Last updated on 5 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lutjanus spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Snappers nei, Red snappers

COMMON NAMES

Snappers, Kakap merah, Bambangan

This is a multi-species profile for the Lutjanus species (snappers). Snappers are not separated by species in official catch records or the fishery evaluations conducted by Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments.This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. This profile refers to Java Sea (WPP-712) assessment unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas were due to be managed using an EAFM approach.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2011 report classifies snappers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) as overexploited. Uncertainty in these evaluations is likely high (e.g., due to deficient catch data reporting) and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. No management strategy known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Promote product traceability to ensure that the origin and status of products are well known and all products are sourced from legal fisheries.
2. Support research to define stock status of Indonesian snapper and improve the availability of accurate data on catches, effort, and bycatch.
3. Request that the Government improve management and policies to encourage sustainable snapper fisheries and move quickly towards an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management for these fisheries.
4. Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Implement a traceability protocol to ensure the origin is well known and the product was legally harvested.
2. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project (FIP) that will address improve catch and effort data reporting through a logbook system that can be used by government to better assess fish stocks. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
3. Contact fishery managers in Indonesia and ask them to enforce fishery management policies that are already in place and ask them to develop a clear process to continually evaluate the level of rigor associated with the policy (contact information for each district office may be found at http://kkp.go.id/index.php/2012/06/22/daftar-alamat-dinas-yang-menangani-kelautan-dan-perikanan-propinsi-di-seluruh-indonesia/).


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Java Sea Java Sea (WPP-712) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 31 July 2014

Strengths

Indonesia has developed a road map to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Since 2010, Indonesia has taken steps to develop indicators for the implementation of an EAFM. By 2014, all fisheries management areas were due to be managed using an EAFM approach.

Weaknesses

Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessment 2011 report classifies snappers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) as overexploited. Uncertainty in these evaluations is likely high (e.g., due to deficient catch data reporting) and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. No management strategy known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Promote product traceability to ensure that the origin and status of products are well known and all products are sourced from legal fisheries.
2. Support research to define stock status of Indonesian snapper and improve the availability of accurate data on catches, effort, and bycatch.
3. Request that the Government improve management and policies to encourage sustainable snapper fisheries and move quickly towards an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management for these fisheries.
4. Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Implement a traceability protocol to ensure the origin is well known and the product was legally harvested.
2. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project (FIP) that will address improve catch and effort data reporting through a logbook system that can be used by government to better assess fish stocks. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
3. Contact fishery managers in Indonesia and ask them to enforce fishery management policies that are already in place and ask them to develop a clear process to continually evaluate the level of rigor associated with the policy (contact information for each district office may be found at http://kkp.go.id/index.php/2012/06/22/daftar-alamat-dinas-yang-menangani-kelautan-dan-perikanan-propinsi-di-seluruh-indonesia/).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 31 July 2014

Until the early 2000s, snappers were not considered an important fishery resource from the management perspective. More recently, snappers were included in the list of Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments (MMAF, 2011), but evaluations are still based on limited information (e.g., catch from the small-scale fisheries is not considered) and not disaggregated by species. The lack of reliable catch data is one of the major sources of uncertainty. The stock and exploitation status of particular species is thus unknown; information on the stock structure is also lacking.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 9 June 2014

With the exception of the shared snapper fisheries in Arafura and Timor Sea, where there has been some research and specific management recommendations, information on the coastal snapper/grouper fisheries across Indonesia is very limited. Other than the National fisheries evaluations, which also include snappers, no specific scientific advice is known to be provided. The implementation of an effective licensing scheme and catch data reporting program, are some of the issues that need to be addressed in the SSFs sector in general (CCIF, 2013; Sunoko and Huang, 2014).

Reference Points

Last updated on 09 Jun 2014

No reference points are defined.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 9 June 2014

Currently, Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments conducts evaluations for the most important fisheries groupings, in which snappers are included. The most recent evaluation considered snappers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) to be overexploited (MMAF, 2011). However, uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown (CCIF, 2013).

Trends

Last updated on 09 Jun 2014

There is no data on exploitation rates or biomass trends. Snapper landings data (includes snappers Lutjanus spp. and jobfish Pristipomoides spp.) is available from 2001. Landings increased from 67.8 thousand tons in 2005 to 118.8 thousand tons in 2007, and since then have oscillated between 110 and 127 thousand tons (MMAF, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 9 June 2014

This fishery falls within the small-scale fisheries sector, where only small boats are used to catch snappers/groupers and other reef fish relatively close to the shore. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) management in Indonesia (all vessels <5 GT, Law No. 45/2009) is the responsibility of District Governments (Law 32/2004), which have control over coastal waters up to 4 nm from the coast. Other than some fishing gear restrictions (e.g., the use of destructive fishing gear such as explosives or poison), SSFs are practically unregulated. Small-scale fishers allowed to operate almost anywhere inside the Indonesian EEZ. Fishing licenses are not required, meaning there’s no control over the SSFs fleet capacity (CCIF, 2013).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 09 Jun 2014

No recovery plans are known to be in place.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 9 June 2014

Small-scale fisheries are practically unregulated in Indonesia, thus compliance cannot be fully ascertained. Catch from the small-scale sector (including the snapper/grouper fishery) is considered to be largely unreported. Enforcement of the existing regulations is still considered to be weak due to lack of resources, and in some coastal areas illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is still an important issue (e.g., the use of illegal fishing methods such as blast fishing) (e.g., Chozin, 2008; Winter, 2009; Varkey et al., 2010).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 11 July 2014

Specific effects of this fishery on protected, endangered or threatened species in Indonesia are at present unknown. There are reports of interactions of coastal gillnets with leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Vulnerable; 2013 IUCN Red List) (Adnyana, 2006), but this fishing gear is not relevant in the small-scale fisheries for reef fish.

Other Species

Last updated on 11 July 2014

The main target species of this fishery are snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and groupers (Serranidae). Other reef species are also captured, but detailed information on the catch composition in this fishery is almost inexistent. In other regions of Indonesia, the average catch of red snappers in the bottom longline was 40.4% of the total catch. Other catches were deep-sea snapper (27.1%), groupers, and other snapper species.

HABITAT

Last updated on 9 June 2014

The impact of this fishery on the bottom habitats is unknown, but likely very low for handlines and bottom longlines (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 09 Jun 2014

In 2011, there were 88 marine conservation areas (in forms of marine national parks, marine nature recreational parks, marine nature reserves and marine wilderness reserves) in Indonesia, totaling 13.9 million hectares (Susanto, 2011).


Figure 1. Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia – consists of Nature reserve (Cagar Alam/Suaka Alam), National Park (Taman Nasional), Wildlife reserve (Suaka Margasatwa), Marine Nature Recreation Park (Taman Wisata Alam/taman Buru/Taman Wisata hutan raya) and District Marine Protected Area (kawasan Konservasi Laut Daerah) (Source: Yunia, 2010)

For small-scale fisheries in particular, other than the no-take zones within some MPAs, no specific spatial or temporal restrictions are known to be in place.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

Small-scale fisheries in Indonesia are managed at the local districts level, but are practically unregulated and without any control over fishing capacity. For this fishery in particular, no management strategy is known to be in place.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

The most recent evaluation from the Indonesia Commission for Stock Assessments considered snappers in the Java Sea (FMA-712) to be overexploited (MMAF, 2011). But uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status is not provided at the species level.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) Landings data refer to national landings. Landings are for the Lutjanidae family, i.e., include snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and jobfish (Pristipomoides spp. ) species (source: MMAF, 2012).
2) Advised TAC, set TAC, and biomass or fishing mortality reference points are not defined; thus none of the scores can be computed. Qualitative scores have been attributed for scores #1 and #4, based on the available information.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

 

  1. Adnyana, W., 2006. Status of leatherback turtles in Indonesia. Indian Ocean & SE Asian Leatherback-Tsunami Assessment - February 2006 DRAFT. pp. 56-105.http://www.ioseaturtles.org/UserFiles/File/meeting_files/MT_IO4_DOC09_DC-tsunami_report_Part3_Indonesia-Oman.pdf
  2. CCIF, 2013. Assessment of the Enabling Conditions for Rights-Based Management of Fisheries and Coastal Marine Resources. July 2013. Conservation and Community Investment Forum (CCIF). San Francisco, CA. 34 pp.http://www.trustforconservationinnovation.org/sponsored/inc/CCIF_ExecutiveSummary_web.pdf
  3. Chozin, M., 2008. Illegal but Common: Life of Blast Fishermen in the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Master of Arts, Center for International Studies of Ohio University. 144.http://www.seas.ohio.edu/SharingParadise/chozin.pdf
  4. Chuenpagdee, R., Morgan, L.E., Maxwell, S.M., Norse, E.A. and Pauly, D., 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 10: 517-524.http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295%282003%29001%5B0517:SGACIO%5D2.0.CO%3B2
  5. IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Downloaded on 5 June 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  6. MMAF, 2011. Minister Decree of MMAF No 45/MEN/2011 on the Estimation of Fishery Resources Potential in Fishery Management Areas of Republic of Indonesia. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).STATUS_TINGKAT_EKSPLOITASI_SDI_WPP_RI_2011.pdf
  7. MMAF, 2012. Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia, 2011. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF). Directorate General of Capture Fisheries. Jakarta. Vol. 12, No. 1. 182 pp.http://statistik.kkp.go.id/index.php/arsip/file/58/statistik-pt-tahun-2011.pdf/
  8. Sunoko, R. and Huang, H.-W., 2014. Indonesia tuna fisheries development and future strategy. Marine Policy, 43, 0: 174-183.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X13001255
  9. Susanto, H. A. 2011. Progres Pengembangan Sistem Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Indonesia: A Consultancy Report. Kerjasama Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan dengan Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP). Jakarta.http://www.usctsp.org/document/Progres_Pengembangan_Sistem_Kawasan_Konservasi_Perairan_Indonesia-Handoko_Adi_Susanto.pdf
  10. Varkey, D.A., Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J., Goram, Y. and Sumaila, R., 2010. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries catch in Raja Ampat Regency, Eastern Indonesia. Marine Policy, 34, 2: 228-236.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X09000980
  11. Badrudin et al. 2010. Laporan Akhir: Indeks Kelimpahan Stok dan Tingkat Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Ikan Demersal di WPP Laut Jawa http://km.iptek.net.id/assets/files/243.pdf

  12.  Fish Source. 2014a. Groupers. http://www.fishsource.com/fishery/identification?fishery=Groupers+-+stock+units+undefined+%28Country%3A+ID%3B+Mgmt+Area%3A+Java+Sea%3B+Gear%3A+LX%2C+LHP_hdl%2C+LLB%3B%29

  13. Fish Source. 2014b. Snappers. http://www.fishsource.com/fishery/identification?fishery=Snappers+%28multispecies%29+-+stock+units+undefined+%28Country%3A+ID%3B+Mgmt+Area%3A+Java+Sea%3B+Gear%3A+LX%2C+LHP_hdl%2C+LLB%3B%29

  14. NOAA Website. 2016a. Grouper. http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/pls/webpls/trade_prdct_cntry_ind.results?qtype=IMP&qyearfrom=2009&qyearto=2016&qprod_name=GROUPER&qcountry=5600&qsort=COUNTRY&qoutput=TABLE

  15. NOAA Website. 2016 b. Snapper. http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/pls/webpls/trade_prdct_cntry_ind.results?qtype=IMP&qyearfrom=2009&qyearto=2016&qprod_name=SNAPPER&qcountry=5600&qsort=COUNTRY&qoutput=TABLE

References

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