawn on 14 June 2017

SCORES

Certification status changes in recent years:

  1. December 2015: The MSC certificate was suspended for all E Baltic cod fisheries  (Notice of Suspension);
  2. March 2016: corrective action plan was submitted, as per requirement from the suspension, but the plan itself and the announcement were only made public in the MSC website in May 2017 (Corrective action plan and announcement);
  3. 14 Jun 2017: three of the five fisheries announced the withdrawal from the MSC Re-certification: Danish, German, Swedish (Notification of withdrawal); 
  4. 14 Jun 2017: Polish and Latvian fisheries, which signed the agreement, did not withdraw (keeping suspended, supposedly, abiding to the agreement) (MSC status Poland, MSC status Latvia).

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits

ASCOBANS, 2009. Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises Jastarnia Plan (Revision). 6th Meeting of the Parties to ASCOBANS, Bonn, Germany, 16-18 September 2009 http://www.service-board.de/ascobans_neu/files/MOP6_7-01_RevisionJastarniaPlan.pdf

Bagge, O., Thurow, F., Steffensen, E., and Bay, J. 1994. The Baltic cod. Dana, 10: 1 –2 http://www.aqua.dtu.dk/~/media/Institutter/Aqua/Publikationer/Dana/dana_vol_10_pp_1_28.ashx

Baltic Sea RAC Area http://www.bsrac.org/archive/billeder%20BSRAC/Bsrac2.pdf

Bjordal, Å., 2002. The use of technical measures in responsible fisheries: regulation of fishing gear. In: Cochrane, K.L. (ed.), 2002. A fishery manager’s guidebook. Management measures and their application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 424. Rome, FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3427e/y3427e00.pdf

Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v346/p27-43/

Eero, M., Vinther, M., Haslob, H., Huwer, B., Casini, M., Storr-Paulsen, M., Köster, F. W. 2012. Spatial management of marine resources can enhance the recovery of predators and avoid local depletion of forage fish, Conservation letters 5(6): 486-492http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00266.x/abstract

Eero, M., Koster, F. W., Vinther, M. 2012. Why is the Eastern Baltic cod recovering?, Marine Policy 36: 235–240 http://www.meece.eu/highlights/balticcod.pdf

Espersen, 2008. Press Release: "Growing cod stocks in the Baltic Sea" 26-05-2008.http://www.espersen.dk/?Id=1010&nId=17

Espersen, 2009a. Press Release: "Elimination of Cod from Unregistered Catches" 25-03-2009 http://www.espersen.dk/?Id=1010&nId=24

Espersen, 2009b. Espersen Press Release "Full MSC certification of Danish Fishery" 03-09-2009 http://www.espersen.dk/?Id=1010&nId=32

European Commission, 2004. Press Release. EU decides to better protect dolphins. 23 March 2004 http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/press_corner/press_releases/archives/com04/com04_11_en.htm

European Commission. 2006a. Press Release. Commission proposes multi-annual plan to rebuild Baltic cod stocks. 24 July 2006 http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/press_corner/press_releases/archives/com06/com06_48_en.htm

European Comission, 2013. Council of The European Union. Press release. 3265th Council meeting Agriculture and Fisheries. Luxembourg, 17 October 2013. 15pphttp://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/EU/XXV/EU/00/14/EU_01459/imfname_10422199.pdf

European Commission (EC), 2014. Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a multiannual plan for the stocks of cod, herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks, amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2187/2005 and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007, 2014/0285 (COD), 19pp. [Accessed 20 January 2015] http://www.fishsec.org/2014/10/06/multispecies-plan-for-the-baltic-sea-proposed-by-the-commission/

EUSeaMap, 2010. EUSeaMap Final Report. Version 2. Preparatory Action for development and assessment of a European broad-scale seabed habitat map . EC contract no. MARE/2008/07 . December 2010. 233pp. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/system/files/20101215_FinalReport_EUSeaMap_v2.0.pdf

FAO, 1999. International Plan of Action for reducing incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries. International Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks. International Plan of Action for the management of fishing capacity. Rome, 26p. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/x3170e/X3170E01.HTM

Food Certification International (FCI), 2012. MSC Sustainable Fisheries Certification, Surveillance Visit - Report for Erzeugergemeinschaft der Nord- und Ostseefischer GmbH Eastern Baltic cod Fishery, 1st Annual Surveillance, 21 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/germany-eastern-baltic-cod/assessment-downloads-1/1st_Annual_Surveillance_Report_-_KttrEBC.pdf

Food Certification International (FCI), 2013. On Site Surveillance Visit - Report for Erzeugergemeinschaft der Nord- und Ostseefischer GmbH Eastern Baltic Cod Fishery. 2nd Annual Surveillance, October 2013. 21pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/germany-eastern-baltic-cod/assessment-downloads-1/20131101_SR_COD150.pdf

Food Certification International (FCI), 2014. Off Site Surveillance Visit - Report for Erzeugergemeinschaft der Nord- und Ostseefischer GmbH Eastern Baltic Cod Fishery. 3rd Annual Surveillance. August 2014. 20pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/germany-eastern-baltic-cod/assessment-downloads-1/20140904_SR_COD150.pdf

Freyhof, J. and Kottelat, M. 2008. Alosa fallax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 30 January 2015] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/904/0

Härkönen, T., Galatius, A., Bräeger, S., Karlsson, O., and Ahola, M. 2013. Population growth rate, abundance and distribution of marine mammals. HELCOM Core Indicator of Biodiversity. HELCOM. 34 pp. http://www.helcom.fi/Core%20Indicators/HELCOM-CoreIndicator-Population_growth_rate_abundance_and_distribution_of_marine_mammals.pdf

HELCOM, 2007. HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. HELCOM Ministerial Meeting Krakow, Poland, 15 November 2007. http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/BSAP/BSAP_Final.pdf

HELCOM, 2008. Status of the Network of Baltic Sea Protected Areas in 2008 Especially as Regards Implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. HELSINKI COMMISSION Nature Protection and Biodiversity Group Tenth Meeting, Warsaw, Poland, 5-9 May 2008.http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=84208&name=DLFE-33541.pdf

HELCOM, 2009a. Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: an integrated thematic assessment on biodiversity and nature conservation in the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 116B. http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/Publications/Proceedings/bsep116B.pdf

HELCOM, 2009b. HELCOM Atlas. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission. http://www.helcom.fi/GIS/helcom_atlas/en_GB/atlas/

HELCOM, 2010. Towards an ecologically coherent network of well-managed Marine Protected Areas – Implementation report on the status and ecological coherence of the HELCOM BSPA network. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 124A. Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Helsinki. 12 pp. http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/Publications/Proceedings/bsep124A.pdf

HELCOM, 2013. HELCOM Red List of Baltic Sea species in danger of becoming extinct. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 140. http://helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP140.pdf

HELCOM Recommendation 15/5 on System of Coastal and Marine Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec15_5/

HELCOM Recommendation 17/2 on Protection of Harbour Porpoise in the Baltic Sea Area http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec17_2/

HELCOM Recommendation 19/2 on Protection and Improvement of the Wild Salmon (Salmo salar L) Population in the Baltic Sea Area http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec19_2/

HELCOM Recommendation 21/4 on Protection of Heavily Endangered or Immediately Threatened Marine and Coastal Biotopes in Baltic Sea Area. http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec21_4/

HELCOM Recommendation 27-28/2 on Conservation of Seals in the Baltic Sea Area http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec27-28_2/

HELCOM, 2013. HELCOM Red List of Baltic Sea species in danger of becoming extinct. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 140.http://helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP140.pdf

Hervás a., Gaudian G., Sten Sverdrup-Jensen S. 2011. Küstenfischer Nord eG Heiligenhafen Eastern Baltic cod Public Certification Report. Food Certification International Ltd/ MSC Sustainable Fisheries. October 2011, 149 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/kustenfischer-nord-eg-heiligenhafen-eastern-baltic-cod/assessment-downloads-1/Public_Certification_Report_-_Final_-_KustEBC_-_06.10.11.pdf

Hiddink, J. G., Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J., Queirós, A. M., Duplisea, D. E. and Piet, G. J., 2006. Cumulative impacts of seabed trawl disturbance on benthic biomass, production, and species richness in different habitats. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63, 4: 721-736.http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f05-266

Hüssy, K. 2011. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics, ICES Journal of Marine Science 68(7): 1459–1471 http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/7/1459.full.pdf+html

ICES, 2003. Environmental Status of The European Seas. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety http://www.ices.dk/reports/germanqsr/23222_ICES_Report_samme.pdf

ICES, 2003. Report of the Study Group on Baltic Ecosystem Health Issues in support of BSRP (SGEH). 9-12 November 2003. Gdynia, Poland. ICES CM 2004/H:02 http://www.ices.dk/projects/balticsea/CD/Ecosystem%20Health/Report%20of%20the%20Study%20Group%20on%20Baltic%20Ecosystem%20Health%20Iss%20(2).pdf

ICES, 2005a. Spawning and life history information for North Atlantic Cod Stocks. ICES Cooperative Research Report. ICES Globec Working Group on Cod and Climate Change. June 2005 http://www.ices.dk/reports/OCC/2005/WGCCC05.pdf

ICES, 2005b. Report of the Study Group on Baltic Ecosystem Health Issues in Support of BSRP, 2-5 November 2004, Vilnius, Lithuania, 48 pp. http://www.ices.dk/projects/balticsea/CD/Ecosystem%20Health/Report%20of%20the%20Study%20Group%20on%20Baltic%20Ecosystem%20Health%20Iss%20(2).pdf

ICES, 2006a. Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group. WBGFAS. WGBFAS Report for 2006. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACFM/2006/WGBFAS/directory.asp

ICES, 2007a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. 11 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2007/may/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2007b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.3.3.3 ICES Response to EU on selectivity of active gears targeting cod in the Baltic sea. 10 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2007/Special%20Requests/EC%20gear%20selectivity%20Baltic%20cod.pdf

ICES, 2007c. Report of the Working Group on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO), 11-18 April, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2007/ACE:04. 162 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2007/WGECO/WGECO07.pdf

ICES, 2008a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. 13 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2008b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 8 http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGBFAS/02.4-Cod%20in%20Subdivisions%2025-32.pdf

ICES, 2008c. Report of the Working Group on Seabird Ecology (WGSE), 10-14 March 2008, Lisbon, Portugal (ICES CM 2008/LRC:05). http://www.ices.dk/reports/LRC/2008/WGSE/WGSE2008.pdf

ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: Baltic Sea. 8.4.1 Cod in Subdivisions 25-32. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2009b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 22-28 April 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:07). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGBFAS/WGBFAS09.pdf

ICES, 2009c. Report of the Working Group on Seabird Ecology (WGSE), 23-27 March 2009, Bruges, Belgium (ICES CM 2009/LRC:05). http://www.ices.dk/reports/LRC/2009/WGSE/WGSE09.pdf

ICES, 2009d. Report of the Working Group on the Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO), 15-21 April 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:20). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGECO/wgeco_final_2009.pdf

ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. Advice summary for 2011. 10 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2010b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 15 - 22 April 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. 633 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%202010.pdf

ICES, 2010c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2010. ICES Advice, 2010. Books 1 - 11. 1, 928 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf

ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. Advice summary for 2012. 9 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2011b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 12 - 19 April, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM:10. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%20Report%202011.pdf

ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. Advice summary for 2013, 11 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cod-2532.pdf

ICES, 2012b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group 2012 (WGBFAS), 12 - 19 April 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM2012/ACOM:10. 859 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%20Report%202012.pdf

ICES, 2012c. Multispecies considerations for the central Baltic stocks: cod in Subdivisions 25–32, herring in Subdivisions 25–29 and 32, and sprat in Subdivisions 22–32, 8 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/Baltic_Multispecies_Advice.pdf

ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. Advice summary for 2014. 11 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cod-2532_201304112231.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 10 - 17 April 2013, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:10. 747 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%202013.pdf

ICES, 2013c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.3.3. Multispecies considerations for the central Baltic stocks: cod in Subdivisions 25–32, herring in Subdivisions 25–29 and 32, and sprat in Subdivisions 22–32. 6 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/Baltic%20Multispecies%20Advice.pdf

ICES, 2013d. Draft Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Multispecies Assessments (WKBALT), 4–8 February 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:43. 201 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WKBALT%202013/wkbalt_draft_2013.pdf

ICES, 2013e. EU request on monitoring of bycatch of seabirds. Special request, Advice December 2013. 9pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/Special%20requests/EU_Monitoring_of_bycatch_of_seabirds.pdf

ICES, 2014b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 3-10 April 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:10. 834 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGBFAS/01%20WGBFAS%20full%20report%202014.pdf

ICES, 2014c. ICES Advice 2014, Book 11.2.1.1 Technical services, September 2014. Subject: EU request on preliminary FMSY ranges for Baltic cod, herring and sprat stocks, 2pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/Special%20Requests/EU_Fmsy_range_for_Baltic_cod_and_pelagic_stocks.pdf

ICES, 2014. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee: Book 8: The Baltic Sea 8.3.3 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Cod in Subdivisions 25–32. Advice summary for 2015. 11 pp http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cod-2532.pdf

IUCN, 2012. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 31 May 2013 http://www.iucnredlist.org

Jastarnia Group & S. Bräger, 2009. Decline of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the southwestern Baltic Sea. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2009.[Viewed on 20th February 2011].http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/ifs2009/en_GB/HarbourPorpoise/

Jacoby, D. and Gollock, M. 2014. Anguilla anguilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 30 January 2015] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/60344/0

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References

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