Last updated on 5 April 2018

SUMMARY

Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Haddock

Two North Sea haddock stock units- Subarea IV (North Sea) + Division IIIaW (Skagerrak), and Division VIa (West of Scotland)- were separately assessed until 2014. However, based on consideration of both genetic approaches and life history data, ICES has since determined that these stocks are not likely biologically distinct and should be covered under the same advice (ICES, 2014a,b). Presently, there is some disconnect not only between the newly designated stock unit and corresponding management plan areas, but also between management plan areas areas and areas for which set TACs are allocated. There is an existing EU-Norway management plan corresponding to stocks in sub-area IV and Division IIIa, while a combined TAC applies to Subarea IV and the EU waters of Division IIa. An EU management plan is proposed for stocks in Division VIa and the EU waters of Division Vb, and a corresponding TAC is already in place. Further, haddock in Divisions Vb and and the southern portion of Division IIa are generally considered to belong to a single and separate stock unit (ICES 2014c) (see also FishSource profile for Faroese haddock). There is need for a comprehensive plan exclusively for haddock in Subareas IV and Divisions IIIaW and VIa (ICES 2014a; 2014b), and corresponding alignment of harvest guidelines and reporting.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  1. The advice now considers three areas that were previously assessed separately, thus corresponding to boundaries of a single stock. Scientific advice is based on the MSY approach.
  2. Consistent adherence to the management plan for North Sea and Skagerrak fishery, contributed to a trend of reduced fishing mortality and yield maintenance (though a new management plan for the entire assessment area is now needed):
    • The spawning biomass remains above MSY Btrigger despite a series of poor recruitments.
    • The 2014 recruitment estimate is higher than prior years, albeit still below the long-term average.
    • Fishing mortality has been below Fmsy since 2008
  3. Discards remain at historical low levels, though they increased slightly from 2013 to 2014.
  4. The overall reporting of catch data provided to ICES improved during 2012-2014.
  5. Conditions established during the original MSC assessments for the two Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fishery sectors (one each in Denmark and the United Kingdom) were met, and throughout this process, improvements were made with regard to:
    • Gear selectivity and performance
    • Data quality for retained and non-retained target species and bycatch, including catch and stock assessment data for target species and catch data and stock identification for ETP species
    • Documentation and understanding of fishery interactions with vulnerable habitat and ETP species
    • Capacity to quantitatively evaluate fishery related mortality on ETP species, and measure trends and extent of impacts.
    • Alternative measures for pursuing additional protected areas around vulnerable habitats
Weaknesses

1) The unit now lacks a management plan that is applicable to the entire stock area. Lack of a coherent management plan prompted introduction of a new MSC certification condition in 2014.
2) Set TACs are slightly misaligned with both the stock (assessment) area and existing management plan areas.
3) For assessment purposes, the survey indices (conducted in Subarea IV and Division IIIa only) are assumed to represent the whole stock; there is not yet a combined index for the entire area.
4) Despite lower levels of discarding over recent years, ICES recommends that measures be taken to further reduce discards in order to protect future recruitment.
5) Trawling is the main gear used. This type of fishing impacts benthic habitats and their communities.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

8.2

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.4


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Take measures to fully implement the discard ban, including improved selectivity among other measures.
2. Ensure management plan covers all areas and total allowable catch (TAC) setting is aligned with advice covered areas.
3. Support the implementation of practical and effective network of benthic protected areas.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Start an industry led Fishery Improvement Project considering the multi-species nature of the demersal fishery.
2. Encourage the use of practices and gear adaptations to reduce bycatch of juveniles and discarding, including sorting grids and square mesh panels, and to minimize benthic impact.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak haddock:

    MSC Certified

  • SFSAG Northern Demersal Stocks:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Shelf EU Denmark Bottom pair trawls
Bottom-set longlines
Danish seines
Scottish seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Trammel nets
Twin bottom otter trawls
Ireland Bottom trawls
United Kingdom Bottom pair trawls
Danish seines
Scottish seines
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Twin bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Strengths
  1. The advice now considers three areas that were previously assessed separately, thus corresponding to boundaries of a single stock. Scientific advice is based on the MSY approach.
  2. Consistent adherence to the management plan for North Sea and Skagerrak fishery, contributed to a trend of reduced fishing mortality and yield maintenance (though a new management plan for the entire assessment area is now needed):
    • The spawning biomass remains above MSY Btrigger despite a series of poor recruitments.
    • The 2014 recruitment estimate is higher than prior years, albeit still below the long-term average.
    • Fishing mortality has been below Fmsy since 2008
  3. Discards remain at historical low levels, though they increased slightly from 2013 to 2014.
  4. The overall reporting of catch data provided to ICES improved during 2012-2014.
  5. Conditions established during the original MSC assessments for the two Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fishery sectors (one each in Denmark and the United Kingdom) were met, and throughout this process, improvements were made with regard to:
    • Gear selectivity and performance
    • Data quality for retained and non-retained target species and bycatch, including catch and stock assessment data for target species and catch data and stock identification for ETP species
    • Documentation and understanding of fishery interactions with vulnerable habitat and ETP species
    • Capacity to quantitatively evaluate fishery related mortality on ETP species, and measure trends and extent of impacts.
    • Alternative measures for pursuing additional protected areas around vulnerable habitats
Weaknesses

1) The unit now lacks a management plan that is applicable to the entire stock area. Lack of a coherent management plan prompted introduction of a new MSC certification condition in 2014.
2) Set TACs are slightly misaligned with both the stock (assessment) area and existing management plan areas.
3) For assessment purposes, the survey indices (conducted in Subarea IV and Division IIIa only) are assumed to represent the whole stock; there is not yet a combined index for the entire area.
4) Despite lower levels of discarding over recent years, ICES recommends that measures be taken to further reduce discards in order to protect future recruitment.
5) Trawling is the main gear used. This type of fishing impacts benthic habitats and their communities.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Take measures to fully implement the discard ban, including improved selectivity among other measures.
2. Ensure management plan covers all areas and total allowable catch (TAC) setting is aligned with advice covered areas.
3. Support the implementation of practical and effective network of benthic protected areas.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Start an industry led Fishery Improvement Project considering the multi-species nature of the demersal fishery.
2. Encourage the use of practices and gear adaptations to reduce bycatch of juveniles and discarding, including sorting grids and square mesh panels, and to minimize benthic impact.

United Kingdom

Last updated on 18 October 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at here.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at here.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 1 February 2016

Two North Sea haddock stock units- Subarea IV (North Sea) + Division IIIaW (Skagerrak), and Division VIa (West of Scotland)- were separately assessed until 2014. However, based on consideration of both genetic approaches and life history data, ICES has since determined that these stocks are not likely biologically distinct and should be covered under the same advice (ICES 2014a,b).

An age-based analytical assessment model (TSA) was used in the June 2015 stock assessment (ICES 2015a), including two survey indices and commercial catches. Discards and industrial bycatch data are included in the assessment and were estimated at 12% and 0% of total catch, respectively, in 2014. Survey indices used for the assessment regard only North Sea (Subarea IV and Division IIIaW) and are considered to represent the whole stock. No combined survey index for the whole stock is available.Discards and bycatch data, included in the assessment, represent 90% of landings (ICES 2015a).The overall reporting of catch data provided to ICES is reported to have improved in 2012-2014 (ICES 2015a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 4 February 2016

Advice for 2016 Total Allowable catch (TAC), based on the MSY approach, regards the whole area , including Divisions IIIa W (Skagerrak) and VIa (West of Scotland) and Subarea IV (North Sea) (ICES 2015a). Ices has noted in the past that in order to parse advice into subunits, it would require justification in the form of policy guidelines and further analysis of stock distribution (ICES 2014a). As of 2015, ICES is presenting catch advice for total catch rather than landed catch.

The advice corresponds to an increase in fishing mortality (F) to 0.37, permitting maximum catches of74,854, assuming the 2012-2014 average rate of discards is maintained.Under this scenario, the projected 2016 SSB is 121,964 tons, representing a 9 % increase relative to the 2015 estimate.

The management plan scenario, which considers distinct plans for two units: an EU-Norway management plan for Subarea IV and Division IIIaW, and a proposed EU management plan for Division VIa and EU waters of Division Vb, is not relevant under ICES’ new stock unit designation.

For the first time in 2012, ICES produced mixed-fisheries advice in North Sea (for cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole and Nephrops (ICES 2012b; ICES 2014a). However, there are no management objectives defined for mixed fisheries. Assuming a strictly implemented discard ban, whiting and Eastern Channel sole are predicted as the most limiting stocks for the North Sea demersal fisheries in 2016 (ICES 2015b). This marks the first time that cod has not been estimated to be the most limiting stock under the “Minimum” scenario (the most precautionary option, whereby fishing stops when the catch for any one stock meets the fleet’s stock share).

Reference Points

Last updated on 04 Feb 2016

Reference points, for both MSY and precautionary approaches, were revised in 2014 to consider the whole area (ICES 2014a). ICES based its advice for 2015 and 2016 on the MSY approach (ICEDS 2014a and 2015a).

A precautionary SSB level (Bpa) of 88,000 tons and a limit reference point, Blim, of 63,000 tons, were defined. Under the MSY approach, MSY Btrigger was set = Bpa. Fpa and Flim are no longer defined. For 2016, FMSY is set at 0.37 (ICES 2015).

Management plan reference points estimated for Subarea IV include target fishing mortality (Ftrp = 0.3), and SSBMP ( Blim =100,000 tons and (Bpa = 140,000 tons(ICES 2015).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 14 February 2014

ICES has evaluated the EU–Norway management plan and concluded that the target fishing mortality FHCR = 0.3 with TAC constraint ± 15% leads on average to a < 5% risk of B < Blim within the next 20 years. Increasing the target FHCR increases the risk. The agreed management plan can be provisionally accepted as precautionary and ICES therefore advises according to this plan. This implies a TAC of 38,000 t in 2010 (which should include industrial bycatch), which is expected to lead to a spawning stock biomass (SSB) of 154,000 t in 2011.

Appended content

In 2010, ICES started a transition to a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach for this stock (ICES 2010c). In this transition period, ICES scientific advice will provide catch options according to the ICES MSY approach, the precautionary approach, and the managing plan.

For 2014, ICES advises on the basis of the MSY approach that catches should be no more than 6,432 tons. If discarding rates do not change from the average of the last three years, this corresponds to landings of no more than 3,988 tons (ICES, 2013a). This represents an increase of 28.6% of the landings comparing with 2013. This approach implies fishing mortality at 0.26 (lower than the FMSY proxy because Spawing Stock Biomass (SSB) in 2014 is 12% below MSY Btrigger) and is expected to lead to an SSB of 27,270 tons in 2015.

According to the Precautionary Approach, a fishing mortality of 0.16 will lead to an SSB in 2015 around 30,000 tons (Bpa), resulting in catches in 2014 of no more than 4,158 tons. If discarding rates do not change from the average of the last three years, this corresponds to landings of no more than 2,578 tons.

There is no formal management plan currently in place although one has been evaluated and considered precautionary by ICES (ICES, 2013b). However, under F=0.3 in 2014, SSB is forecast to be less than Bpa at the start of 2015 and according to the management plan, until convergence is achieved leads to F(2014)=0.24 and SSB=27,779 tons. This results in catches of 6,014 tons and landings of 3,729 tons in 2014, corresponding to an 11% TAC decrease.

A TAC relating to this stock is in place for EU and international waters of ICES management Areas Vb and VIa and the assessment is carried out using data from VIa (ICES, 2013b).

ICES also advised that effective technical measures should be implemented to reduce high discard rates in the Nephrops fleet (TR2). Additionally, ICES also recommends special attention on the management of the sporadic nature of haddock recruitments (ICES, 2013a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 4 February 2016

The stock remains in good condition: SSB in 2014 was estimated at 145,650 tons, lower than the previous two years’estimates, but still well above respective reference points. The estimated F for 2014 of 0.241 is well below FMSY, as since 2008. Recruitment has been poor, but increased significantly in 2014 relative to 2013 (ICES 2015a). Landings in 2014, at 41,143 tons, increased in relation to previous year; catches were at 46,298 tons (ICES 2015a).

Trends

Last updated on 04 Feb 2016

Landings in 1972 were roughly 230,000 tons and average annual landings have decreased each decade since. From then up to the late 1980’s,landings fluctuated within the range of just less than 100,000 tons to just over 200,000 tons. Landingswere fairly steadily near 90,000 tons throughout much of the 1990’s, and have ranged between roughly 30,000-65,00 tons from 2000 to 2014 (ICES 2015a). Greatly improved stability in yields since 2008 has been attributed to adherence to the EU-Norway management plan (ICES 2014a), and specifically, a 15% constraint on inter-annual limit catch changes (2012a). Discards are estimated to have reduced from 68% in 2001 to historic low levels in the recent several years (12% in 2014) (ICES 2015a). Effort by smaller mesh trawl, beam trawl and gillnet have decreased, whereas larger mesh trawl effort has remained stable (ICES 2014a).

The haddock stock has been maintained in generally good condition during the history of the fishery. The spawning stock has been below the current estimate of MSY Btrigger in only 6 out of 43 years (1990-1992 and 2000, 2001 and 2007). Fishing mortality has been consistently below FMSY since 2008. Haddock exhibit sporadic high recruitments, but this effect has somewhat dampened for this stock during over a decade of very poor recruitments.Peak recruitments of the last ten years, in 2005 and 2009 and 2014, would have been roughly average size relative to the recruitments observed in the preceding several decades (ICES 2014a and 2015a).Evidence suggests that recruitment for haddock is primarily driven by environmental effects, rather than parental stock size.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 4 February 2016

In 2008 the EU and Norway agreed on a revised management plan (accepted as precautionary by ICES) for the haddock stock in Subarea IV and Division IIIaW; a proposal for a management plan was developed for Division VIa and considered to be precautionary by ICES. A comprehensive management plan for the entire stock unit is lacking(ICES 2014a).

Set catch limits are not aligned with areas of the advice (ICES 2014a) or corresponding management plan areas. There is an existing EU-Norway management plan corresponding to stocks in sub-area IV and Division IIIa, while a combined TAC applies to Subarea IV and the EU waters of Division IIa. An EU management plan has been proposed for stocks in Division VIa and the EU waters of Division Vb, and a corresponding TAC is already in place. Further, ICES considers haddock in Divisions Vb and and the southern portion of Division IIa a single and separate stock unit (ICES 2014c) (see also FishSource profile for Faroese haddock).

For 2016, the total set TAC for the EU fishery (summed TACs for Division IIa (EU waters) and Subarea IV, the whole of Subarea IIIa, and Division VIa and Vb) was defined at 57,911 tons (EC 2015).

Effort limitations in Subarea IV and Division IIIa were introduced in 2003 to protect the North Sea cod stock (ICES 2014a).Followingthe implementation of two successive effort management plans in 2003 and 2008, overall nominal effort (kW-days) by EU demersal trawls, seines, beam trawls, gill/trammelnets, and longlines (all mesh sizes included) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, and Eastern Channel was substantially reduced (by 38% between 2003 and 2013). Meanwhile, effort has increased in the West of Scotland (Division VIa) over recent years following exemptions to effort controls for vessels participating in the fully documented fisheries (FDF) trials (a program to support cod quotas and reduce discarding, which is expected to reduce overall cod mortality).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 04 Feb 2016

Not applicable.

Denmark

Last updated on 4 February 2016

n 2008 the EU and Norway agreed on a revised management plan, accepted as precautionary by ICES, for the haddock stock in Subarea IV and Division IIIaW; a proposal for a management plan was developed for Division VIa and considered to be precautionary by ICES. But the whole area assessed now lacks a management plan (ICES 2014a).

Effort limitations are in place (as annually adjusted kW-day ceilings). For 2016, a TAC for EU component was defined at 57,911 tons for Division IIa (EU waters) and Subarea IV, the whole of Subarea IIIa, and Divisions VIa and the EU and international waters of Vb (ICES 2015a). Set catch limits are not aligned with areas of the advice (ICES 2014a).

As a result of the redefined stock unit, a new Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) condition was opened for theDFPO (Danish Fishermen) Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak Haddock Fishery certification unit (FCI 2014). The stated concern under this condition was whether current harvest control rules, applicable to the old stock unit, could or would be implemented to achieve desired exploitation rates for the new unit. As such, the surveillance team considered it unclear that the tools in use would remain appropriate and effective. The issue has also resulted in an analogous new condition for the Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) North Sea Haddock Fishery (Blyth-Skyrme and Pawson 2014); though, aligning the timeline of requirements for closure is somewhat complicated due to differing certification periods (the DFPO unit has only just completed its second surveillance audit; while the SFSAG unit is nearing the end of its certification period). Regardless, each fishery has been assigned a similar condition with the general expectation that there will be an appropriate management response to the change in stock, with basic requirements outlined for the SFSAG certification unit pending successful recertification. More specific possibilities for action were detailed under the condition applied to the DFPO certification unit, including 1) allocation of a single TAC to the whole stock area, or a well-defined way in which the TAC is allocated among stock areas consistent with the harvest control rule (HCR) (management plan), 2) adjustment of the HCR reference points, at least as an interim solution, to ensure they are precautionary and consistent with the stock dynamics and therefore can be achieved (e.g. FMP=0.3, Blim=63000t, Btrigger=88000t), and 3) development of a new long term management plan consistent with the new stock assessment. Management arrangements for jointly managed fish stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak, including possible adjustments to the long-term management plans for North Sea stocks of haddock in the light of 2015 ICES advice, were planned topics for discussion during the annual consultations between the EU and Norway under their bilateral fisheries agreement. As of the third surveillance audit for the DFPO certification unit, the terms of the conditionwere considered on target (AML 2015). Meanwhile, status of the condition for the SFSAG certification unit will likely be updated in a 5th surveillance report expected in mid-February 2016 (MEC 2015).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 4 February 2016

In 2008 the EU and Norway agreed on a revised management plan, accepted as precautionary by ICES, for the haddock stock in Subarea IV and Division IIIaW; a proposal for a management plan was developed for Division VIa and considered to be precautionary by ICES. But the whole area assessed now lacks a management plan (ICES 2014a).

Effort limitations are in place (as annually adjusted kW-day ceilings). For 2016, a TAC for EU component was defined at 57,911 tons for Division IIa (EU waters) and Subarea IV, the whole of Subarea IIIa, and Divisions VIa and the EU and international waters of Vb (ICES 2015a). Set catch limits are not aligned with areas of the advice (ICES 2014a).

A Scottish Conservation Credits Scheme (CCS) has operated since 2008 in the management of the Scottish fleet, which takes the largest proportion of haddock catches (ICES 2009b). Compulsory real-time closures and voluntary amber zones protect areas with high cod abundance and the use of more selective gears is encouraged to reduce bycatch and discarding. During 2011 there were 185 of these larger closures, while there were 173 in 2012. The effects of this regulation on the behaviour of the fleet and on the haddock stock have been investigated, but do not show a consistent pattern (ICES 2014a). A one-net rule has also been introduced and has likely resulted in more accurate mesh size reporting.

In December 2014, as a result of the redefined stock unit, a new Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Condition was opened for the Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) North Sea Haddock fishery certification unit (Blyth-Skyrme and Pawson 2014). The stated concern under this condition was whether current harvest control rules, applicable to the old stock unit, could or would be implemented to achieve desired exploitation rates for the new unit. As such, the surveillance team considered it unclear that the tools in use would remain appropriate and effective. The team also noted that while the same issues apply to the DFPO (Danish Fishermen) Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak Haddock Fishery, aligning the requirements for closure is somewhat complicated due to differing certification periods (the DFPO unit has only just completed its second surveillance audit; while the SFSAG unit is nearing the end of its certification period). Regardless, each fishery has been assigned a similar condition with the general expectation that there will be an appropriate management response to the change in stock, with basic requirements outlined for the SFSAG certification unit pending successful recertification. More specific possibilities for action were detailed under the condition applied to the DFPO certification unit (FCI 2014), including 1) allocation of a single TAC to the whole stock area, or a well-defined way in which the TAC is allocated among stock areas consistent with the harvest control rule (HCR) (management plan), 2) adjustment of the HCR reference points, at least as an interim solution, to ensure they are precautionary and consistent with the stock dynamics and therefore can be achieved (e.g. FMP=0.3, Blim=63000t, Btrigger=88000t), and 3) development of a new long term management plan consistent with the new stock assessment. As of the third surveillance audit for the DFPO certification unit, the terms of the condition were considered on target (AML 2015). Meanwhile, status of the condition for the SFSAG certification unit will likely be updated in a 5th surveillance report expected in mid-February 2016 (MEC 2015).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 4 February 2016

The expansion of the closed-circuit TV (CCTV) and FDF programmes in 2010–2013 in Scotland, Denmark, and England is expected to have contributed to the reduction of cod mortality (ICES 2014a). Improvement in catch reporting between 2012-2014 is also partly attributable to the FDF program, and also to increased coverage by the Scottish industry/science observer sampling scheme (ICES 2015a). Misreporting in weight decreased as a result of consequence of the UK Registration of Buyers and Sellers regulation (2006). Uncertainty in landings data due to misreporting between Division VIa and Subarea IV is no longer a stock assessment issue since the areas are assessed together (ICES 014a). Consistent adherence to the management plan for North Sea and Skagerrak fishery, though no longer applicable to the redefined assessment unit, contributed to a trend of reduced fishing mortality and yield maintenance. It is possible that historical low discard levels in the past several years relative to the past 4 decades (ICES 2015a) are related to more selective fishing practices and the Conservation Credits Scheme (CCS) (ICES 2014a). However it also appears linked to low recruitment. ICES recommends that measures be taken to further reduce discards in order to protect future recruitment. In area VIa, the Nephrops fleet has been responsible for the majority of discards (70% of all discards in 2012) (ICES 2013a), though this is a relatively low percentage of the discards for the entire assessment unit.

There are two Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified units in the fishery, one held by the Scottish Fisheries Sustainable Accreditation Group (SFSAG) fishery in ICES Subarea IV, and one held by the Danish Fishermen’s Processors Organization (DFPO) fishery in ICES Subarea IV and Division IIIa.

Denmark

Last updated on 4 February 2016

Improvement in catch reporting between 2012-2014 is partly attributable to the fully documented fisheries program. The expansion of the closed-circuit TV (CCTV) and fully documented fisheries (FDF) programmes in 2010–2013 in Scotland, Denmark, and England is expected to have contributed to the reduction of cod mortality (ICES 2014a). Misreporting in weight decreased in consequence of the UK Registration of Buyers and Sellers regulation (2006). Uncertainty in landings data due to misreporting between Division VIa and Subarea IV is no longer a stock assessment issue since the areas are assessed together (ICES 014a). Consistent adherence to the management plan for North Sea and Skagerrak fishery, though no longer applicable to the redefined assessment unit, contributed to a trend of reduced fishing mortality and yield maintenance. It is possible that historical low discard levels in the past several years relative to the past 4 decades (ICES 2015a) are related to more selective fishing practices and Scotland’s Conservation Credits Scheme (CCS) (ICES 2014a). However it also appears linked to low recruitment. ICES recommends that measures be taken to further reduce discards in order to protect future recruitment.

According to the MSC certification report, there is a comprehensive code of conduct that demonstrates commitment with responsible fishing practices (Hervás et al., 2012).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 4 February 2016

Improvement in catch reporting between 2012-2014 is partly attributable to the fully documented fisheries program, and also to increased coverage by the Scottish industry/science observer sampling scheme (ICES 2015a). The expansion of the closed-circuit TV (CCTV) and fully documented fisheries (FDF) programmes in 2010–2013 in Scotland, Denmark, and England is expected to have contributed to the reduction of cod mortality (ICES 2014a). Misreporting in weight decreased in consequence of the UK Registration of Buyers and Sellers regulation (2006). Uncertainty in landings data due to misreporting between Division VIa and Subarea IV is no longer a stock assessment issue since the areas are assessed together (ICES 2014a). Consistent adherence to the management plan for North Sea and Skagerrak fishery, though no longer applicable to the redefined assessment unit, contributed to a trend of reduced fishing mortality and yield maintenance. It is possible that historical low discard levels in the past several years relative to the past 4 decades (ICES 2015a) are related to more selective fishing practices and the Conservation Credits Scheme (CCS) (ICES 2014a). However it also appears linked to low recruitment. ICES recommends that measures be taken to further reduce discards in order to protect future recruitment.

The SFSAG North Sea haddock fishery is considered a well-run, tightly managed fishery with a well-established and understood management regime that is clearly understood by all the key players engaged in the fishery, which is itself subject to close surveillance and monitoring ensuring a high level of compliance (Moody Marine 2010). During its first MSC certification, this fishery met and closed all original conditions by the second surveillance audit (Hough and Pawson, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 5 February 2016

The North Sea has important populations of scavenging seabirds (great skuas Catharacta skua and great black-backed gulls Larus marinus), for which discards and offal, especially of haddock and whiting, are an important food source. Fishery management measures which alter the availability of discards and offal in the North Sea may thus have an impact on the region’s seabird populations (Reves and Furness 2002). However, Furness et al. (2007) study recommends reduce discarding as much as possible, as these artificially sustain elevated populations of scavengers, and it would be preferable to see these populations brought back to pre-discarding sustainable levels.

Three of the species in IUCN Redlist and OSPAR Convention might be affected: common skate Dipturus batis (Critically endangered; Dulvy et al. 2006), spotted ray Raja montagui (Least concern; Ellis et al., 2006) and the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Vulnerable; Sobel, 1996). Spurdog Squalus acanthias (Critically Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic; Fordham et al., 2006) is also caught and has been a species considered in need of particular attention (MML 2010). Documentation of Spurdog catches in the North Sea has improved in recent years, and catches have declined (AML 2015). MSC conditions related to spurdog and common skate applied to North Sea and Skagerrak haddock certification for the DFPO, and were resolved by the third surveillance audit in 2014 (AML 2015). The fishery was also determined not to hinder the rebuilding of the cod stock in the North Sea. Significant adverse impacts of the fishery on any ETP species, either directly or indirectly, are considered unlikely, and in the British fishery sector in Subarea IV, there is evidence to support this (AML 2015). There are presently no unresolved MSC conditions pertaining to ETP species in this fishery.

Some protective management measures have been introduced (ICES, 2008). Marine mammals, like blue whale Balaenoptera musculus (Endangered; Reilly et al. 2008) and North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis (Endangered; Reilly et al. 2012), that occur in the North Sea are protected by several International agreements; encounters with this group and trawl gears have been rarely reported (MML 2010).

Denmark

Last updated on 5 February 2016

Under MSC protocol, protected, endangered or threatened (PET) species are those listed as such by national legislation or binding international agreements. PET species that are relevant to the fishery are harbour porpoise, harbour seal, grey seal, angel shark, blue skate, basking shark, spurdog and Allis Shad.

Of the EU Council Reg 57/2011 listed species, blue skate (Dipturus batis) is determined by IUCN to be critically endangered and “facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild” (Dulvy et al. 2006). Picked/piked dogfish (Squalus acanthius) is also IUCN-critically endangered in the Northeast Atlantic (Fordham et al. 2006), as is angel shark (Squatina squatina) (Morey et al., 2006) but the latter is considered to be extinct within the North Sea so no interactions are expected to occur (Hervás et al. 2012). Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is IUCN-endangered in the region and decreasing (Fowler 2005).

Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio, listed under the Habitats Directive, is also IUCN-critically endangered (Freyhof et al. 2010).

Irreversible impacts on these species are thought to be unlikely, and all conditions established during the fishery’s first MSC assessment pertaining to concerns regarding the bycatch of or strategies in place to manage and mitigate impacts on common skate and spurdog were closed by the third surveillance audit (AML 2015). A condition regarding harbor porpoises was closed during the second Annual Surveillance Audit (FCI 2014), following improvements to documentation of catches of harbor porpoises, which indicated that the set net fishery does not pose serious and irreversible harm to this species. Further, the requirement that all set net vessels carry a copy of the “Wheelhouse guide to protected species” was also met. There are presently no unresolved MSC conditions pertaining to ETP species in this fishery.

United Kingdom

Last updated on 5 February 2016

Three species which could potentially interact with the fishery are OSPAR-listed – blue skate Dipturus batis (Critically endangered; Dulvy et al. 2006), spotted ray Raja montagui (Least concern; Ellis et al. 2006) and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Vulnerable; Sobel 1996) but there is clear evidence of no significant interactions between the fishery and protected, endangered or threatened species in the North Sea (MMI 2010).

Spurdog Squalus acanthias (Vulnerable; Fordham et al. 2006), is covered by a conservation plan and may only be discarded in very small quantities. Bycatch has been reduced (Hough and Pawson 2012). Encounters with marine mammals are reported to be very rare (MMI 2010).

There are presently no unresolved MSC conditions pertaining to ETP species in this fishery.

Other Species

Last updated on 5 February 2016

In the North Sea, haddock is taken as part of a mixed demersal fishery along with cod, whiting and Nephrops. As a mixed fishery, the effects of management measures on other species need to be considered within an ecosystem context (ICES, 2010a).

A Scottish Conservation Credits Scheme was introduced in 2008 to reduce discarding of cod and there are indications of a decrease possibly related to more selective fishing practices. A recovery plan for cod, which included fishing gear restrictions and the number of fishing days, was also introduced by the EC (MML, 2010). Additionally, UK CCTV and fully documented fisheries (FDF) programs where cod discarding is banned is thought to be reducing cod mortality (ICES 2014a).

Saithe, ling and blue ling are also caught. Other demersal species caught as a bycatch include plaice, lemon sole, dogfish, Skate sp., witch, megrim, redfish, dab, hake, and turbot with lesser quantities of catfish, fork beard, Grenadier sp., tusk, halibut, turbot, Greenland halibut, brill and pollack. The trawling portion of the fishery is relatively non-selective and the non-commercial catch includes many species of importance to the ecosystem (ICES 2010a).

There are no open MSC pertaining to bycatch or discards for the certified components of this fishery. It is considered highly likely thatmain retained species are highly likely to be within biologically based limits, or if outside there are at least partial strategies to ensure that the fishery does not hinder recovery and rebuilding (FCI 2013; AML 2015).

Denmark

Last updated on 5 February 2016

This MSC-certified fishery targets a number of species besides haddock. Primarily plaice and cod but also saithe, anglerfish, Norway lobster and hake are targeted. The cod stock is in a depleted state but appears to be improving; the North Sea plaice stock is healthy but in Eastern Skagerrak it is considered likely to be depleted. The several Norway lobster stocks are in variable states; saithe is healthy; the status of anglerfish species are unknown, and hake appears not to be overfished.

Within the otter trawl fleet, only vessels using mesh size equal to or greater than 100mm were certified.

Conditions established during the original MSC certification process included the evaluation and mitigation of impacts on cod, Skagerrak plaice, Norway lobster, and anglerfish stocks due to bycatch by the fishery; and the collection of recent discarding data for set net and longline fisheries (FCI 2013). These conditions have all been met at an ‘80’ or better performance level (with regard to species outcomes, management and information), indicating that main retained species are highly likely to be within biologically based limits, or if outside there are at least partial strategies to ensure that the fishery does not hinder recovery and rebuilding (FCI 2013; AML 2015).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 5 February 2016

This MSC-certified fishery targets haddock as part of a mixed demersal fishery along with cod, whiting, saithe, anglerfish and plaice. The cod stock is in a depleted state but appears to be improving; saithe is healthy; the statuses of anglerfish and whiting are unknown. A system of real-time closures alerting to areas of high abundance and seasonal and area closures promote cod avoidance by Scottish vessels under a cod recovery plan (Moody Marine, 2010).

Conditions for MSC certification required the adoption of mitigation strategies for bycatch (both retained and discarded) species and the development of measures to accurately quantify all bycatch. These conditions were met and closed by the second surveillance audit (Hough and Pawson, 2012).

HABITAT

Last updated on 4 February 2015

Otter trawling accounts for most of the fishing effort in the northern North Sea, where beam trawls are rarely used, but in central and southern regions otter trawls are less common. In general, beam trawling and otter trawling cause large mortality rates of benthic fauna (ICES, 2008), and can cause serious damages on the erect and sessile epifauna (e.g. sea pens and anemones) (Sewell and Hiscock, 2005 in MML, 2010).

It has been also reported that trawling has the potential to reduce the overall roughness of hard seabead, and that the effects of trawling could be detected to depths of several centimeters within the sediment (Schwinghamer et al., 1996 in MML, 2010).

Knowledge of the distribution of seabed habitats in the North Sea is considered to be strong, after much research has been conducted in recent years (Hervás et al., 2012). An ongoing project is now evaluating the impact of several commercial types of towed gears on different benthic habitats (MML, 2010).

The Danish seine haddock fishery, given its characteristics, is known to provide “cleaner catches” and less likely to affect the benthic habitats (MML, 2010).

Reefs of the coral Lophelia have been mapped along the Norwegian coastline and Sabellaria reefs further south (ICES, 2008). All regions of coral reef have been granted protection under Norwegian law but five, including the Tisler reef in the Skagerrak, have been closed to all bottom-towed fishing gears (ONS, 2013).

Habitats appear well mapped in Division VIa (Jones, J.B. 1992; McIntyre et al. 2012); it has nonetheless been noted that the overall impact of demersal trawling on the seabed west of Scotland needs to be evaluated in relation to the proportion of different habitats affected (MI 2015). Based on assessments of the British fishery in Subarea IV and the Danish fishery Subarea IV and Division IIa, MSC certified fisheries in this area are considered highly unlikely to irreparably reduce habitat structure and function, but further evidence is needed (MML 2010; AML 2015).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 04 Feb 2015

Real-time closures are implemented under the Scottish Conservation Credits Scheme in order to reduce cod catches. In 2008, the initial year of the scheme, 15 closures were generated and in 2009, 144 closures occurred (ICES, 2010b). Norwegian authorities have closed several areas of coral reef to protect them from damage caused by bottom-towed fishing.

FSBI (2001) noted that conservation programs and action plans in North Sea have been set up to tackle major threats such as habitat damage, biodiversity losses and declining population as a result of overfishing. Most programs are based on a combination of general measures and specific actions, and one approach that has received much attention of late is to focus conservation on particular areas of sea, so called protected areas.

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commissions (JMM), held in Bremen on 25-26 June 2003, agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic, and to ensure that by 2010 this MPAs Network is ecologically coherent and wellmanaged (OSPAR Commission, 2007).As of 2011, OSPAR noted that while 106 potential MPAs had thus far been reported by the contracting countries, substantial progress was still needed in order to meet the target of a well managed and ecologically coherent network of MPAs (OSPAR Commission, 2011). While the overall target was still not met as of 2012, OSPAR noted progress toward coherence for a number of regions- and notably, the Greater North Sea, was the first region to reach the target of having at least 10% of coastal and marine areas effectively protected by 2020 (OSPAR 2013).

Denmark

Last updated on 5 February 2016

Bottom trawling is known to have significant potential to impact benthic communities, particularly sensitive slow-growing and long-lived communities such as corals, burrowing mega fauna and seapens; and maerl and seagrass beds. This may result in a shift from large, long-lived and slow-growing fauna may to communities dominated by smaller, short-lived and fast-growing organisms (Hervás et al., 2012).

Vessel monitoring systems (VMS) permit the fleet’s fishing tracks to be mapped – the fishery occurs on sandy to muddy and gravel seabeds, and to a lesser extent over stony sediment. Demersal trawling takes place within Skagerrak and out along the Norwegian trench. Although in Skaegerrak there is considered to be a good understanding of the habitats where the fishery takes place and interaction with sensitive or vulnerable habitats is considered to be minimal, the main part of landings is taken in areas where vulnerable, rare or particularly sensitive communities are present (Hervás et al., 2012).

Conditions were established during the first MSC assessment of the fishery, requiring evaluation and management of impacts on benthic habitats due to demersal trawl (Hervás et al., 2012). These conditions were closed following progress in linking seabed mapping with fishery activities, and improved documentation of ETP species and vulnerable habitats. No indications of interactions between the trawl fishery and vulnerable habitat species were documented. Indicators associated with these conditions were all re-scored at at least “80”, indicating the fishery is considered highly unlikely to irreparably reduce habitat structure and function, but further evidence is needed (AML 2015).There are no open conditions related to habitat impacts for this fishery.                                                           

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Feb 2016

Denmark is currently implementing an ecologically coherent network of marine protected areas, designed to include sensitive and/or vulnerable habitats and communities, under the EU Habitats Directive. As a region, the Greater North Sea was the first to achieve the target of effectively protecting at least 10% of its marine and coastal waters by MPAs OSPAR 2013). VMS data for the certified fleet show that it does not fish on the Dogger Bank, which is one of the largest Natura 2000 designated sites in the North Sea (Hervás et al., 2012). The DFPO is engaged in a habitat strategy that pursues a number of alternative measures for introducing new protected areas around vulnerable habitats (AML 2015).

United Kingdom

Last updated on 4 February 2015

Chronic otter trawling has been shown to cause a shift in the type of organism present in benthic communities, and a century of fishing on current grounds has certainly changed the nature of seabeds, but the ongoing reduction in effort, the introduction of lighter gears and the strategic focus on known productive grounds mean no further significant changes are expected to occur. Danish seine’s impacts on benthic habitats are being studied but are thought to be low.

Vessel monitoring systems (VMS) data permit the fleet’s fishing areas have been mapped. The distribution of habitat types in the North Sea has been well studied and key sites have been designated as marine protected areas, with yet more still being declared (MMI 2010). The fishery is considered highly unlikely to irreparably reduce habitat structure and function, but further evidence is needed.

There are no open conditions related to habitat impacts for this fishery.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 04 Feb 2015

Numerous Scottish inshore areas are closed to mobile gears to protect nursery areas and reduce gear conflicts (Moody Marine, 2010).

A marine protected area network is being set up in the North Sea under the Natura 2000 and OSPAR MPA programs, with Special Areas of Conservation designated to protect sensitive species and communities (Moody Marine, 2010). As a region, the Greater North Sea was the first to achieve the target of effectively protecting at least 10% of its marine and coastal waters by MPAs OSPAR 2013).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Beginning in 2014, ICES determined that North Sea Haddock should be considered as a single stock, where previously two separate assessments were conducted and distinct advice provided. Previous management plans, an EU-Norway management plan for Subarea IV/ Division IIIaW, and a proposed EU management plan for Division VIa and the EU waters of Division Vb, do not reflect the singular stock unit (ICES 2014a, 2014b; ICES 2015a). A management strategy to address Northern Shelf haddock according to the new delineation is reportedly under negotiation, but the stock is meanwhile without an applicable plan (AML 2015).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 72.3 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 74.9 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 96.6%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 8.2.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 49.8 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 44.6 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 112%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBpa.

The SSB is 146 ('000 t). The SSBpa is 88.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBpa for this index is 166%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 9.4.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.241 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.370 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 65.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) Set TACs from 2006 onwards apply to non-Faroese nations that operate in the EU and international waters of Divisions Vb (Faroe Islands), and VIa (west of Scotland) (Regulation (EU) No 2015/104); ICES advised catch, meanwhile applies only to Division Vb. The Faroese fleet is effort-regulated. Landings by other nations in Division Vb are a small fraction of the total (<3% of the average estimated landings between 2012-2014; 2014 catch estimates are preliminary) (ICES 2015a). Score #2 was assigned qualitatively, and reflects the misalignment between the set TACs and the scientific advice, and a management strategy that is inconsistent with a precautionary or maximum sustained yield approach. 2) Catch is reported as landed catch only, but discards are considered negligible 3) ICES recommends the development and implementation of a recovery plan as a prerequisite to reopen the fishery (ICES 2015a). 4) The fishing year lasts from the 1st September until the 31st August. 5) FMSY and MSY Btrigger are used to populate scores notwithstanding that further analysis is required to confirm the preliminary MSY reference points (ICES 2012a; ICES 2014a).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak haddock

STATUS

MSC Certified on 7 August 2012

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 86.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Demersal Trawl (TR1) 80.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem -  Demersal Trawl (TR1) Fail
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Danish Seine 80.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem -  Seine nets 80.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Longlines 82.3
Principle 3 – Management System 85.8

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Akroyd, J., McLoughlin, K. 2013. Surveillance Report NZ Albacore Tuna Troll Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, May 2013. 41pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/had-34.pdf
  2. AML (Acoura Marine Ltd.), 2015. MSC Sustainable Fisheries Certification: Off-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak haddock Fishery. Third Annual Surveillance, October 2015.https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/dfpo_denmark_north_sea_skagerrak_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20151201_SR_HAD242.pdf
  3. Blyth-Skyrme, R., Pawson, M., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report - SFSAG North Sea Haddock Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, December 2014. 16pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/SFSAG-north-sea-haddock-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20150106_SR_HAD104.pdf
  4. Cappell, R., Huntington, T., Pawson, M. 2011. Surveillance Report SFSAG North Sea Haddock Trawl & Danish Seine fishery. Intertek Moody/ Marine Stewardship Coucil, October 2011, 20pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/SFSAG-north-sea-haddock-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/SFSAG_Haddock_Fishery_Surveillance_Report.pdf
  5. Dulvy, N.K., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Serena, F., Tinti, F., Ungaro, N., Mancusi, C., Ellis, J. 2006. Dipturus batis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2 [Accessed 06 August 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39397/0
  6. EC (European Commission), 2012. Council Regulation (EU) 44/2012 of 17 January 2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreementshttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF
  7. EC (European Commission), 2014. Council Regulation (EU) 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  8. EC (European Commission), 2015. Outcome of the Council Meeting. Press Release - 3437th Agriculture and Fisheries Council meeting – Brussels, December 14 and 15, 2015. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/agrifish/2015/12/st15276_en15_pdf/
  9. EC (European Commission), 2016. Council Regulation (EU) 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104, 265p. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2016.022.01.0001.01.ENG&toc=OJ:L:2016:022:TOC
  10. Ellis, J., Ungaro, N., Serena, F., Dulvy, N.,Tinti, F., Bertozzi, M., Pasolini, P., Mancusi, C., Noarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2007. Raja montagui. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2 [Accessed 06 August 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/63146/0
  11. FCI (Food Certification International Ltd.), 2013. MSC Sustainable Fisheries Certification: On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak haddock Fishery. First Annual Surveillance, August 2013. https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/dfpo_denmark_north_sea_skagerrak_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20130806_SR_HAD242.pdf
  12. FCI (Food Certification International Ltd.), 2014. MSC Sustainable Seafood Certification Second Annual Surveillance report: On-Site Surveillance Visit - Report for DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak Haddock Fishery. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/dfpo_denmark_north_sea_skagerrak_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20140919_SR_v3_HAD242.pdf
  13. Fordham, S., Fowler, S.L., Coelho, R., Goldman, K.J., Francis, M. 2006. Squalus acanthias. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2 [Accessed 06 August 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39326/0
  14. Fowler, S.L. 2005. Cetorhinus maximus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. [Downloaded on 22 August 2012.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4292/0
  15. Freyhof, J., Gesner, J., Kottelat, M., Rochard, E. & Williot, P. 2010. Acipenser sturio. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. [Downloaded on 22 August 2012.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/230/0
  16. Furness, R.W., A.E. Edwards, D. Oro. 2007. Influence of management practices and of scavenging seabirds on availability of fisheries discards to benthic scavengershttp://imedea.uib-csic.es/bc/gep/docs/pdfsgrupo/articulos/2007/1.furness%202007.pdf
  17. Hervás A., Medley P., Keus, B.J and Read, A., 2012. DFPO Denmark North Sea & Skagerrak haddock Public Certification Report, July 2012. 364pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/dfpo-denmark-haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20120803_PCR_HAD242.pdf
  18. Hough, A., Pawson, M., 2012. Surveillance Report SFSAG North Sea Haddock Trawl & Danish Seine Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, October 2012. 15pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/SFSAG-north-sea-haddock-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20121122_SR_HAD104.pdf
  19. Hough, A., Pawson, M., 2013. Surveillance Report SFSAG North Sea Haddock Trawl & Danish Seine Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, November 2013. 9pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/SFSAG-north-sea-haddock-fishery/assessment-downloads-1/20131121_SR_HAD104.pdf
  20. ICES, 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: The Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.1: Ecosystem overview.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%205.pdf
  21. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.3 Haddock in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division IIIa West (Skagerrak). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/had-34.pdf
  22. ICES, 2009b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 6-12 May 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009/ACOM:10). 13. Haddock. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/WGNSSK/Sec%2013%20Haddock%20in%20Subarea%20IV%20and%20Division%20IIIa%20(N).pdf
  23. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2010. Book 6: North Sea. Ecoregion: North Sea; Stock: Haddock in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division IIIa West (Skagerrak). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/had-34.pdf
  24. ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK). 13. Haddock in Subarea IV and Division IIIa (N). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGNSSK/Sec%2013%20Haddock%20in%20Subarea%20IV%20and%20Division%20IIIa%20(N).pdf
  25. ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.3: Haddock in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division IIIa West (Skagerrak). http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/had-34.pdf
  26. ICES, 2012b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.25: Mixed-fisheries advice. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/mix-nsea.pdf
  27. ICES, 2012c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 27 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2012/ACOM:13), Draft. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGNSSK/Sec%2013%20Haddock%20in%20Subarea%20IV,%20and%20Division%20IIIaN.pdf
  28. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 5: Celtic Sea and West of Scotland. 5.4.8. Haddock in Division VIa (West of Scotland). Advice summary for 2014. Version 2, 03-10-2013 11 pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/had-scow.pdf
  29. ICES 2013b. ICES. 2013. Report of the Working Group for the Celtic Seas Ecoregion (WGCSE), 8–17 May 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:12. Section 3.3 Haddock in Division VIahttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGCSE/03.03_Had%20VIa_2013.pdf
  30. ICES, 2014a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: The North Sea 6.3.7 Ecoregion: North Sea. Stock: Haddock in Subarea IV and Divisions IIIa West and VIa (North Sea, Skagerrak, and West of Scotland). Advice summary for 2015, 15 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/had-346a.pdf
  31. ICES, 2014b. Report of the Working Group for the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 30 April–7 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:13, 1493 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGNSSK/01%20WGNSSK%20report%202014.pdf
  32. ICES, 2014c. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 24 April-1 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:07.902 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/NWWG/01%20NWWG%20Report%202014.pdf
  33. ICES, 2015a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: Greater North Sea and Celtic Seas Ecoregions. 6.3.10 Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in Subarea IV and Divisions VIa and IIIa West (North Sea, West of Scotland, Skagerrak). ICES Advice summary for 2016, 12 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/had-346a.pdf
  34. ICES, 2015b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: Greater North Sea Ecoregion. 6.2.2.2 Mixed-fisheries advice for Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions IIIa North (Skagerrak) and VIId (Eastern Channel). Scenarios for 2016, 13 pp. http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/mix-nsea.pdf
  35. IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Downloaded on 10 February 2011].http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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References

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