Profile updated on 5 July 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Trachurus trachurus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic horse mackerel

COMMON NAMES

Western horse mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European horse mackerel, scad

The western stock is one of the four stocks of horse mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic - Southern, North Sea and Saharo-Mauritanian - that have been distinguished based on genetic, parasite, morphometric, otolith and life history trait analyses (Abaunza et al. 2008); the boundaries of their distribution areas have not yet been conclusively determined (ICES, 2009b). The realignment of the stock and management areas has been included in the TAC regulations since 2010 (ICES, 2012a). More information needs to be gathered to determine the south boundaries and relation with the western stock, but a Saharo-Mauritanian stock is distinguished by (Abaunza et al. 2008) and following (Maxim 1995), considering its high production parameters (growth and batch fecundity).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  •  For 2015 set TAC followed the scientific advice.
  • Catch in 2012 and 2013 were below the set TAC.
  • Bycatch of protected species is not assumed to be significant.
  • A revised management plan is currently under development.
Weaknesses
  • The Reproductive biomass (SSB) declined steadily between 1988 and 2000 and is expected to decline below MSY Btrigger in 2014.
  • Fishing mortality has been increasing since 2007 and has been above FMSY since 2012.
  • Recruitment has been low from 2004 onwards.
  • No precautionary reference points are defined; previous reference points were not consistent with the perceived state of stock.
  • There is large uncertainty in the absolute estimates of Spawning Stock Biomass. The only fishery-independent information for this stock is a measure of egg production from surveys conducted every three years. Not all countries provide data on discards; however discards are considered negligible.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

6.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Provide data on discards and on the environmental impact of trawls.
2. Support biological data collection by all countries.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Contact your supplier and request that vessels provide data on discards and on the environmental impact of trawls.
2. Contact your national fisheries research institute and request that they collect biological data on this stock.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
NE Atlantic western stock EU Spain Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  •  For 2015 set TAC followed the scientific advice.
  • Catch in 2012 and 2013 were below the set TAC.
  • Bycatch of protected species is not assumed to be significant.
  • A revised management plan is currently under development.
Weaknesses
  • The Reproductive biomass (SSB) declined steadily between 1988 and 2000 and is expected to decline below MSY Btrigger in 2014.
  • Fishing mortality has been increasing since 2007 and has been above FMSY since 2012.
  • Recruitment has been low from 2004 onwards.
  • No precautionary reference points are defined; previous reference points were not consistent with the perceived state of stock.
  • There is large uncertainty in the absolute estimates of Spawning Stock Biomass. The only fishery-independent information for this stock is a measure of egg production from surveys conducted every three years. Not all countries provide data on discards; however discards are considered negligible.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 July 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Provide data on discards and on the environmental impact of trawls.
2. Support biological data collection by all countries.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Contact your supplier and request that vessels provide data on discards and on the environmental impact of trawls.
2. Contact your national fisheries research institute and request that they collect biological data on this stock.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Stock assessment uses data from a triennial egg survey with catch-at-age data (ICES, 2009a). Different age-structured models are applied to the recent and historic periods and linked through a Separable-ADAPT VPA (SAD) model (ICES, 2009b). Not all countries with significant catches conduct biological sampling programmes. Although discard information is incomplete, discards and bycatch data from the main fleets are now included in the assessments; however discards for 2012 and 2013 were not included in the most recent assessment (ICES, 2014a). A fixed natural mortality of 0.15.year-1 is assumed for all ages and years (ICES, 2013a, 2013b).

There is uncertainty in the absolute estimates of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). The only fishery independent information is the triennial egg survey. If the assumption that fecundity at size is constant from year to year, the assessment results may be biased (ICES, 2013a). The landings sampling fraction has increase for 2013 (ICES, 2014a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

In 2010, ICES started a transition to a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach where scientific advice will provide catch options according to the ICES MSY approach, the precautionary approach, and the management plan (ICES 2010c).

The western stock is considered a management unit and advised accordingly. The TAC is now set in accordance with the distribution of the stock although catches in IIIa are taken outside the TAC (ICES 2014b).

Western horse mackerel has been lightly exploited over its assessed history (average 1982–2013: F = 0.12). An interpretation of the Stock/Recruitment data shows high recruitment events at low Spawning Stock Biomass and no clear Stock/Recruitment relationship. Bloss is used as Bpa consistent with SGPRP (Further Development of the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries Management Study Group) logic on reference points (ICES, 2003b; ICES, 2014). There is a need to provide some biomass protection under the ICES MSY approach, and continued use of FMSY at low biomass may not be precautionary. Therefore, ICES uses Bpa as MSY Btrigger. In the present case this implies MSY Btrigger = Bloss.

As the management plan needs to be reviewed, the MSY approach has been used as basis for ICES advice. ICES’ MSY framework requires fishing mortality to be reduced to 0.12 in 2015, resulting in catches of less than 99,304 tons in 2015 (ICES, 2014a).

Reference Points

Fishing mortality at Maximum Sustainable Yield (FMSY) is defined as 0.13, and based on F0.1 from the Yield Per Recruit (YPR) analysis. Previously defined biomass reference points were considered not consistent with the state of the stock, exploitation rates and the evaluation of MSY reference points (ICES, 2010a). The target Fishing mortality (F) following the ICES MSY approach was determined as F=0.12 for 2015 (ICES, 2014).

CURRENT STATUS

The current status of the stock in regards to reference points is unknown, as there are no biomass reference points currently defined. Spawning stock biomass (SSB) is on a declining trend and is estimated to be at historical low levels, well below the long-term average and the previously defined Blim (ICES, 2013a). SSB is estimated to be at 772,334 tons in 2013 and is expected to decline below MSY Btrigger in 2014. Fishing mortality has been increasing since 2006 and it’s currently well above FMSY (= 0.13). Recruitment levels remain low since 2004 (ICES, 2014a).

Trends

Landings rose quickly from low levels (<100,000 tonnes) in the early 1980s to peak at 540,000 tonnes in the mid-90s but then declined back almost to late-80s levels. Since 2008, landings have been oscillating around 150-200 thousand tonnes. Fishing mortality decreased until 2006 from a peak in the late 90s, but has been increasing in recent years and is above FMSY since 2010. Since 2005, the fishery has been more directed toward younger fish (ages 1–3) than fish of ages 4 to 8. In 2012, fishing mortality on younger ages reached a record-high level (F=0.207). Recruitment is generally relatively low when compared to the extraordinarily strong year-classes which very occasionally occur. Spawning stock biomass has been decreasing since 2008 and is currently at historical low levels, well below the long-term average (ICES, 2013a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

A management plan was proposed by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council in July 2007 with the aims of providing for the long-term sustainability of yields and for stability in TACs (ICES, 2010a). In its latest evaluation of the plan, in 2013, ICES concluded that “in its current configuration, the HCR is not consistent with the PA”. ICES stated however that through the introduction of a biomass trigger in the HCR, the management plan could be made consistent with the precautionary approach (PA) (ICES, 2013a).

In 2010, management areas for North Sea and Western Horse mackerel were rectified, so they would better reflect the distribution and fishing areas of the different horse mackerel stocks (ICES, 2010a). As a consequence, set TACs for Western horse mackerel are now divided in two parts: 1) Division VIIIc (13,572 tons); 2) EU waters of IIa, IVa, VI, VIIa-c, VIIe-k, VIIIa-e, EU and international waters of Vb, XII and XIV (85,732 tons), resulting a total TAC for 2015 set at 99.3 million tons, (EU 2014), in line with ICES advice (ICES, 2014a). However, the set TAC for 2015 was reduced in 26% in comparison with the previous year.

The minimum landing size of horse mackerel by the EU fleet is 15cm (10% undersized allowed in the catches). In Norwegian waters there is no quota for horse mackerel, but existing regulations on bycatch proportions as well as a general discard prohibition (for all species) apply (ICES, 2012b).

Recovery Plans

Not applicable.

COMPLIANCE

Historically, compliance by fishers with the set TACs was poor until the late-90s. Since 2000, compliance has oscillated, but for the majority of years catches still remained above TACs. The mismatch between management areas and ICES advice has also resulted in an overshoot of the advised catch levels prior to 2007 (ICES, 2013b). However since 2012 catches were below the agreed TAC (2012= 6%, catches 173,000 tons / agreed TAC 183,000 tons; 2013 =10%, catches 165,269 tons/ agreed TAC 183,000 tones) reflecting a best fishers compliance (ICES, 2013a; ICES, 2014).

Not all countries provide data on discards, but discards are considered negligible (at 3%) (ICES, 2014). Misreporting of juvenile catches is still an issue in some areas (ICES, 2013b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

The extent of the stock’s distribution region from northern Iberia northwards through the Celtic Sea and into the Norwegian Sea implies an overlap with many of the most populated seabird breeding and migrating grounds on European coasts. Rare species of elasmobranchs including large shark species are considered vulnerable in the Celtic Sea due to overfishing (ICES, 2008c).

In the past, cetacean bycatch has been reported has an issue for horse mackerel trawlers in the Celtic Seas, mainly for small cetaceans – white-sided, common, bottlenose and white-beaked dolphins, porpoises and smaller whales such as long-finned pilot whales and minke whales (Couperus, 1997; ICES, 2008c; Morizur et al., 1999). None of these are known to be endangered in the region (IUCN, 2013). To the north, fisheries bycatch of harbour porpoise and seals has been reported in the past (ICES, 2008c), but not recently (ICES, 2013c). Since 2005, the bycatch of five pilot whales was recorded in the midwater trawl fisheries in ICES area VIfghj (ICES, 2013c). Currently, however, cetacean bycatch is assumed to be very rare in the pelagic trawling for the small pelagic fish (ICES, 2013c).

Marine mammal interactions with purse-seine fisheries was recorded but compared with other fisheries, purse-seine fishing does not seem to be among the most damaging to marine mammals (Wise, et al., 2007; López et al, 2003). Purse-seines bycatch mainly occurred in shallower waters (<100 m) and according to fishers, animals encircled in purse-seines usually survived, either by escaping unaided or being helped to escape by the lowering of the corkline. (Goetz et al., 2013)

In terms of indirect effects of the fishery in PET species, Horse mackerel is part of the diet of several top predators in the southern region including cetaceans and seabirds (ICES, 2009b), but indirect effects of the fishery are not fully known. Fisheries may have a considerable influence on seabird populations through a supply of discards (e.g. Garthe et al., 1996; Granadeiro et al., 2013), but the lack of information on discarding in this fishery means effects are hard to estimate.

Other Species

Bycatch reported by the Dutch fishery, the largest for horse mackerel, includes mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and, to a lesser extent, sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) (Couperus, undated). Purse-seines have a low bycatch of non-target species (ICES, 2013). However, both bycatch and discards information is incomplete for this stock (ICES, 2011a).

Spain
Purse seines

Purse-seines have a low bycatch of non-target species (ICES, 2013). However, bycatch and discards information is incomplete for this stock (ICES, 2011a; ICES, 2014).

HABITAT

Horse mackerel is taken in a variety of fisheries, generally for the human consumption market, with the smallest sizes (juveniles) destined for the Japanese market and adult fish destined mostly for African markets (ICES, 2013a). Migrations are closely associated with the slope current, and horse mackerel migrations are known to be modulated by temperature (ICES, 2013b). Horse mackerel is a pelagic species but its behaviour is closer to a demersal species (ICES, 2009b). Although catches are mainly from pelagic trawl, it can also be taken by purse seine and bottom trawl, in either targeted or mixed fisheries. Bottom trawling is known to impact on benthic communities, and this has been observed in the Bay of Biscay, with a decrease in the mean trophic level of demersal and benthic fisheries and severe declines in some fish and crustacean species (ICES, 2008c).

The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is a recent subject of concern due to the diverse community found associated with it and the damage that is found to be caused by trawling (ICES, 2002). It is abundant in areas of the Bay of Biscay (ICES, 2002), the Celtic Sea (ICES, 2008d) and the Norwegian shelf, and several area closures to bottom trawling are in place to protect it (ICES, 2008c).

Marine Reserves

There are no areas specifically closed to this fishery (PRAC, 2007b) but it may be affected by closures to purse seining or bottom trawling that may be enforced seasonally or spatially by individual countries.

In addition, in EU waters, the extension to marine areas of the EU Natura 2000 network of special conservation areas, under the Birds Directive 79/409/EEC and the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC is currently underway and special fishery management measures may be applied. ICES’ reply to a request to evaluate possible fishery management measures for a proposed Natura 2000 site off Spain’s northern coast included a suggested extension of the area to cover the potential reef habitat and the exclusion of bottom trawling (ICES, 2008e).

Spain
Purse seines

Purse-seines are considered to have a little impact on the seabed since purse seiners operate in open waters (ICES, 2013).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 26 October 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

A management plan was proposed by the Pelagic Regional Advisory Council in July 2007 with the aims of providing for the long-term sustainability of yields and for stability in TACs, and has been used by the EU since 2008 to set the TAC. In its latest evaluation of the plan, in 2013, ICES concluded that “in its current configuration, the HCR is not consistent with the PA”. ICES stated however that through the introduction of a biomass trigger in the HCR, the management plan could be made consistent with the precautionary approach (PA) (ICES, 2013a).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 99.3 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 99.3 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 165 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 183 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 90.3%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Previous PA biomass reference points were considered not consistent with the perceived state of the stock (ICES, 2014). The reproductive biomass (SSB) declined steadily between 1988 and 2000 and has varied between 2001 and 2009 and is expected to decline below MSY Btrigger in 2014 (ICES, 2014a).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 6.6.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.175 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.130 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 135%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) There are no biomass reference points since 2010, as ICES considered that the previous PA reference points were not consistent with the state of the Stock, the exploitation rate and the evaluation of MSY reference points (ICES, 2011a). 

2) Advised TAC for 2015 (99,304 tons) is based on the MSY approach (ICES, 2014a). 

3) The target fishing mortality resultant from the management plan (Ftrp= 0.16) is different from the determined FMSY (= 0.13) (ICES, 2013a). ICES does not advise on the basis of the management plan and recommends that the plan should be subjected to a complete review (ICES, 2013a, 2013b). As such, FMSY is used and extended over the entire series, for scores computation purposes.

 4)The set TAC is the sum of the defined for Division VIIIc (13,572 tons, 2015 data) and the remaining fishing areas lumped (85,732 tons) (EU, 2014).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

The following authors contributed the majority of the content of this profile:

Fernández, Cynthia (cynthia@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Macho, Gonzalo (gmacho@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Ríos, José (joserios@consultorpesquero.com): Palmás, 1º Domaio, 36957 Moaña (Pontevedra), Spain.

under contract to CLUPESCA (Clúster del Sector Pesquero Extractivo y Productor)
Ed. Ramiro Gordejuela, Puerto Pesquero s/n
36202 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.
Email: arvi@arvi.org

References

  1. Couperus AS, 1997. Interactions Between Dutch Midwater Trawl and Atlantic White-sided Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) Southwest of Ireland. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 209–218. http://www.nero.noaa.gov/prot_res/atgtrp/ai/gr/18.pdf
  2. Couperus, undated. By-catch of marine mammals and discards in pelagic fisheries (MAMDIS). Project Nº 94/018. http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/publications/studies/bio/1309R03B94018.pdf
  3. EC 39/2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 39/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available to EU vessels for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are not subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union, 25.1.2013. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0001:0053:EN:PDF
  4. EC 40/2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union, 25.1.2013. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF
  5. EC 43/2014. Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  6. EC No. 43/2012. Council Regulation (EU) No 43/2012 of 17 January 2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available to EU vessels for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are not subject to international negotiations or agreements. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0001:0054:EN:PDF
  7. EC, 2008. Non-paper: Review of the TAC-areas for horse mackerel. European Commission DG Maritime Affairs and Fisheries.http://www.pelagic-rac.org/images/stories/Documents/recommendations/2008-2009/consultation_20080527_ec_-_horse_mackerel_areas.pdf 
  8. EC, 2011. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2009, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  9. EU, 2014. Annex to the Proposal for a Council Regulation fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters and repealing Council Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. COM(2014) 670 final. Annex 1 – Part 1/2 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:eb08b1f1-5e8e-11e4-9cbe-01aa75ed71a1.0003.02/DOC_3&format=PDF 
  10. Garthe, S, Camphuysen, K and Furness, RW, 1996. Amounts of discards by commercial fisheries and their significance as food for seabirds in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 136: 1-11. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v136/p1-11/
  11. Goetz S, FL Read, MB Santos, C Pita and GJ Pierce (2013) Cetacean–fishery interactions in Galicia (NW Spain): results and management implications of a face-to-face interview survey of local fishers. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (3): 604-617. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/71/3/604
  12. Granadeiro, J. P., Brickle, P. and Catry, P., 2013. Do individual seabirds specialize in fisheries' waste? The case of black-browed albatrosses foraging over the Patagonian Shelf. Animal Conservation, DOI: 10.1111/acv.12050. pp. 1-8. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84878491132&partnerID=40&md5=5ac7ffdea136040d85afd01bc0c536ca
  13. ICES Advice 2007, Book 9, 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, VIIIa-e) http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2007/oct/hom-west.pdf
  14. ICES, 2002. Distribution of cold-water corals in the Northeast Atlantic in relation to fisheries. http://www.ices.dk/
  15. ICES, 2008a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/hom-west.pdf
  16. ICES, 2008b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 2-11 September 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:13). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/WGWIDE/WGWIDE08.pdf
  17. ICES, 2008c. Report Of The Working Group For Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25–29 February 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf
  18. ICES, 2008d. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 5: Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.1 Ecosystem overviews. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%205.pdf
  19. ICES, 2008e. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Iberian Seas. 7.3.3.1 Answer to a special request from the European Commission on a proposed Natura 2000 site at El Cachucho. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%207.pdf
  20. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/hom-west.pdf
  21. ICES, 2009b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 2-8 September 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:12). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/WGWIDE/WGWIDE09.pdf
  22. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/hom-west.pdf
  23. ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 28 August - 3 September 2010, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:15). 612 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%202010.pdf
  24. ICES, 2010c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 1: Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 1.2 General context of ICES advice. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%201.pdf
  25. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/hom-west.pdf
  26. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 23 - 29 August 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:15). 642 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%20Report%202011.pdf
  27. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/hom-west.pdf 
  28. ICES, 2012c. EC request on evaluation of a modified harvest control rule for managing the stock of western horse mackerel (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e). ICES Advice 2012, Book 9, 9.3.2.1. Special request, Advice April 2012. 7pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/Special%20Requests/EC_Western_horse_Mackerel.pdf
  29. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 9: Widely distributed and migratory stocks. 9.4.3 Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa-c, e-k and VIIIa-e). Advice October 2013. 18 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/hom-west.pdf
  30. ICES, 2013c. Report of the Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC), 4–8 February, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:27. 73 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGBYC/wgbyc_2013.pdf
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References

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    Atlantic horse mackerel - NE Atlantic western stock

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