Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 16 February 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Macruronus novaezelandiae

SPECIES NAME(S)

Blue grenadier, hoki

COMMON NAMES

blue grenadier, hoki

The New Zealand hoki is a deepwater species that is distributed throughout the New Zealand coast, usually found at depths of 200-800 m. The species is divided into two main biological stocks based on the two main spawning grounds: the eastern comprises the area of the East Coast of South Island, Mernoo Bank, Chatham Rise, Cook Strait and the East Coast of North Island up to North Cape and the western includes the west coast of the North and South Islands and the area south of New Zealand including Puysegur, Snares and the Southern Plateau (MPI, 2012). However, there is still some uncertainty about the stock structure and this topic has been subject of recent studies (Ballara and Driscoll, 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock assessment, scientific advice, TACC setting, monitoring / control / surveillance / enforcement (MCSE) and compliance are all consistent with best practices. Collaborative management by Deepwater Group Limited (DWG) and the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) strengthens compliance.
  • The MPI ranks the overall quality of the full quanitiative stock assessment applied to this stock as "high quality".
  • The most recent assessment results (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017) reports spawning stock has been increasing or stable over the past 6 years, and is likely to be stable over the next 5 years at assumed future catch levels.
  • Fishing intensity remains well below the annual exploitation rate (U35%), correspondent to the lower boundary of the target biomass “safety” zone (B35%).
  • Several closure areas are established to protect spawning grounds, juveniles (Hoki Management Areas) and vulnerable habitats (Benthic Protected Areas) from trawling.
  • Bycatch of protected species are identified, quantified and monitored yearly. Mitigation measures for seabirds are successful.
  • Industry Code of Practice for hoki trawling fisheries aims to protect smaller fish (<60 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals.
  • The fishery has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council since 2001.
Weaknesses
  • Major sources of uncertainty in the assesment are with regard to migration patterns and stock structure of the species, and the true split in recruitment between the eastern and western stocks (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)
  • Influence of climate and oceanographic conditions on recruitment patterns is not known.
  • Although the capture rate has been decreasing, the capture of “high risk” seabird species continued as of at least 2014-15.
  • Information on cumulative bottom trawl footprint in relation to BOMEC habitat class is still not available.
  • There is some uncertainty about BPAs representativeness.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
  • Ensure benthic protected area network coverage is representative of all types of habitat classes.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • New Zealand hoki:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
New Zealand Eastern New Zealand New Zealand Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Strengths
  • Stock assessment, scientific advice, TACC setting, monitoring / control / surveillance / enforcement (MCSE) and compliance are all consistent with best practices. Collaborative management by Deepwater Group Limited (DWG) and the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) strengthens compliance.
  • The MPI ranks the overall quality of the full quanitiative stock assessment applied to this stock as "high quality".
  • The most recent assessment results (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017) reports spawning stock has been increasing or stable over the past 6 years, and is likely to be stable over the next 5 years at assumed future catch levels.
  • Fishing intensity remains well below the annual exploitation rate (U35%), correspondent to the lower boundary of the target biomass “safety” zone (B35%).
  • Several closure areas are established to protect spawning grounds, juveniles (Hoki Management Areas) and vulnerable habitats (Benthic Protected Areas) from trawling.
  • Bycatch of protected species are identified, quantified and monitored yearly. Mitigation measures for seabirds are successful.
  • Industry Code of Practice for hoki trawling fisheries aims to protect smaller fish (<60 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals.
  • The fishery has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council since 2001.
Weaknesses
  • Major sources of uncertainty in the assesment are with regard to migration patterns and stock structure of the species, and the true split in recruitment between the eastern and western stocks (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)
  • Influence of climate and oceanographic conditions on recruitment patterns is not known.
  • Although the capture rate has been decreasing, the capture of “high risk” seabird species continued as of at least 2014-15.
  • Information on cumulative bottom trawl footprint in relation to BOMEC habitat class is still not available.
  • There is some uncertainty about BPAs representativeness.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.
  • Ensure benthic protected area network coverage is representative of all types of habitat classes.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 June 2017

A new stock assessment was carried out in 2017 using research time series of abundance indices (trawl and acoustic surveys), proportions at age data from the commercial fisheries and trawl surveys, and estimates of fixed biological parameters (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The full quanitiative stock assessment applied to the New Zealand Hoki stocks is ranked "high quality" by the assessment body, and employs state-of-the-art stock assessment methodology (Akroyd et al. 2012). The age-structured CASAL model with Bayesian estimation of posterior distributions considers both eastern and western stocks with no mixing of adults (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017).

Major areas of uncertainty noted in the 2017 stock assessment were with regard to the stock structure and migration patterns, and the split of the 2014 and 2015 year classes between the eastern and western stocks, and the respective projections (five-year forecasts are conducted as part of the stock assessment procedure).  There is increased uncertainty associated with the status of the western NZ hoki stock, and particularly with regard to a potential decline in the stock indicated by the 2014 and 2016 Sub-Antarctic trawl survey (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). These declines are interpreted by the model as being due to observational and process error, but if they are reflective of actual changes in biomass, then the western stock status would be overestimated. Assessment reports have advised that, for a number of reasons, the BMSY reference point estimates should be interpreted with caution, and that BMSY is not a suitable management target, largely because of the uncertainty associated with underlying elements (see reference point section). 

Also of note is the considerable impact of annual variations in hoki recruitment on the fishery, and assessment reports have suggested a better understanding of the influence of climate and oceanographic conditions on recruitment patterns would be very useful for the future projection of stock size (MPI, 2015a; 2016; (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)). Lastly, there are sources of additional fishing mortality from incidental causes that are not incorporated in the assessment; and no information is available on illegal catches (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017).

The process and results are transparent and available publicly online, and are peer reviewed. Updated estimates of hoki stock status are currently assessed every year (MPI, 2015b; (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Scientific advice on Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) is consistent with the degree of confidence in the stock assessment and reflecting uncertainties. Stock assessment is performed by the Hoki Working Group (HWG) under the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) but they do not make management decisions. Management is conducted by the MPI and the Deepwater Group Limited (DWG) and policy has been successful in maintaining the stock at safe levels.

Scientific advice equals the set TACC that in 2017 corresponds to 60,000 tonnes for the eastern stock (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Three TACC options were consulted in 2015: TACC= 160,000, 150,000 or 155,000 tonnes (MPI, 2015b). According to MPI (2015c), Option 2 (150,000 tonnes: 60,000 Eastern stock and 90,000 tonnes Western stock) represents a conservative and responsive approach to the possibility that hoki abundance in the western stock has decreased. MPI suggests a reduction in the TACC to potentially avoid a larger decrease in future (MPI, 2015b,c).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

The target management strategy for the stock is to maintain the reproductive biomass (SSB) above B35-50%; correspondent to the lower fishing target, U35%=0.21 (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Other biological reference points were adopted in 2009: the Soft limit, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be overfished or depleted and needs to be actively rebuilt”, is 20% of the average spawning stock biomass (B20%=109,400 tonnes) that would have occurred if had there been no fishing (B0=547,000 tonnes), and is assumed to be Blim; the Hard limit, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be collapsed where fishery closures should be considered in order to rebuild a stock at the fastest possible rate”, is 10% of B0. A target biomass reference point is defined at 35% of the average spawning stock biomass (B35%=191,450 tonnes) that would have occurred if had there been no fishing (B0).

BMSY is estimated at 26.5% of B0, but is not considered to be a suitable management target for a number of reasons: 1) uncertainty - it assumes perfect knowledge of the current biomass and stock-recruit relationship (which is poor); 2) it requires a highly responsive harvest strategy that adjusts TACCs annually, which is an unlikely scenario; and 3) its close proximity to the soft harvest limit would permit the limit to be easily and potentially frequently breached given circumstances such as periods of low recruitment, like those observed between 1995-2001 for the Western stock (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

The 2016-2017 spawning stock biomass (SSB) was estimated to be 328,000 tonnes (60% B0), continuing a trend of very stable biomass for the past several years (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The estimate just more than 1/2 of the 40-year peak of roughly 600,000  tonnes 1983, but up from the low of roughly146,300 estimated for 2006.  The estimated biomass is considered Virtually Certain (> 99%) to be at or above the lower end of the target range and “exceptionally unlikely” (<1%) to be below both Soft and Hard limits. Overfishing is exceptionally unlikely to be occurring. A strong year class was indicated for 2011. Fishing intensity (exploitation rate) decreased between 2005 until 2011, and has remained relatively stable since that time (around 0.09) and well below U35% (0.21).

Landings in 2014-2015 exceeded the TACC (60,000 tonnes) at 64,600 tonnes (sum of Cook Strait, East Coast South Island (ECSI), Chatham Rise & ECSI and East Coast North Island (ECNI) landings). Total landings decreased between 2014-15 and  2016-17, by about 7%.  Cook Straight and Chatham Rise saw decreases of approximately 8.5% each; while in the ECSI and ECNI, catches increased by about 14% and 13% respectively.

TRENDS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Fishing patterns have changed considerably since the late 1980s, due to TACC changes and re-distribution of fishing effort (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Hoki fishing in the region expanded in the 1970s due to foreign vessels until 1978 when the EEZ was defined and catch limits introduced. From 1989 onward, effort redistributed in the fishing grounds and catches in the eastern stock increased rapidly until 1998. After an almost ten-year declining trend and accompanying successive TACC reductions in an attempt to shift catches to the western stock, the 2003 assessment revealed the eastern stock was in a healthier state than the western stock. Effort has since shifted back to the eastern stock, stabilizing catches at around 60,000 tons.

Following an over decade-long decline in SSB, to approximately 27%B0 level in 2006 (based on digitized values from plots in the 2017 stock assessment), biomass up increased up to a levelling off point in the last several years. An even steeper decline in is apparent in fishing intensity (exploitation rate) from 2005 until 2011, and has since remained stable (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Plots of year class strength show mostly below average estimated recruitment recruitment from 2000-2009, with large oscillations between above and below average recruitment since, and the 2015 year class appearing well below the long-term average (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The projections indicate that if year classes recruit to the eastern stock as expected, and at assumed 2016 eastern fishery catch levels, biomass will continue to remain roughly constant over the next 5 years.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 13 June 2017

An ecosystem approach to fisheries management is a future objective. Managers’ decisions have on occasion become more precautionary in response to industry concerns over sustainability. A management strategy with a target biomass range of 35-50% of virgin biomass, is defined for the hoki fishery.

The TACCs are recommended by the Minister, consistent with the Fisheries Act 1996, and in agreement with the industry.  The target for eastern and western areas combined was set at 150,000 tonnes for 2013-2014, 160,000 tonnes for 2014-2015, and back to 150,000 tonnes for 2015-2016 (MPI 2016).  The allocation for the eastern stock has consistantly been set at 60,000 tonnes since 2010, while the remaining western area portion has varied. Increased catch allocated to the western stock from 2009-20010 through 2014-2015 intended to protect juvenile hoki from both stocks occurring in the Chatham Rise, where the majority of hoki from the eastern stock are harvested (MPI, 2013b). For 2015-2016, It was estimated that 40,000 tonnes of the eastern stock catch limit would come from spawning fish and the remaining 20,000 tonnes would be non-spawning.

Other management measures include restrictions on vessels, limiting fishing by chartered vessels to outside the 12 mile Territorial Sea. The spawning area of Cook Strait is off-limits to larger vessels and several large areas, Benthic Protection Areas (BPA), have been voluntarily closed to bottom trawling since 2007 (MPI, 2012). A Code of Practice for directed hoki trawling was introduced by the former Hoki Fishery Management Company in 2001 to protect small fish (under 60 cm) and was updated in 2009 to specifically manage four areas of juveniles’ distribution – Hoki Management Areas (HMA) that aim to improve stock recruitment and comprise closed areas to hoki fishing but are accessible to other species fishing – and move vessels in any area catching more than 20% of juvenile hoki, revised to smaller than 55 cm (NZG, 2010; MPI, 2012; Akroyd et al, 2012). The fishing activity on these HMA is motorized by the MPI that provides a quarterly report to industry (MPI, 2014b).

The National Deepwater Plan (5 years duration) was most recently scheduled for review during 2015-16. Detailed information on management measures can be found in the Annual Operational Plan for Deepwater Fisheries 2015/16.

New Zealand hoki was first certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as sustainable in 2001 and re-certified in 2007 and 2012. Certification includes Eastern and Western stocks. The single condition of the most recent re-certification regards the impact of the fishery in the habitat was closed out by the first surveillance audit and no changes occurred by the second surveillance audit. Several recommendations have been suggested to improve the fishery (Akroyd et al, 2012; Akroyd and Pierre, 2013; Akroyd and Pierre, 2014).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 16 March 2011

None required.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 13 June 2017

Quota limits for the hoki fishery were first introduced in late 80s, when the New Zealand’s EEZ was declared. Historically, compliance with formal catch regulations has been high, even after successive TACC reductions. Since the 2004-2005 definition of separate catch limits for eastern and western stocks, set TACCs for the eastern stock have been exceeded by greater than 1% only once - in 2014-15, by about 8% (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). For the 2012-13 season the catches were 60,300 tons, 300 tons higher than the set TACC. The TACC was exceeded by a larger margin in 2014-2015, by 4,600 tonnes (MPI 2016). Chatham Rise is the most important catch area in the eastern stock area (40,100 tonnes in 2014-15, and 36,700 tons in 2015-16) (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The partnership between MPI and DWG strengthens compliance (Akroyd et al, 2012).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 3 February 2016

The interaction of the fishery with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is not considered to be unacceptable but the impact is cumulative with other fisheries so should be monitored carefully. Details about population status and interactions with fisheries are summarized in the Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Annual Review and in Akroyd et al (2012).

PET seabirds (all from IUCN 2010 Red List) such as Sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus (Near Threatened), White capped albatross Thalassarche steadi (Near Threatened), Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche salvini (Vulnerable), Buller’s albatross Thalassarche bulleri (Near Threatened), White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis (Vulnerable) are by-catch of the hoki fishery. Management of seabird interactions with New Zealand’s commercial fisheries is now being driven through the Seabird National Plan of Action (NPOA-Seabirds). Work is ongoing between MPI and industry to reduce the risk of this fishery to key seabird species. A Vessel Management Plan is in place to document fish waste management procedures and reduce the interaction with seabirds (Akroyd et al, 2012). Seabird scaring devices for all trawlers >28 m in length and “paired streamer lines”, “bird baffler” or “warp deflector” while trawling are mitigation measures mandatory since 2006; catch of White capped albatross decreased since then (MPI, 2012). In 2012-2013 an estimated 215-333 seabird captures occurred in the hoki fishery, accounting for about 13% of seabird captures in the trawl fisheries (Abraham et al., 2013 in MPI, 2015a). The average capture rate in hoki trawl fisheries over the last ten years is about 2.16 birds per 100 tows, which is considered a low rate relative to other New Zealand trawl fisheries (MPI, 2015a). Captures of Salvin’s, Buller’s and white-capped albatross continued in 2013, although with a small rate of capture (2.13% of the observations) emphasising the appropriateness of ongoing management to reduce these captures, e.g., the use of effective warp strike mitigation devices and processing waste management strategies (Akroyd and Pierre, 2014, MPI, 2014a). Hoki fishing effort contributes approximately one third of the total risk to Southern Buller’s albatross (MPI, 2013b). The results of the 3rd surveillance audit indicated that the rate of seabird captures increased, with total captures in 2014/15 being the highest since 2002/03, consisted largely of sooty shearwater (low risk species). Captures of the higher risk Buller’s and Salvin’s albatross were similar to previous years (Akyrod et al., 2016).

Marine mammals such as New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri (Least Concern; IUCN 2008 Red List) and New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri (Vulnerable, IUCN 2008 Red List) are identified as incidental catches but are not threatened by the fishery (Boyd, 2011). During the 2012-2013 fishing year it is estimated that 242 (mean) fur seal mortalities occurred in the hoki fisheries (MPI, 2015a). However, results from the 3rd surveillance audit suggest that, with total captures in 2014/15 being the lowest since 2002/03 (Akroyd et al., 2016). Additionally, fur seal population is believed to be increasing and it is unlikely that the current level of mortality is affecting the long term viability of the national population (MPI, 2013b). NZ sea lions are rarely captured and observed catches are outside the fishing area here regarded (MPI, 2012). The fishery does not interact with dolphins or whales (Boyd, 2011). In order to reduce incidental fur seal catches, a set of Marine Mammal Operational Procedures (MMOP) was agreed conjunctly between the government, industry and NGOs. Active monitoring of interactions will continue (MPI, 2013b). Furthermore, fur seals are protected by the Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA) 1978. As is one of the main fisheries that contribute to the annual catches (MPI, 2012a), the hoki fishery is included in one of the National Deepwater Plan (NDP) objectives to avoid and minimize the capture of these marine mammals.

Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus – listed in CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and in the IUCN 2005 Red List as Vulnerable – is the only protected fish not under the Quota Management System (non-QMS) that is occasionally caught as bycatch, although the number of reported catches has been declining. There are no direct mitigation measures. Mandatory reporting of catches of protected species serves to monitor interactions; projects are undergoing to understand the interactions (MPI, 2012; Akroyd et al, 2012). MSC points one recommendation to understand the biological status of all Pale ghost shark Hydrolagus bemisi (Least Concern; 2003 IUCN Redlist) stocks. Porgeable Lamna nasus and school Galeorhinus galeus sharks (both considered as Vulnerable in the 2006 IUCN Redlist) are QMS bycatch species and currently not considered to be threatened by the fishery (Akroyd et al, 2012). The New Zealand National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA–Sharks) includes several actions to improve the monitoring of shark by-catch (MPI, 2013b). ). In the most recent surveillance audit was mentioned that other protected species captures reported by observers in the 2012/13 fishing year included basking sharks (2), dusky dolphin (1), New Zealand fur seal (37), New Zealand sea lion (1), and pilot whale (1).

The impact on protected corals (Antipatharia, Gorgonacea, Scleractinia, Stylasteridae) should also be understood and monitored (Akroyd et al, 2012).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 1 March 2017

Hoki was 84.7%, 85.9% and 88% of the catch in 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 respectively (MPI, 2016). Data on bycatch and discarded species are obtained through both the recording of catches and observers’ reports. Composition and proportion of commercial and non-commercial species vary between the fishing areas and seasons (Ministry of Fisheries, 2011a).

Main non-target species that are predominantly managed under the Quota Management System (QMS) and are at least 1% of catches are considered as key bycatch species. Species that are not-QMS are usually discarded, incidentally captured and of little commercial value (NDP, 2012). By-catch of non-QMS fish species constitutes a small proportion (<5%) of the total hoki catch (MPI, 2013b). For the all fishing areas and between 2014-2015 (proportion in weight of catches) of main captured species were: hoki (88.0%), ling (2.4%), javelinfish (1.4%), rattails (1.1%) and hake( 1.8%) (MPI, 2016). None of the captured species is considered to be a concern (Akroyd et al, 2012). In hoki target fisheries off the west cast South Island, Chatham Rise and Sub-Antarctic the main bycatch species are hake, ling, silver warehou, jack mackerel  and spiny dogfish; while in Cook Strait, the main bycatch species are ling and spiny dogfish (MPI, 2016). Total annual discard estimates ranged from about 5,500 to 29,000 tons per year between 2000–01 and 2006–07 (MPI, 2013). According to Anderson (2014), the species showing the greatest decline in by-catch rate between 1990-2012 were skates, slender jack mackerel and dogfishes. The species showing the greatest increase were floppy tubular sponge (Hyalascus sp.) and umbrella octopus (Opisthoteuthis spp.). However, this increase also could resulted of an improved identification of these species. Any increase to the Hoki TAC (2015-2016 season) was considered unlikely to have an unacceptable impact on the key by-catch species in the hoki fisheries (MPI, 2015b).

Management controls to reduce bycatch and discards include restrictions prohibiting bigger vessels (>45 m) to operate near the coast, agreed catch splits between eastern and western stocks and an Industry Code of Practice for hoki trawling fisheries aiming to protect smaller fish (<60 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals. HMAs contribute when the catch is more than 20% of juveniles (Ballara, 2010; Ministry of Fisheries, 2011; MPI, 2012).

A framework for sustainability risk assessment of fish by-catch in deepwater fisheries in New Zeland is presently under development (Roux et al., 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 3 February 2016

Mid-water trawling is expected occasionally to interact with the seabed ecosystem; even more, the impact is considered to be cumulative. Some habitat classes – Benthic-Optimised Marine Environment Classification (BOMEC) 7, 8, 9 – were identified in an Ecosystem Risk Assessment conducted by Boyd (2011) and were considered of special vulnerability. The MSC re-certification of the fishery (achieved in 2012) defined one condition that was closed by the first surveillance audit: the fishery is highly unlikely to reduce habitat structure and function to a point where there would be serious or irreversible harm. However, there are still significant gaps in knowledge. During the 3rd surveillance audit, concerns were raised about the veracity of the BOMEC classification such that alternative methods of evaluating impact were being considered. A new recommendation was raised to review at the next audit the research work to assess bottom trawl footprint and impact by BOMEC habitat class, or an improved tool when available (Akroyd et al., 2016a). By the 4th surveillance audit (Akroyd et al. 2016b), it was reported that the BOMEC habitat classification scheme was considered to be of limited value for assessing trawl and dredge impacts on benthic fauna and habitats in New Zealand waters; and development of a spatially explicit, risk-based approach was understood to be the preferred approach. Meanwhile, the recommendation remained open.   

In light of an industry proposal, BPAs within New Zealand’s EEZ, corresponding to 32% of its total area, were closed to bottom trawling (and dredging) in 2007 on a permanent basis (MPI, 2009; MPI, 2012). However BPAs do not represent the full range of habitats, and in particular, are considered to not adequately protect BOMEC 9 in Chatham Rise where high fishing intensity exists (Akroyd et al, 2012). Generally benthic bycatch is small, except for sponges (NZG, 2010). Baird et al., (2013) mentioned that although all coral orders were represented in the hoki bycatch, about 80% were stony corals.

The species is a key component in the ecosystem; and the importance of understanding prey-predator relationships between hoki and other species is emphasized in stock assessments (MPI, 2012; 2013; 2016).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 15 February 2017

Currently a network representative of New Zealand’s marine habitat and ecosystems is being established and the process is involving stakeholders. The implementation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) policy will primarily address the territorial sea until 2013 since BPAs already protect 30% of the EEZ seabed. Meanwhile, the classification system and the updated knowledge will be included in the protection standard (DoC, 2008; MPI, 2009). There is some controversy about the representativeness of these BPAs. The current BPAs were to be reviewed after 2013 and if existing BPAs were found not to be representative then further closures were to be considered (NZG, 2010).

The Hoki Operational Procedure (HOP) is applied to all vessels greater than 28 m and includes four closing areas to protect juvenile hoki: Cook Start, Canterbury banks, Mernoo Bank and Puysegur Bank (MPI, 2014b).

Some areas are protected by marine reserves (created since 1975 are already 30) under the Marine Reserves Act 1971, Fisheries Act closures, and cable protection zones and overall protected areas (including fisheries closures on seamount) represent now over 3% of the New Zealand marine environment (DOC, 2011). In January 2016, NZ government published a document for consultation proposing A New Marine Protected Areas Act. This document, which will be in consultation until March 2016 provides four categories of MPA: marine reserves , species-specific sanctuaries, seabed reserves and recreational fishing parks. The goal of this proposal is to congregate all the matters on this topic in a single document and improve the decision-making process. However, it seems that the proposed approach will lead to legislation that affects the territorial seas (i.e. out to 12 miles) only. A better clarification on the situation of the existing BPAs is needed.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 12 June 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 8.0.

There is not a formally adopted target fishing mortality reference point for the fishery. However, the target biomass range (35-50% B0) is set intentionally well above Bmsy (estimated at 26.5% B0 in 2017) (MPI 2017), reflecting a precautionary strategy. The management is “assessment‐based and leads to regular TAC and TACC reviews, based on the results of an annual stock assessment” (MoF, 2011).

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TACC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TACC is 60.0 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 60.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TACC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TACC.

The Landings is 60.1 ('000 t). The Set TACC is 60.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TACC for this index is 100%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 35%B0.

The SSB is 328 ('000 t). The 35%B0 is 191 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/35%B0 for this index is 171%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Harvest rate U as a percentage of the Target harvest rate U.

The Harvest rate U is 0.0885 . The Target harvest rate U is 0.210 .

The underlying Harvest rate U/Target harvest rate U for this index is 42.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. There is no target fishing mortality reference point; and so a partial score was assigned to score #1, based on the management goal to maintain biomass in the target range of B35-50% of the average spawning stock biomass (SSB) that would have occurred if had there been no fishing (B0). The 2017 base model estimated BMSY at 26.5%B0 for the eastern stock, but the stock is not managed for this target due to uncertainty in the Bmsy estimate, and additional factors described in the profile summary (see Stock Assessment and Reference Points sections). The B35% management goal is more conservative, and is thus regarded as precautionary.
  2. The 2017 assessment results presented here are based on the Base model (run 1.1).  Process error was estimated independently, (rather than being a single fixed constant, as in past Base models), for two trawl survey data sets (SAsumbio and CRsumbio).
  3. Score #5 was determined using the annual exploitation rate (U35%), correspondent to B35%, the lower boundary of the target biomass “safety” zone, which was used to compute score #4. Annual exploitation rates used for scoring and graphical display here were aquired by digitizing "Fishing Intensity" values from plots in Figure 4 of the 2017 stock assessment.
  4. SSB2017 was estimated to be at 60% of B0, estimated in mid-season 2016-2017 (see Table 24 ( Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)). The Soft limit, at 20% B0, is assumed as the limit biological reference point.
  5. SSB values for years, 1972-2016, (that appear below in graphical form) were aquired by applying digitized annual "%B0" values from plots in Figure 2 of the 2017 stock assessment, to  Bestimated from model run 1.1 (Table 24). 
  6. The scientific advice is embedded in the management of the stock carried out by the Ministry for Primary Industries; thus set TACC is assumed to equal advised TACC. 
  7. The fishing year starts in October and ends in September of the following year; e.g. landings for 2016 correspond to the 2015-2016 fishing year.
  8. Annual catches are the sum of landings reported in Cook Strait, East Coast South Island (ECSI), Chatham Rise & ECSI and East Coast North Island (ECNI) landings (MPI 2017).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

New Zealand hoki

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 14 March 2001

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 90.6
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 86.7
Principle 3 – Management System 94.8

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T., Kloser, R., Green, M., Barker, B., Bax, N., Brodie, P., Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 279-294
  2. Akroyd, J, Dunn, M., Pilling, G., 2016a. On-Site 3rd Surveillance Visit - Report for New Zealand New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Acoura, January 2016. 18 pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20160121_SR_HOK78.pdf
  3. Akroyd, J.M. and Pierre, J.P. 2013. Surveillance Report New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, February 2013. 24pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/82085_HOK_surveillance_report_120213.pdf
  4. Akroyd, J.M., Pierre, J.P., 2014. Surveillance Report New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, April 2014. 13pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20140429_SR_HOK78.pdf
  5. Akroyd, J., Pierre, J., Punt, A. 2011. Fourth Surveillance Report, New Zealand Hoki Fishery, Intertek Moody Marine, 55 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/reassessment-downloads-1/20111222_SR.pdf
  6. Akroyd, J., Pierre, J., Punt, A. 2012. New Zealand Hoki Fisheries: 2nd Reassessment, Public Certification Report, V5, Intertek Moody Marine, 297 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20120925_PCR.pdf
  7. Akroyd, J., Piilling, and Blyth-Skyrme, R., 2016b. On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for New Zealand Hoki Fishery, November 2016. Acoura Marine, 13 p. https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/new-zealand-hoki/@@assessments
  8. Anderson, O.F. (2014). Fish and invertebrate bycatch in New Zealand deepwater fisheries from 1990–91 until 2011–12. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 139. 60 phttp://www.mpi.govt.nz/news-and-resources/publications/
  9. Baird SJ, 2005. Incidental capture of seabird species in commercial fisheries in New Zealand waters, 2002–03. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2005/2.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/%5C2005%20FARs%5C05_02_FAR.pdf
  10. Baird, S.J., Tracey, D., Mormede, S., Clark., M., 2013. The distribution of protected corals in New Zealand waters. Prepared for DOC. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd, NIWA, February 2013. DOC12303 / POP2011-06. 96pp http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-conservation-services/pop-2011-06-coral-distribution.pdf
  11. Ballara, S.L.; O’Driscoll, R.L. (2014). Catches, size, and age structure of the 2011–12 hoki fishery, and a summary of input data used for the 2013 stock assessment. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2014/05. 117p http://file:///C:/Users/P/Downloads/6995061-2014-05-Catches-size-and-age-structure-of-the-201112-hoki-fishery%20(1).pdf
  12. Ballara, S.L., O’Driscoll R.L., Anderson, O.F., 2010. Fish discards and non-target fish catch in the trawl fisheries for hoki, hake, and ling in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report 2010. 100 pp.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22289/AEBR_48.pdf.ashx
  13. Ballara SL, O’Driscoll RL, Fu D, 2006. Catches, size and age structure of the 2004-05 hoki fishery, and a summary of input data used for the 2006 stock assessment. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2006/49.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/%5C2006%20FARs%5C06_49_FAR.pdf
  14. Boyd, R. O. 2011. Ecological risk assessment of the New Zealand hoki fisheries, Report for Deepwater Group Limited, Nelson, 76 p.http://www.deepwater.co.nz/f901,97514/97514_2010_HOKI_ERA_Final_Report_250311.pdf
  15. Brown Goode, G., & T.H. Bean, 1896. Image via Creative Commons. Blue grenadier, Macruronus novaezelandiae. From plate 101 of Oceanic Ichthyology.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macruronus_novaezelandiae.jpg
  16. CITES, 2008. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. Appendices I, II and III.http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml
  17. Dept. Conservation & Min. Fisheries, 2005. Marine Protected Areas: Policy and Implementation Plan.http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/85FB2343-1355-45EA-A329-88C269A2A84C/0/MPAPolicyandImplementationPlan.pdf
  18. DOC, 2011. New Zealand Department of Conservation Website. [Accessed on February, 2011].http://www.doc.govt.nz/
  19. IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Downloaded on 25 February 2011].http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  20. Livingston ME, Stevens DW, 2002. Review of trawl survey abundance data available as inputs to the hoki stock assessment 2002. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/48.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/%5C2002%20FARs%5C02_48_FAR.pdf
  21. Minister of Fisheries, 2010. Decision Letter on Sustainability Measures 2010.http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/3C845316-54D3-4A65-B8B7-0499E0223480/0/Decision_letter_Sust_Measures_2010.pdf
  22. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2009. Environmental, Habitat Protection and Research, Benthic Protection Areas. [Accessed 29th January 2013] http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Seabed+Protection+and+Research/Benthic+Protection+Areas.htm
  23. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2012a. Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Annual Review 2012. Compiled by the Fisheries Management Science Team, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, New Zealand. 388 p.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/23115/AEBAR%202012.pdf.ashx
  24. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2012. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary, May 2012: stock assessments and yield estimates. Compiled by the Fisheries Science Group, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, New Zealand. 1194 p.https://www.mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/4185
  25. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2013b. Deepwater Fisheries: Review of Sustainability Measures and Other Management Controls. October 2013, 89pp http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/D6A100C5-B737-4D72-A20B-F9F7DB670FB3/0/201310AllDeepwaterFAPsFINAL.pdf
  26. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2013. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary May 2013: Stock Assessments and Yield Estimates. Hoki: 392 -428 http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/23315/032_HOK_2013.pdf.ashx
  27. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2014a. Fisheries Assessment Plenary May 2014: Stock Assessments and Stock Status. Hoki (HOK): 405-440.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/23572/32_HOK_2014%20FINAL.pdf.ashx
  28. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2014b. Review of Sustainability Measures and Other Management Controls for Selected Deepwater Fishstocks Final Advice and Recommendations for the TAC, TACC, and Allowances and Deemed Value Rates for six fishstocks MPI Information Paper No: 2014/15. July 2014. 80pp http://www.mpi.govt.nz/news-and-resources/publications/
  29. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2014c. Fisheries (Total Allowable Commercial Catch) Amendment Notice 2014. 2014/304. 4pphttp://legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2014/0081/latest/DLM6002214.html?search=ts_act%40bill%40regulation%40deemedreg_Fisheries+(Total+Allowable+Catch+and+Total+Allowable+Commercial+Catch)+Notice+2014_resel_25_a&p=1
  30. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2015a. Fisheries Assessment Plenary May 2015: Stock Assessments and Stock Status. Hoki (HOK): 450-485 http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/23834/32_HOK_2015_FINAL.pdf.ashx
  31. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2015b. Review of Management Controls for Hoki 1 (HOK 1) in 2015 Consultation Document MPI Discussion Paper No: 2015/19. https://mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/8292
  32. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2015c. Review of Sustainability Controls for 1 October 2015 Proposals to Alter Total Allowable Catch, Allowances, Total Allowable Commercial Catch and Deemed Value Rates for Selected Fishstocks. MPI Information Paper No: 2015/11, August 2015. 138pphttps://mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/9608
  33. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2015d. NZ Fisheries Infosite: Fishery – Hoki, Catch. 2016 data. Accessed online at 17 December 2015 http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Page.aspx?pk=5&tk=96&fpid=16
  34. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2016. Fisheries Assessment Plenary May 2016: Stock Assessments and Stock Status. Hoki (HOK): 469-506 http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Page.aspx?pk=113&dk=24096
  35. Ministry of Fisheries, 2008a. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary, May 2008: stock assessment and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/plenary/HOK_FINAL%2008.pdf
  36. Ministry of Fisheries, 2008b. Environmental: Habitat Protection and Research: Benthic Protection Areas.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Seabed+Protection+and+Research/Benthic+Protection+Areas.htm
  37. Ministry of Fisheries, 2009a. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary, May 2009: stock assessment and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/21734/37_HOK_09.pdf.ashx
  38. Ministry of Fisheries, 2009b. Hoki 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9 (Combined) (HOK1): catch.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Page.aspx?pk=8&tk=41&stock=HOK1
  39. Ministry of Fisheries, 2009c. Protected Areas: Benthic Protection Areas.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Page.aspx?pk=68&tk=278
  40. Ministry of Fisheries, 2010a. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary, May 2010: stock assessment and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22224/37_HOK_2010.pdf.ashx
  41. Ministry of Fisheries, 2010b. Review of Sustainability Measures and Other Management Controls for the 2010/11 Fishing Year: Final Advice Paper 7 September 2010.http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/8DF965CC-A15B-43FD-B3EE-8EAFFDFF4143/0/FAP_Sust_Measures_01_Oct_2010.pdf
  42. Ministry of Fisheries, 2011. Report from the Fisheries Assessment Plenary; Ministry of Fisheries, New Zealand, 35 p.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22734/31_HOK_2011.pdf.ashx
  43. Ministry of Fisheries (MoF), 2011. Annual Operational Plan for Deepwater Fisheries for 2011/12, July 2011, 71 p.http://www.deepwater.co.nz/f2111,104096/104096_129_MFish_2011_AOP.pdf
  44. Ministry of Fisheries, Science Group (Comps.), 2006. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2006: stock assessments and yield estimates (Unpublished report held in NIWA library, Wellington).http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/plenary/HOK_06.pdf
  45. Ministry of Fisheries, undated 1. Status of Fisheries: Maximum Sustainable Yield Harvest Strategies.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/Indicators.htm
  46. Ministry of Fisheries, undated 2. Status of Fisheries: Hoki.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/Species.htm?code=HOK&list=name
  47. Ministry of Fisheries, undated 3. Status of Fisheries: Stock status.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/StockStatus.htm?text=full
  48. Ministry of Fisheries, undated 3. Status of Fisheries: Stock status.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/StockStatus.htm?text=full
  49. Ministry of Fisheries, undated 4. Status of Fisheries: Hoki stock status.http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/StockStatus.htm?DataDomain=Species&DataClass=HOK
  50. Minstry of Fisheries, 2007. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2007: stock assessments and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/plenary/HOK_07.pdf
  51. MSC, 2007. MSC Fisheries Certification – Public Certification Report. New Zealand Commercial Hoki Fishery.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/new-zealand-hoki-reassessment-document/Final_Cert_Report_Oct07.pdf/view
  52. MSC, 2008. New Zealand Hoki Fishery: Surveillance Report 1 2008. Moody Marine Ltd.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/reassessment-downloads-1/2009-01-08-NZ-Hoki-Fishery-Surveillance-Report-1.pdf
  53. New Zealand Government (NZG), 2010. National Fisheries Plan for Deepwater and Middle-depth Fisheries, Part 1B: Hoki Fisheries Plan, September 2010, 51 p.http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/1BF0E4A9-A3D6-45CC-9A7D-49978E09161E/0/NFP_Deepwater_and_Middledepth_Fisheries_Part_1B_HOKI.pdf
  54. New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries website. [accessed on February 2011].http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/default.htm
  55. Roux, M.J., Edwards, C., Dunn, A., Clark, M., and Doonan, I., 2015. A sustainability assessment framework for fish by-catch in New Zealand deepwater fisheries. ICES CM 2015/A:19.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/ASCExtendedAbstracts/Shared%20Documents/A%20-%20Advancement%20of%20stock%20assessment%20methods%E2%80%8B%20for%20sustainable%20fisheries%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B/A1915.pdf
  56. Sanford, ltd., 2007. “Sealord, Aotearoa Fisheries and Sanford call for reduction in hold quota” – press release.http://www.sanford.co.nz/news/index_dynamic/containerNameToReplace=Middle/focusModuleID=3037/overideSkinName=newsArticle-full.tpl
  57. Thompson, F.N., Abraham, E.R., Oliver, M.D., 2010. Estimation of fur seal bycatch in New Zealand trawl fisheries, 2002–03 to 2007–08. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 56.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22314/AEBR_56%20Fur%20lion%20estimation%200708.pdf.ashx
References

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