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Profile updated on 21 September 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Macruronus novaezelandiae

SPECIES NAME(s)

Blue grenadier, hoki

Macruronus novaezelandiae, the New Zealand hoki, is a deepwater species that is distributed throughout the New Zealand coast, usually found at depths of 200-600 m (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). A separate population of this species also occurs off southern and southeast Australia (https://www.afma.gov.au/fisheries-management/species/blue-grenadier). In New Zealand, the species is divided into two main biological stocks based on the two main spawning grounds: the eastern stock occurs off the East Coast of South Island, Mernoo Bank, Chatham Rise, Cook Strait and the East Coast of North Island up to North Cape and the western stock occurs to the west coast of the North and South Islands and the area south of New Zealand including Puysegur, Snares Shelf and the Southern Plateau (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). However, there is still some uncertainty about the stock structure and this topic has been the subject of recent studies (Ballara and O’Driscoll, 2014).


 

ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock assessment, scientific advice, Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) setting, monitoring/control/surveillance/enforcement (MCSE) and compliance are all consistent with best practices. Collaborative management by Deepwater Group Limited (DWG) and the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) strengthens compliance.
  • Exploitation remains low while both estimates of stock size rate hoki higher than reference points.
  • Several closure areas are established to protect spawning grounds, juveniles (Hoki Management Areas) and vulnerable habitats (Benthic Protected Areas) from trawling.
  • Incidental captures of endangered, threatened and protected species are identified and quantified. These are monitored, some in near-real time, and reported annually. 
  • Industry Operational Procedures for hoki trawling fisheries aim to protect smaller fish (<55 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals and seabirds.
  • The fishery has been certified against the Marine Stewardship Council standard since 2001.
Weaknesses
  • The current two stock model shows major uncertainties, with no one run able to provide adequate quantitative advice on stock status.
  • The influence of climate and oceanographic conditions on recruitment patterns is not known.
  • Despite the introduction of some successful mitigation measures, the capture of seabirds, including some "high risk" species, continues to occur. 
  • A new method for classifying New Zealand's marine habitat is being undertaken, and meanwhile, there is uncertainty as to how this will affect the classification of habitats identified as "high risk" under the previously used classification scheme (BOMEC), and whether the current BPA network sufficiently protects such areas.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

9.1

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the fishery, management system, and operational and management decisions for responsiveness to the status of the stock and for any changes that could jeopardize MSC certification.
  • Support ongoing efforts to further mitigate the incidental capture of seabirds and New Zealand fur seals.
  • Ensure benthic protected area network coverage is representative of all types of habitat classes.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • New Zealand hoki:

    MSC Recertified

  • New Zealand Deepwater Group hake, hoki, ling and southern blue whiting:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
New Zealand Eastern New Zealand New Zealand Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Strengths
  • Stock assessment, scientific advice, Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) setting, monitoring/control/surveillance/enforcement (MCSE) and compliance are all consistent with best practices. Collaborative management by Deepwater Group Limited (DWG) and the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) strengthens compliance.
  • Exploitation remains low while both estimates of stock size rate hoki higher than reference points.
  • Several closure areas are established to protect spawning grounds, juveniles (Hoki Management Areas) and vulnerable habitats (Benthic Protected Areas) from trawling.
  • Incidental captures of endangered, threatened and protected species are identified and quantified. These are monitored, some in near-real time, and reported annually. 
  • Industry Operational Procedures for hoki trawling fisheries aim to protect smaller fish (<55 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals and seabirds.
  • The fishery has been certified against the Marine Stewardship Council standard since 2001.
Weaknesses
  • The current two stock model shows major uncertainties, with no one run able to provide adequate quantitative advice on stock status.
  • The influence of climate and oceanographic conditions on recruitment patterns is not known.
  • Despite the introduction of some successful mitigation measures, the capture of seabirds, including some "high risk" species, continues to occur. 
  • A new method for classifying New Zealand's marine habitat is being undertaken, and meanwhile, there is uncertainty as to how this will affect the classification of habitats identified as "high risk" under the previously used classification scheme (BOMEC), and whether the current BPA network sufficiently protects such areas.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 September 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the fishery, management system, and operational and management decisions for responsiveness to the status of the stock and for any changes that could jeopardize MSC certification.
  • Support ongoing efforts to further mitigate the incidental capture of seabirds and New Zealand fur seals.
  • Ensure benthic protected area network coverage is representative of all types of habitat classes.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 21 September 2019

It the past, a two-stock catch at age stock assessment model was used to assess both eastern and western stocks (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)). This modeling approach was particularly useful as it incorporates mixing between both stocks of Hoki when they are on their feeding grounds, where some fishing occurs. The model utilizes catch, age, and fishery independent indices including; Western Coast and South Islands winter acoustic survey (Wcacous), the Sub-Antarctic December trawl survey (SAumbio), the Sub-Antarctic April trawl survey (SAautbio), the Chatham Rise January trawl survey (CRsumbio), and the Cook Strait winter acoustic survey (CSacous). However, during the most recent update, it was noticed that the model was not fitting the fishery independent trawl and acoustic indices well.

To examine this issue scientists ran a number of different model configurations to explore the model behavior (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). These included:

  • Run 1.17- a two stock update as a status quo
  • Run 1.33- western only run that dropped eastern areas for SAsumbio
  • Run 1.34-  two stock (west focus) which increased the weighting of the SAsumbio
  • Run 1.37- two stock (east focus) increased the weighting of the CRsumbio

It should be noted that Run 1.33 was only done for exploratory purposes. Ultimately none of the runs produced satisfactory diagnostics for both stocks (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Eastern focused runs and the status quo model did not differ vastly in their results for the eastern stock but did have some differences. Both of those runs (1.17 and 1.37) had poor diagnostics for the western stock. As a result, no base model was put forth by the scientists and advice for the eastern stock was made using both runs 1.17 and 1.37. Because there are differences between 1.17 and 1.37, B0 (and hence reference points B10% B20% B35%-B50%), Bcurrent, and exploitation (U) are uncertain.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Target biomass based on B0 has been used in the past. This reference point is defined at 35-50% of the average spawning stock biomass that would have occurred in the absence of fishing. Other biological reference points were adopted in 2009: the Soft limit, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be overfished or depleted and needs to be actively rebuilt” (Ministry of Fisheries 2008), is 20% of the average spawning stock biomass that would have occurred if had there been no fishing, and is assumed to be Blim; the Hard limit, a “biomass level below which a stock is deemed to be collapsed where fishery closures should be considered in order to rebuild a stock at the fastest possible rate”, is 10% of B0 (Ministry of Fisheries 2008). However, there are multiple plausible model runs with different estimations of Bcurrent, B0 and U.  Thus Bcurrent, B0 and U are uncertain for the eastern stock; though are less uncertain than the western stock where model runs differ widely.

BMSY is not considered to be a suitable management target and is no longer calculated. The lower threshold of the 35-50% B0 is thus regarded as a credible range of BMSY (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)

Usually, exploitation is also estimated, with the rate of exploitation (U) that maintains the stock at either 35% B0 (U35%B0) or 50% B0 (U50%B0) being used as target rates in the past. As with B, given the differences in the model runs, these estimates of U are uncertain.

Despite the lack of a base run, projections are provided for the updated two-stock run (1.17) and the two-stock eastern focused run (1.37). Both sets of runs indicate the stock is projected to remain stable at current removals. As such the advised and set quotas from the 2018-2019 fishing year were maintained for 2019-2020 (MPI 2019)

Given that the same body both produces scientific advice, as well as sets the quota; scientific advice equals the set TACC. In 2019 this corresponds to 60,000 tonnes for the eastern stock (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). In 2015, three TACC options were consulted (160,000, 150,000 or 155,000 tonnes) but a TACC of 150,000 tonnes (60,000 Eastern stock and 90,000 tonnes Western stock) was considered a better conservative and responsive approach (MPI 2015b, MPI 2015c).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Despite having multiple model runs examining the status of Hoki, there seems to be general agreement among these for the eastern stock (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). The update (1.17) and the two-stock eastern focus (1.37) runs both agree the stock is well above 35%-50% B0; at 66 % and 64% respectively. The risk of biomass being below the hard or soft limit is “Exceptionally Unlikely (<1%)” (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019).  Trends in biomass from both runs are similar, with declines in biomass since 1980, a low in 2005 and increasing biomass to pre-2000s levels by 2018.

Exploitation is also low for both runs, with terminal year values of less than 0.10 (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Both runs have similar results for exploitation for the eastern stock; with exploitation increasing from 1990 to 2005 and then declining.

Catch has remained fairly constant at near 60,000 tonnes since 2005 (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). At current removals, the stock is expected to remain near the current level of biomass for the foreseeable future (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Stock assessment is performed by the Hoki Working Group (HWG) under the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) but they do not make management decisions. Management is conducted by the MPI, a government organization, and the Deepwater Group Limited (DWG), an industry collaborative.

The TACCs are recommended by the Minister, consistent with the Fisheries Act 1996, and in agreement with the industry.  The target for eastern and western areas combined was set at 150,000 tonnes for 2013-2014, 160,000 tonnes for 2014-2015, and back to 150,000 tonnes for since (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019).  The allocation for the eastern stock has consistently been set at 60,000 tonnes since 2010, while the remaining western area portion has varied. Currently, these TACCs and allocations have been carried through 2019 (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)(MPI 2019). Because the advised and set TACCs are from the same government institution, it is assumed that advised and set TACCS are synonymous.

Other management measures include fishing by vessels only outside the 12-mile Territorial Sea boundary, no fishing by large vessels in the Cook Strait spawning area, and a voluntary prohibition on trawling in the Benthic Protection Areas (BPA) since 2007 (MPI, 2012). A Code of Practice for directed hoki trawling was introduced by the former Hoki Fishery Management Company in 2001 to protect small fish (under 60 cm) and was updated in 2009 to specifically manage four areas of juveniles’ distribution – Hoki Management Areas (HMA) that aim to improve stock-recruitment and comprise closed areas to hoki fishing but are accessible to other species fishing – and move vessels in any area catching more than 20% of juvenile hoki (revised to smaller than 55 cm) (NZG, 2010; MPI, 2012; Akroyd et al, 2012 (Deepwater Working Group Ltd. 2014) ). The fishing activity on these HMA is motorized by the MPI that provides a quarterly report to industry (MPI, 2014b).

More recently the DWG (Deepwater Group (DWG) 2019) has put additional restrictions on member vessels given the lack of a base run assessment and concerns over the health of the western stock. These include further limiting removals of juvenile Hoki in all areas by mandating vessels move if more than 20% of the catch is juveniles, further closing areas were juveniles of both stocks occur, and reducing the MPI set quota in for the western stock by 20,000 tonnes.  Such measures are likely to have a positive impact on both eastern and western stocks.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Catch has remained fairly constant at near 60,000 tonnes since 2005. Removals have been slightly over the quota since 2015 (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Overall there is No IUU fishing known to occur (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)(O’Boyle et al. 2018) and in general, there is good compliance with MPI as well as the DWG actions (O’Boyle et al. 2018). The partnership between MPI and DWG strengthens compliance (Akroyd et al, 2012).

Observer coverage in hoki fisheries in the 2016-2017 season was 22.5% and it has been continuously decreasing since 2012- 2013 season (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019) Fishing year 2017-2018 data are not yet available.

MPI is introducing a new digital system for tracking, monitoring, and reporting of commercial fishing supported by geospatial position reporting (GPR), electronic reporting through e-logbooks, and electronic monitoring (cameras). This new system will reduce the potential for unreported catch and area misreporting (O’Boyle et al. 2018)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 21 September 2019

The interaction of the fishery with Endangered, Threatened, or Protected (ETP) species is not considered to be unacceptable, but the impact is cumulative with other fisheries Details about population status and interactions with fisheries are summarized in the MPI's annual environment and biodiversity reviews. For the Hoki fishery, the analysis was updated through the fishing year 2016-2017 (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019).

ETP seabirds such as sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus (Near Threatened) (Birdlife International 2017), white capped albatross Thalassarche steadi (Near Threatened) (Birdlife International 2017), Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche salvini (Vulnerable) (Birdlife International 2017) , Buller’s albatross Thalassarche bulleri (Near Threatened) (Birdlife International 2017) , white-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis (Vulnerable) (Birdlife International 2017) are by-catch of the hoki fishery. Management of seabird interactions with New Zealand’s commercial fisheries is driven through the Seabird National Plan of Action (NPOA-Seabirds) (Ministry for Primary Industries 2014). Work is ongoing between MPI and industry to reduce the risk of this fishery to key seabird species. A Vessel Management Plan (VMP) is in place to document fish waste management procedures and reduce the interaction with seabirds (Akroyd et al. 2012). Use of seabird scaring devices for all trawlers >28 m in length, i.e. “paired streamer lines”, “bird baffler” or “warp deflector”, while trawling has been mandatory since 2006.  The number of seabirds captured in the hoki fishery has been variable in recent years: in 2014-15, estimated seabird captures in hoki trawl fisheries were 416 (95% c.i. 335-518), the highest in the time series since 2002-03. However, the capture rate, at 2.27 birds per 100 tows observed, was substantially lower than in 2013-14, when total captures were 397 (95% c.i. 335-483), but the capture rate was 3.93. In 2015–2016, estimated seabird captures in hoki trawl fisheries were 238 (95% c.i. 184–311) with a capture rate of 1.4. In the 2016–17 fishing year, 59 seabird captures were observed in hoki trawl fisheries with a capture rate of 2.0  but the estimate of total captures is not yet available (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). The average observed seabird capture rate in hoki trawl fisheries over the last ten years is about 2.36 birds per 100 tows, which is considered a low rate relative to other New Zealand trawl fisheries (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Since 2002-03, the six most captured species in hoki fisheries, based on observer data, have been Salvin's, southern Buller's, and NZ white-capped albatross, as well as sooty shearwaters, white-chinned petrels, and cape petrels. The NPOA-Seabirds employs a risk assessment framework to generate quantitative risk scores for seabird species  (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016). The hoki fishery is considered to contribute a high level of risk for two of its most captured seabird species, Southern Buller's albatross and Salvin's albatross, which are assessed as being very high-risk species in New Zealand fisheries generally  (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The mean number of annual potential fatalities in bottom trawl hoki fisheries was estimated at 1540 (95% c.i.: 1140–2050) (Richard et al. 2017), the second highest value. Following the implementation of mandatory mitigation measures (scaring devices), average rates of capture for Salvin's and white-capped albatross (which account for 71% of albatross captures in the hoki fishery) decreased (going from 0.61 and 0.26 to 0.20 and 0.21 per 100 tows respectively, over a 4-year period). The capture rate of white-capped albatross shows a decreasing trend since 2005, while longer-term trends for Salvin's and Southern Buller's albatross captures in trawl fisheries are less definitive (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016) ;  (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). While mitigation devices appear to have been effective in decreasing the rate of warp strikes, net captures recently have been observed to be increasing, which has driven higher rates of capture particularly for smaller species such as sooty shearwater (Akroyd et al. 2016).

Marine mammals are protected under provisions of the Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA) 1978, and the MPI’s National Deepwater Plan (NDP) includes objectives to avoid and minimize the capture of marine mammals. The fishery does not interact with dolphins or whales (Boyd, 2011). New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri (Least Concern) (Chilvers and Goldsworthy 2015)  and New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri (Endangered) (Chilvers 2017), meanwhile, are identified as incidental catches but are not considered to be threatened by the fishery (Boyd, 2011). Estimated capture rates for fur seal mortalities in the hoki fisheries in the last five years have been below the long term average; in 2015-2016 the mean estimate was 198 animals, equating to a capture rate of 1.2% per fishery tow (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)Captures of sea lions in the hoki fishery are rare, no incidental catches were observed in the last four years (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Detrimental impacts of the fishery on fur seal populations generally are considered unlikely (Akroyd et al. 2012) ; (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016) though the potential risk to local populations has been noted (Ministry for Primary Industries 2013); (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016). Investigation into population-scale impacts of fishery-related fur seal deaths has been limited by uncertainty about the size of the NZ population and the provenance of animals captured  (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016)  and until recently, assessment of the overall risk has relied largely on expert opinion and qualitative ecological risk assessment (ERA) (Akroyd et al. 2012) ; (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016) However, a Spatially Explicit Risk Assessment (SEFRA), already applied to New Zealand seabirds, is currently being completed for marine mammals. The fishery-related risk to fur seals is attributed primarily to trawl fisheries targeting hoki and southern blue whiting; and preliminary SEFRA results estimate a cumulative risk ratio across fisheries to be between 0.2-0.6, on a 0.0-5.0 scale, a result that is considered to be consistent with indications that the population size has been increasing in recent years. To improve understanding of the effects of the commercial fisheries on NZ fur seal populations, recommendations include more consistent population data at different geographic scales, genetic work to differentiate between colonies, and increased observer coverage to improve catch estimates. In 2013 the DWG Ltd., in agreement with industry and NGOs, developed a set of Marine Mammal Operational Procedures (MMOP) for mitigating marine mammal bycatch (Ministry for Primary Industries 2013). Active monitoring of interactions is ongoing (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016).

Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus – listed in CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and in the IUCN 2005 Red List as Vulnerable (Fowler 2005)  – is occasionally caught as bycatch, although captures have been few since the early 2000s (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). The species has had protected status in New Zealand since 2010. A qualitative risk assessment classified the risk of the impact of commercial fishing in New Zealand as a high risk (Ford et al. 2018). There are no direct mitigation measures, though the DWG Ltd. provides guidance on reporting and safe handling practices to help ensure survival upon release (Deepwater Working Group Ltd. 2014). The New Zealand National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA–Sharks) (2013) outlines a set of actions for the conservation and management of sharks, which include review of management categories and protection status, addressing research gaps for high-risk species, monitoring of the implementation of the shark finning ban, and work with fishers to ensure best practice handling and mitigation measures (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016) . Mandatory reporting of catches of protected species serves to monitor interactions. Some research into the interactions between basking sharks and fisheries has been published (e.g. Francis & Sutton (2012) (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The 2017-2018 Annual Operational Plan for deepwater fisheries also mentions additional actions, e.g. improving the identification and reporting of sharks (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). The last MSC reassessment of the fishery made a recommendation to understand the biological status of all pale ghost shark Hydrolagus bemisi (Least Concern (Francis 2003) stocks (Akroyd et al. 2012) . Porbeagle Lamna nasus and school Galeorhinus galeus sharks (both Vulnerable (Stevens et al. 2006) ; (Walker et al. 2006) ) are QMS bycatch species but are not considered to be threatened by the fishery. In addition to species already noted, the second MSC surveillance audit completed in 2014, mentioned other protected species captures reported by observers in the 2012-13 fishing year including dusky dolphin (1) and pilot whale (1) (Akroyd and Pierre, 2014). The current  Public Comment Draft Report for the new MSC reassessment for New Zealand hoki, hake and ling trawl fisheries do not attribute any condition or recommendations (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

Many benthic organisms are protected in New Zealand including black corals (all species in the order Antipatharia), Gorgonian corals (all species in the order Gorgonacea), Stony corals (all species in the order Scleractinia), Hydrozoa (hydra-like animals), and Hydrocorals (all species in the family Stylasteridae) (NZ Department of Conservation 2017) . While captures are required by law to be reported, their capture in commercial fisheries is not illegal (Akroyd et al. 2012). While there is a growing body of research on benthic organisms such as corals (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016), robust management has been limited to a degree by lack of knowledge (Akroyd et al. 2012). Hoki fisheries present more observations of catches of protected corals (all species) in comparison with other deepwater fisheries but the total coral bycatch is typically low (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Data from New Zealand seamounts demonstrated a reduction of stony coral cover on trawled seamounts  (average in images 0.04–0.03%) in comparison with untrawled seamounts (average in images 12–25%) (Clark et al. 2016).

Other Species

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Hoki represents a majority of the catch in the directed Hoki fishery (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Other species caught include; Ling, Hake, Javelinfish, Rattails and Spiny dogfish. Combined these species account for the majority of the bycatch by weight but combined were approximately 14% of the catch in the fishing year 2017-2018. Only Ling and Hake were above 3% weight by species (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Because most of these stocks are quota managed and landed as incidental catch, overall bycatch is not considered problematic (O’Boyle et al. 2018)

Management controls to reduce bycatch and discards include restrictions prohibiting bigger vessels (>45 m) from operating near the coast, agreed catch splits between eastern and western stocks, and Industry Operational Procedures for the hoki trawling fisheries aiming to protect smaller fish (<60 cm) and mitigate bycatch of marine mammals (Deepwater Group (DWG) 2019). Reporting through the Quota Monitoring System (QMS) is in place, and there are cross-comparisons done with at-sea observer data (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Roughly 22% of tows were observed during the most recent updated information, in the fishing year 2016-2017 ((Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019)

HABITAT

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Past assessments have indicated that generally, benthic bycatch is small, except for sponges (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). Baird et al., (2013) mentioned that although all coral orders were represented in the hoki bycatch, about 80% were stony corals (Baird et al., 2013).

In light of an industry proposal, Benthic Protection Areas (BPAs) within New Zealand’s EEZ were closed to bottom trawling (and dredging) in 2007 on a permanent basis (Deepwater Working Group Ltd. 2015; Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). These closures remain in effect for the 2018-2019 fishing year and are part of the regular industry lead initiative to conserver habitat (Deepwater Group (DWG) 2019). There are 17 large BPAs that effectively closed approximately 30% of the New Zealand EEZ (Ministry for Primary Industries 2014), and cover 52% of all seamounts and 88% of hydrothermal vents (New Zealand Department of Conservation and Ministry of Fisheries 2005, Ministry for Primary Industries 2017a, Ministry for Primary Industries 2013a, Ministry for Primary Industries 2014). The Hoki Operational Procedure further closes areas where juveniles are known to occur (Deepwater Group (DWG) 2019). However, recent studies have been assessing New Zealand's existing MPAs and considered that existing MPAs are inefficient in protecting a representative range of biodiversity (Geange et al. 2017)

Recently an MSC habitat certification condition, raised during the initial 2012 assessment, was considered resolved. This condition centered around the reduction of habitat impacts, and habitat management. During the most recent recertification, this condition was found to have been met (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Overall habitat impacts are thought to be low for this fishery, and what little impact there is, well managed (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

ECOSYSTEM

Last updated on 21 September 2019

Given their large biomass, hoki are a key component of the upper slope (200-800 m), and the importance of understanding of prey-predator relationships between hoki and other species is noted, particularly since substantial changes in the biomass of hoki have taken place since the fishery began (Fisheries New Zealand (FNZ) 2019). A past study (Anderson and Smith 2005 in (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016) estimated annual hoki discards in the hoki fishery to be between 600-2,100 tonnes; an amount that is considered large enough to have potential impacts on the diets of scavenging species (Forman and Dunn 2012 in (Ministry for Primary Industries 2016a). Hoki are prey to several piscivores, particularly hake but also stargazers, smooth skates, several deepwater shark species, and ling; (Dunn et al 2009a in Fisheries New Zealand 2018). The proportion of hoki in the diet of hake averages 38% by weight, and has declined since 1992 (Dunn & Horn 2010 in Fisheries New Zealand 2018), possibly because of a decline in the relative abundance of hoki on the Chatham Rise between 1991 and 2007. Information on the size and recruitment stage of hoki eaten by predators is lacking and could be an important factor with regard to fishery interaction and potential for competition (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Tuck et al. (2009) focused study on the ecosystem processes in Chatham Rise and Sub- Antarctic area showed some evidence of a change in ecosystem indicators over time. They reported an increase of evenness or reduction in diversity. However, there was no evidence that species were being lost from the food-web (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 24 September 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

There is not a formally adopted target fishing mortality reference point for the fishery. However, the target biomass range (35-50% B0) and both hard (10% B0 and soft (20% B0) limits are in use; though measurement is hampered by lack of a base model (FNZ 2019).

As calculated for 2020 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TACC as a percentage of the Advised TACC.

The Set TACC is 60.0 ('000 t). The Advised TACC is 60.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TACC/Advised TACC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.1.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TACC.

The Landings is 63.4 ('000 t). The Set TACC is 60.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TACC for this index is 106%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Stock is “Likely (>60%)” to be above the 35% of B0 target and has a “Exceptionally Unlikely (< 1%)” chance of being below soft or hard limits (FNZ 2019).

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Both stock assessment runs indicated that either the current level of harvest or the TACC is “Exceptionally Unlikely (< 1%)” to bring the stock to either hard or soft limits. Also advice indicates that it is “Exceptionally Unlikely (< 1%)” to that either current catch or TACC will cause overfishing (FNZ 2019).

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Bycatch Subscores

There is comprehensive reliable information on the type, amount, and mortality of bycatch  (e.g. (Abraham and Berkenbusch 2017) collected by the observer programe although some data from Central Observer Database is presented with some time lag (e.g. bycatch main species) (Fisheries New Zealand 2018).

  • The fishery interacts directly with ETP species but it does not jeopardize the viability or rebuilding of any ETP species.

  •  The number of seabirds captured in the hoki fishery has been variable in recent years: In 2015–2016, estimated seabird captures in hoki trawl fisheries were 238 (95% c.i. 184–311) with a capture rate of 1.4 while in the 2016–17 fishing year, the capture rate was 2.0 (Fisheries New Zealand 2018). Captures include "High Risk" species of albatross. Mitigation measures have had mixed success, and further solutions are needed.

  •  During the 2015-2016 fishing year it was estimated that 198 (mean) fur seal mortalities occurred in the hoki fisheries, a decrease from 2014-2015 (330 captures). 

  • Captures of sea lions hoki fishery is rare, no incidental catches were observed in the last four years (Fisheries New Zealand 2018). 

  • Captures of basking sharks are also very low.

  • Hoki fisheries presents higher observations of catches of protected corals (all species) in comparasion with other deepwater fisheries but the total coral bycatch is typically low (O’Boyle et al. 2018). However, data from New Zealand seamounts demonstrated a reduction of stony coral cover on trawled seamounts  (average in images 0.04–0.03%) in comparasion with untrawled seamounts (average in images 12–25%) (Clark et al. 2016).

For the all fishing areas and between 2014-2015 (proportion in weight of catches) of main captured species were: hoki (88.0%), ling (2.4%), javelinfish (1.4%), rattails (1.1%) and hake (1.8%) (Fisheries New Zealand 2018) . None of the captured species is considered to be a concern (Akroyd et al. 2012)

Observer coverage in hoki fisheries in 2016-2017 season was 22.4% and data is available (Fisheries New Zealand 2018). MPI is introducing a new digital system for tracking, monitoring and reporting of commercial fishing supported by geospatial position reporting (GPR), electronic reporting through e-logbooks, and electronic monitoring (cameras) (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

×

Habitat Subscores

 Mid-water trawling is expected to occasionally interact with the seabed ecosystem. Hoki-directed trawls have accounted for approximately one third of all tows undertaken in New Zealand deepwater fisheries (O’Boyle et al. 2018). Quantification of the trawling footprint, knowledge of benthic distributions, and assessment of risks of trawling impacts on benthic habitat has been done (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)

Large areas and a variety of marine environments in the New Zealand EEZ are contained within BPAs, around 30% of EEZ. Seabed ecosystem groups identified by BOMEC classification scheme identified unprotected high risk habitat: BOMEC 9 classified habitat in the Chatham Rise (Akroyd et al. 2012) . However, due to concerns regarding the suitability of the BOMEC scheme for identifying impacts on benthic fauna and habitats in New Zealand waters, an alternative risk-based classification scheme is being pursued.

Hoki fisheries presents higher observations of catches of protected corals (all species) in comparasion with other deepwater fisheries but the total coral bycatch is typically low (O’Boyle et al. 2018). However, data from New Zealand seamounts demonstrated a reduction of stony coral cover on trawled seamounts  (average in images 0.04–0.03%) in comparasion with untrawled seamounts (average in images 12–25%) (Clark et al. 2016).

There are 17 large BPAs that effectively closed approximately 30% of the New Zealand EEZ and cover 52% of all seamounts and 88% of hydrothermal vents. The Annual Operational Plan for Deepwater Fisheries 2017/18 includes a Benthic Framework “ Benthic Invertebrates: Monitor and measure the nature and extent of benthic interactions with deepwater fishing activity” (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)

×

Ecosystem Subscores

There is substantial, reliable information allowing for assessment of the main impacts of the fishery on ecosystem structure and processes.  Studies focused on ecosystem in Chatham Rise and Sub-Antarctic trawl survey showed some evidence of change in ecosystem indicators over time, e.g. increasing of evenness (reducing diversity) but no evidence that species were being lost from the food-web (Tuck et al. 2009 in (O’Boyle et al. 2018). 

There is substantial information on prey-predator relationships between hoki and other species.Information on the size and recruitment stage of hoki eaten by predators is lacking, and could be an important factor with regard to fishery interaction and potential for competition (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017). Trophic and ecosystem‐level effects of fishing,are described in detail in the Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Annual Review 2017 (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)

Hoki are prey to several piscivores, particularly hake but the proportion of hoki in the diet of hake has been decreasing over the years.Hoki discards in the hoki fishery are considered large enough to have potential impacts on the diets of scavenging species. Studies focused on ecosystem in Chatham Rise and Sub-Antarctic trawl survey showed some evidence of change in ecosystem indicators over time, e.g. increasing of evenness (reducing diversity) but no evidence that species were being lost from the food-web (Tuck et al. 2009 in (O’Boyle et al. 2018).

According to the Ecological risk assessment (ERA) workshop, levels of impact on organisms, habitats and ecosystems, relevant to hoki fishery, are considered acceptable (Akroyd et al. 2012)

Some measures are in place to manage the potential impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem. The Hoki Operational Procedure (HOP) is applied to all vessels greater than 28 m and includes four closing areas to protect juvenile hoki: Cook Start, Canterbury banks, Mernoo Bank and Puysegur Bank (Ministry for Primary Industries 2014). The Annual Operational Plan for Deepwater Fisheries 2017/18 includs several ongoing biodiversity research that relates to the deepwater fisheries (Ministry for Primary Industries 2017)

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • In addition to the management target, the harvest strategy standard for New Zealand Fisheries defines management responses for 1) a “soft limit” of 20% B0; and 2) a “hard limit” of 10% B0.
  • The Soft limit, at 20% B0, is assumed as the limit biological reference point.
  • Because there are two plausible assessment model runs for this stock, B0 (and hence B10% B20% B35%-B50%), Bcurrent, and exploitation (U) could not be used to generate scores (See Assessment Section). as such Management Strategy, Current Health, and Future Health scores were determined qualitatively.
  • The scientific advice is embedded in the management of the stock and is carried out by the Ministry for Primary Industries; thus set TACC is assumed to equal advised TACC.
  • The fishing year starts in October and ends in September of the following year; e.g. landings for 2018 correspond to the 2017-2018 fishing year.
  • Annual catches are the sum of landings reported in Cook Strait, East Coast South Island (ECSI), Chatham Rise & ECSI and East Coast North Island (ECNI) landings.
  • Ecosystem impact scores were not updated in 2019. Please check the narrative sections for updated information.
  • SSB from plot digitizer of run 1.37 Figure 3, utilization is also from plot digitizer of run 1.37 Figure 4. Both are shown for illustrative purposes only.
  • SSB in 2019 is projected. 
  • Fishing removal rate as exploitation which for 2019 is projected assuming full utilization of the quota. 

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

New Zealand hoki

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 14 March 2001

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 90.6
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 86.7
Principle 3 – Management System 94.8

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T., Kloser, R., Green, M., Barker, B., Bax, N., Brodie, P., Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 279-294
  2. Akroyd, J, Dunn, M., Pilling, G., 2016a. On-Site 3rd Surveillance Visit - Report for New Zealand New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Acoura, January 2016. 18 pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20160121_SR_HOK78.pdf
  3. Akroyd, J.M. and Pierre, J.P. 2013. Surveillance Report New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, February 2013. 24pp http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/82085_HOK_surveillance_report_120213.pdf
  4. Akroyd, J.M., Pierre, J.P., 2014. Surveillance Report New Zealand Hoki Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, April 2014. 13pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20140429_SR_HOK78.pdf
  5. Akroyd, J., Pierre, J., Punt, A. 2011. Fourth Surveillance Report, New Zealand Hoki Fishery, Intertek Moody Marine, 55 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/reassessment-downloads-1/20111222_SR.pdf
  6. Akroyd, J., Pierre, J., Punt, A. 2012. New Zealand Hoki Fisheries: 2nd Reassessment, Public Certification Report, V5, Intertek Moody Marine, 297 p.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/new-zealand-hoki/second_reassessment-downloads-1/20120925_PCR.pdf
  7. Akroyd, J., Piilling, and Blyth-Skyrme, R., 2016b. On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for New Zealand Hoki Fishery, November 2016. Acoura Marine, 13 p. https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/new-zealand-hoki/@@assessments
  8. Anderson, O.F. (2014). Fish and invertebrate bycatch in New Zealand deepwater fisheries from 1990–91 until 2011–12. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 139. 60 phttp://www.mpi.govt.nz/news-and-resources/publications/
  9. Baird SJ, 2005. Incidental capture of seabird species in commercial fisheries in New Zealand waters, 2002–03. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2005/2.http://fpcs.fish.govt.nz/science/documents/%5C2005%20FARs%5C05_02_FAR.pdf
  10. Baird, S.J., Tracey, D., Mormede, S., Clark., M., 2013. The distribution of protected corals in New Zealand waters. Prepared for DOC. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd, NIWA, February 2013. DOC12303 / POP2011-06. 96pp http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-conservation-services/pop-2011-06-coral-distribution.pdf
  11. Ballara, S.L.; O’Driscoll, R.L. (2014). Catches, size, and age structure of the 2011–12 hoki fishery, and a summary of input data used for the 2013 stock assessment. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2014/05. 117p http://file:///C:/Users/P/Downloads/6995061-2014-05-Catches-size-and-age-structure-of-the-201112-hoki-fishery%20(1).pdf
  12. Ballara, S.L., O’Driscoll R.L., Anderson, O.F., 2010. Fish discards and non-target fish catch in the trawl fisheries for hoki, hake, and ling in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report 2010. 100 pp.http://fs.fish.govt.nz/Doc/22289/AEBR_48.pdf.ashx
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  14. Boyd, R. O. 2011. Ecological risk assessment of the New Zealand hoki fisheries, Report for Deepwater Group Limited, Nelson, 76 p.http://www.deepwater.co.nz/f901,97514/97514_2010_HOKI_ERA_Final_Report_250311.pdf
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  28. Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), 2014b. Review of Sustainability Measures and Other Management Controls for Selected Deepwater Fishstocks Final Advice and Recommendations for the TAC, TACC, and Allowances and Deemed Value Rates for six fishstocks MPI Information Paper No: 2014/15. July 2014. 80pp http://www.mpi.govt.nz/news-and-resources/publications/
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References

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    Blue grenadier - New Zealand Eastern, New Zealand, New Zealand, Bottom trawls

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