Last updated on 28 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Pandalus borealis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Northern prawn, northern shrimp

COMMON NAMES

Western Greenland cold water prawn; deep-sea prawn; Deepwater prawn; Pink shrimp

According with the latest research  there are seven genetically distinct populations of P. borealis in the North Atlantic. The population from northwest Greenland was found to be genetically similar to other western populations (Jorde et al. 2015).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

1. Both biomass and mortality are thought to currently be at safe levels in terms of MSY reference points. 2. Bycatch rates are low, although they may be under-reported. 3. There is detailed monitoring and research that backs up quotas and the harvest strategy.

Weaknesses

1. The Canadian and Greenlandic catch limits for this stock have exceeded the recommended NAFO/ICES catch limits by approximately 20% in most years of the last decade. 2. There is no bilateral agreement between Greenland and Canada establishing a stock-wide harvest strategy. 3. The Canadian harvest strategy for this stock is not included in an Integrated Fisheries Management Plan. 4. There is limited knowledge of the effects of the fishery on the ecosystem.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Canada northern and striped shrimp:

    MSC Certified

  • West Greenland coldwater prawn:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western Greenland Canada Division 0A Canada Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls
Canada SFA 1 Canada Single boat bottom otter trawls
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls
Greenland Greenland Bottom trawls
Norway Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 7 August 2014

Strengths

1. Both biomass and mortality are thought to currently be at safe levels in terms of MSY reference points. 2. Bycatch rates are low, although they may be under-reported. 3. There is detailed monitoring and research that backs up quotas and the harvest strategy.

Weaknesses

1. The Canadian and Greenlandic catch limits for this stock have exceeded the recommended NAFO/ICES catch limits by approximately 20% in most years of the last decade. 2. There is no bilateral agreement between Greenland and Canada establishing a stock-wide harvest strategy. 3. The Canadian harvest strategy for this stock is not included in an Integrated Fisheries Management Plan. 4. There is limited knowledge of the effects of the fishery on the ecosystem.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 5 March 2012

The shrimp stock of West Greenland is assessed as a single population, distributed mainly in NAFO Subarea 1 (Greenlandic EEZ) but also on the eastern limit of Div. 0A (Canadian EEZ) (Kingsley, 2011a). Four fleets exploit the stock, one Canadian and three Greenlandic (small inshore vessels, KGH offshore and recent offshore) but a quota is also now issued to EU vessels in NAFO Subarea 1 (Arboe and Kingsley, 2009).

The stock assessment uses commercial fishery data and research survey data and fits a surplus production model by Bayesian methods, including a term accounting for predation by cod (NAFO, 2011a). The model was altered in 2011 to give equal weight to the commercial catch per unit effort (CPUE) series and the survey series, as the reliability of the latter was questioned (NAFO, 2011a). However, there are questions as to relative reliability of the CPUE series versus the survey biomass series and the assessment may be overly optimistic (Kingsley, 2011b).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

The shrimp stock off West Greenland is distributed mainly in NAFO Subarea 1 (Greenland EEZ), but a small part of the habitat, and of the stock, intrudes into the eastern edge of Div. 0A (Canadian EEZ). Canada has defined ‘Shrimp Fishing Area 1’ (Canadian SFA1), to be the part of Div. 0A lying east of 60°30’W, i.e. east of the deepest water in this part of Davis Strait.

The stock is assessed as a single population. The Greenland fishery exploits the stock in Subarea 1 (Div. 1A–1F). Since 1981 the Canadian fishery has been limited to Div. 0A.

Catch and effort data from the fishery were available from logbooks from Canadian vessels fishing in Canadian SFA 1 and from Greenland logbooks for Subarea 1.

Stratified semi-systematic trawl surveys designed primarily to estimate shrimp stock
biomass have been conducted since 1988 in offshore areas and since 1991 also inshore in Subarea 1.

There is no biological sampling programme from the fishery that is adequate to provide catch composition data to the assessment (NAFO and ICES 2013).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 5 March 2012

Advice is issued by NAFO’s Scientific Council based on the review of results from Greenland’s Institute of Marine Resources and advice from NAFO/ICES’ shrimp working group. Stock projections indicate a significant risk of a decrease below BMSY by the end of 2012 (NAFO, 2011a). In the medium-term, projections indicate that even annual catches of 60,000 tons are predicted to carry a risk of >20% that the stock size will be below BMSY within three years (NAFO/ICES, 2011). The contraction of the distribution of the fishery and the low estimates of recruiting classes are possible causes for concern (Kingsley, 2011b). A catch limit of 90,000 tons was advised for 2012, a decrease on the 120,000 tons advised for 2011 (NAFO, 2011a).The risk of exceeding ZMSY at a catch level of 90,000 tonnes with an effective cod stock at the 2011 level in 2012 is estimated to be around 31% (Lassen et al.,2012). The possible return of significant cod stocks is also a factor to be considered, and may require adjustments to the assessment model to better consider the stocks’ interaction (NAFO, 2011a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 05 Mar 2012

Absolute biomass estimates have high variances and biomass is therefore measured relative to that which permits the maximum sustainable yield (BMSY). Similarly, mortality caused by both cod predation and the fishery, Z, was scaled to ZMSY. The limit reference point for mortality is ZMSY, i.e. Z-ratio=1. Blim, below which unknown or low recruitment is expected, is defined as 30% of BMSY (Kingsley, 2011b).

MSY available to the fishery was estimated in 2011 at 135,000 tons/year (NAFO/ICES, 2011).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

The NAFO Scientific Council makes an annual TAC recommendation for the stock. Greenland and Canada separately set their TACs on the basis of the NAFO Scientific Council’s recommendation, and as a result of the separate planning processes, the aggregate TAC has exceeded the scientific advice by approximately 20% annually over the last decade (NAFO and ICES 2013).

Reference Points

Last updated on 13 Aug 2009

A precautionary limit reference point for stock biomass (Blim) is set at 30% of Bmsy and the limit reference point for mortality (Zlim) is Zmsy (Intertek Moody Marine 2011).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 5 March 2012

Although biomass has been decreasing since 2005, it is still just above the level thought to support the maximum sustainable yield, BMSY, at B/BMSY=1.08, and mortality is predicted to be at 109% of that corresponding to maximum yield, ZMSY, in 2011 (NAFO/ICES, 2011). Catch per unit effort series are high in spite of recent high catches. Survey indices of stock biomass have been declining since 2003, and in 2009 biomass reached 50% of
the 2003 level. In 2011, the revised model, which took into account the decreasing trend in survey biomass, estimated that the biomass was only 8% above BMSY and that mortality had probably exceeded ZMSY for some years. A short term risk assessment based on the revised model predicts that for all of the most likely catch options there is a less than 3% risk of Northern shrimp biomass falling below Blim (30% of the BMSY)
either in 2012 or the next five years (NAFO 2011). Recruitment at age 2 remains at a low level and has been below the series mean since 2005 (NAFO, 2011a). Catches have been decreasing, in 2011estimates around the 128,000 tonnes.

Trends

Last updated on 05 Mar 2012

The biomass ratio was between 0.7-1.0 and the mortality ratio 0.7-1.3 from the late 70s to the mid 80s, but then a recovery of the cod stocks caused an increase in mortality and decrease in biomass. A subsequent cod collapse led to a decrease in mortality and, in the early 2000s, an increase in biomass. The biomass peaked at 1.63 times BMSY in 2004, and is now on a decreasing trend. Mortality ratios have since then been stable at 0.8-1.1 (NAFO/ICES, 2011). Catches have increased fairly steadily since the 1970s, from less than 10,000 tonnes to almost 160,000 tonnes in 2006, but have decreased since then (Kingsley, 2011a).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

Biomass is estimated to have been declining since 2004, but at the end of 2013 is projected to be about 10% above Bmsy. Total mortality in 2013 is not projected to exceed Zmsy. But the stock comprises a high proportion of females, so fishing will risk removing much of the spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment to both the fishable and the spawning stocks in both short and medium terms are all expected to remain low (NAFO and ICES 2013).

Trends

Last updated on 13 Aug 2009

A stock-dynamic model showed a maximum biomass in 2004 with a continuing decline since. However, the probability that biomass will be below Bmsy at end 2013 with projected catches at 100 000 t was estimated at 37%; of its being below Blim at 1%.

In 2013, the mortality caused by fishing and cod predation (Z) is estimated to have stayed below the limit reference (Zmsy) from 1996 to 2011, but is now estimated to have been about 10% over in 2012 (NAFO and ICES 2013).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 17 August 2009

Both the Canadian and the Greenlandic fleets are quota controlled and Individual Transferable Quotas are also in use in the Greenlandic fishery (Kingsley, 2011a). Both countries have defined mesh size limits and require the use of sorting grids. Discarding of prawn is not allowed (NAFO/ICES, 2011). The TAC for the total area is the sum of the TACs set by Greenland and Canada for waters under their jurisdiction – 117,750 tonnes for 2012. The Greenland total TAC is 105,000 tonnes, 16 % above the advised TAC. TACs have consistently exceeded scientific advice and Canadian TACs are set disproportionately to the area fished (Kingsley, 2011a). Greenland developed a management plan in 2010 (Ministry of Fisheries, 2010) but it has not yet been evaluated as to its precaution (NAFO/ICES, 2011). A Management Plan for the Shrimp Fishery at Greenland was introduced and adopted by the Greenland Parliament in July 2010 (Lassen et al.,2012).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 17 Aug 2009

Not applicable.

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

“The Canadian management approach is to accept the Scientific Council advised TAC which is based on the harvest control rule that the stock is maintained above 30% of BMSY and the harvest level in the next year should not result in a greater than 20% chance of going below BMSY. and to allocate a fixed proportion of this to the Canadian fleet (17% of the offshore component of the stock (5/6ths of the total). Therefore, by default, Canada adopts the NAFO prescribed harvest control rule.

The various management tools used by Canada (license limitation, mesh size restrictions, mandatory use of the Nordmore grate, 100% at-sea coverage by independent observers, TACs, etc) are effective in ensuring that the harvest is at or below appropriate exploitation levels; Canadian catches have been well below (generally less than 1/5th of) the Canadian TAC for many years due to the distance from main fishing grounds to the south of SFA1, combined with high economic risk associated with variable shrimp concentrations in the relatively small part of the stock distribution that is available within Canadian jurisdiction.

While the harvest control rule in place is consistent with the harvest strategy, the TAC-setting approach reflects Canada’s general policy approach rather than a “well-defined” rule to ensure the exploitation rate is reduced as limit reference points are approached" (Intertek Moody Marine 2011).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 17 December 2012

Compliance had been poor, with the annual TAC exceeded every year from 1999 to 2009, with the exception of 2004, when total catches fell slightly below the TAC, and 2007, when the catches of 144,200 tonnes did not reach the TAC of 152,400 tonnes set for that year. This trend appears to have reversed, with catches in 2010 and 2011 not reaching the TAC – catches in 2011 were estimated at 124,000 tons for a TAC around 143,000 tons (NAFO/ICES, 2011).

At-sea discarding rates are low, at less than 1%, according to reported data. The Canadian fishery has 100% observer coverage (Kingsley, 2011a).

Use of a fish excluding device with a 22 mm spacing is mandatory on all vessels. Vessels are also required to move 5 km if fish bycatch exceeds 10% of shrimp catch. Offshore vessels use toggle chains which act to keep netting off the bottom, further reducing bycatch of species closely associated with the bottom (Lassen et al., 2012).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

“There is a comprehensive monitoring and surveillance system in place for the SFA 1 fishery. All vessels are issued a licence containing an extensive list of licence conditions and which is to be on board the vessel at all times for the information of the Captain and crew. Measures such as VMS, hail-in/out requirements, daily hails of position, catch and other information, 100% on-board industry funded observer coverage, aircraft surveillance, at-sea boardings, and spot-checks of landings ensure good coverage of the fishery. A ticket and court-based sanction framework is outlined in the Fisheries Act and regulations with court based prosecution for serious offences through the procedures provided in the Criminal Code of Canada. Upon conviction maximum penalties of $500,000 and up to two years in jail may be imposed along with forfeiture of catch and equipment at the discretion of the court” (Intertek Moody Marine 2011).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 5 March 2012

The west Greenland ecosystem is an important overwintering ground for at least 3.4 million seabirds and marine mammals are well represented in Greenland through north Atlantic species, Atlantic proper species and Arctic species (ICES, 2008). Several species of sea turtles, including the endangered loggerhead and the critically endangered leatherback (IUCN, 2010), are found in the NAFO Regulatory Area, off western Greenland, and although bycatch is most commonly reported for pelagic gear it is also reported for trawls (NAFO/ICES, 2008). No specific effects of the prawn fishery on any of these groups are known but observations in U.S. fisheries close to the region observed no marine mammal, seabird or sea turtle bycatch in the shrimp trawl fishery (Sosebee, 2007).

Both northern Anarhicas denticulatus and spotted wolffish A. minor are reported as bycatch in the Canadian northern shrimp fisheries and are listed as threatened under the Species at Risk Act. A recovery strategy is in place to mitigate any impacts to these species (DFO, 2010) and the nearby Canadian fishery is reportedly not having an effect on wolffishes (Aschan et al., 2011).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

The fishery exclusively uses demersal otter trawl gear, a medium risk gear type for seabirds. Although observer coverage is 100% of trips and about 70% for tows, there is no information available on non-fish bycatch.

Other Species

Last updated on 17 December 2012

Bycatch from the Greenlandic prawn fishery is predominantly of redfish, with cod and Greenland halibut also present (Kingsley, 2011c). Both redfish species in the area are at low abundances (NAFO, 2011b) The inshore fleet has dispensation from the use of sorting grids (ICES, 2010) but sorting grids in the other fleets have helped to reduce the problem of bycatches of juvenile fish. Bycatch of all fish species combined is reported as between 685 – 2,085 t/yr, or 0.5 – 1.5% of shrimp catches, in the period 2000-2010 (Arboe and Kingsley 2010). Fish bycatch in the Canadian fishery has decreased from 30% in the mid-1980s to under 5% recently. There are recent indications however that bycatch rates are under-reported, even by on-board observers (Kingsley, 2011a).

Aesop/striped pink shrimp P. montagui is also landed, though previously inadequately recorded, and varies between 0.1% and 1% of catches (Kingsley, 2011c).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

The fishery exclusively uses demersal otter trawl gear, a medium risk gear type for seabirds. Although observer coverage is 100% of trips and about 70% for tows, there is no information available on non-fish bycatch.

HABITAT

Last updated on 17 December 2012

Although trawling can cause serious physical disturbance of the sea bottom and direct mortality of benthic fauna, effects depend on the particular set of conditions (Hansson et al., 2000) and specific effects are not known for this fishery. Indirect effects may however be present: increases in abundance of Raja radiata have been associated with discarding from Greenland shrimp fisheries (Zerbi et al., 2003).
The Management Plan indicates that better information on bottom conditions and impacts of the trawl fishery on benthic ecosystems will be compiled. A study of bottom communities between 200 and 300 m, was completed in 2011 and this will be continued at least in 2012-2013 (Lassen et al., 2012).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 17 Dec 2012

Factory-trawlers are excluded from within three nautical miles of the Greenlandic baseline and from five “shrimp boxes” extending up to 47 n.m. from the baseline. Smaller trawlers may also be excluded from three of these boxes (Kingsley, 2011a). The Canadian fishery is also area-restricted (NAFO/ICES, 2009).

One marine protected area has been designated on Greenland’s west coast: Melville Bay (Wood, 2007) but it is not known if any fishing restrictions are in place. Efforts are underway in NAFO areas to identify and implement protective measures for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (NAFO, 2009b).

Several steps have recently been taken in the Management Plan to protect habitat: a closed area of 650 square nautical miles to protect sponge and coral concentrations identified by industry has been established anda requirement for vessels to move if bycatch of coral or of live sponges exceeds a certain weight (Lassen et al., 2012).

Canada
Single boat bottom otter trawls

Last updated on 13 August 2009

Given its mode of operation, this fishery is unlikely to reduce habitat structure and function in benthic ecosystems to a point where there would be serious or irreversible harm, but analyses of fishery impacts are required to increase certainty, particularly with respect to potential impacts on hard coral areas; accordingly it cannot be said that the fishery is “highly unlikely” to have unacceptable impacts.

The fishery has six outstanding MSC conditions (#3-8) regarding this research gap.

As of December 2012, the Northern Shrimp Advisory Committee (NSAC) has formed an MSC Working Group that is organizing data collection to address these conditions (Intertek Moody Marine 2012).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A Greenlandic management plan was first introduced in 2010 and implemented in full in 2012, but has not yet been evaluated as to its precaution. It anticipates using area closures, changes of mesh size and restricting vessel concentration, but also limits TAC changes to a maximum of 10% per annum (Ministry of Fisheries, 2010).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

This stock is harvested in the Canadian (subarea 0A) and Greenlandic (subarea 1) EEZs and both have their own harvest control approaches for their respective zones. The harvest strategies that Canada and Greenland employ has generally resulted in a combined TAC that is approximately 20% above the advised NAFO/ICES TAC. Greenland is the greater contributor to TAC overage: for example, the advised TAC for 2012 for the entire stock was 90 000t; meanwhile, Greenland enacted a TAC of 101,675t for Subarea 1 alone. However, stock assessments indicate historic and current healthy stock status, and it appears that the combined harvest strategies have not compromised the stocks sustainability (NAFO and ICES 2013).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 100 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 103 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 97.3%.

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status

No related analysis

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Canada northern and striped shrimp

STATUS

MSC Certified on 23 June 2011

SCORES

This fishery was MSC Certified in June of 2011.

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 85.0
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 82.0
Principle 3 – Management System 86.3

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Arboe, N.H. and M.C.S. Kingsley, 2009. NAFO/ICES WG Pandalus Assessment Group – October 2009. The Fishery for Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) off West Greenland, 1970-2009. NAFO SCR Doc. 09/066.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2009/scr09-066.pdf
  2. Aschan, M., H.Powles and J. Angel, 2011. MSC Assessment Report for The Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Areas 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Client: Canadian Association of Prawn Producers (CAPP) and the Northern Coalition (NC). Version: Public Certification Report.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/PbSFA2-6_v5.pdf
  3. DFO, 2010. Northern Shrimp – Shrimp Fishing Areas (SFAs) 0-7 and the Flemish Cap. Resource Management Operations, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/peches-fisheries/ifmp-gmp/shrimp-crevette/shrimp-crevette-2007-eng.htm
  4. Hansson M, Lindegarth M, Valentinsson D, Ulmestrand M, 2000. Effects of shrimp-trawling on abundance of benthic macrofauna in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:191-201.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/198/m198p191.pdf
  5. ICES, 2008. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf
  6. ICES, 2010. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April - 4 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:07). http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/NWWG/NWWG%202010.pdf
  7. IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. [Downloaded on 02 August 2010].http://www.iucnredlist.org
  8. Kingsley, M.C.S., 2009. NAFO/ICES Pandalus Assessment Group—October 2009. A Provisional Assessment of the Shrimp Stock off West Greenland in 2009. NAFO SCR Doc. 09/053.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2009/scr09-053.pdf
  9. Kingsley, M.C.S., 2011a. NAFO/ICES WG PANDALUS ASSESSMENT GROUP—OCTOBER 2011: The Fishery for Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) off West Greenland, 1970–2011. NAFO SCR Doc. 11/052.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2011/scr11-052.pdf
  10. Kingsley, M.C.S., 2011b. NAFO/ICES WG PANDALUS ASSESSMENT GROUP—OCTOBER 2011: A Provisional Assessment of the Shrimp Stock off West Greenland in 2011. NAFO SCR Doc. 011/058.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2011/scr11-058.pdf
  11. Kingsley, M.C.S., 2011c. NAFO/ICES WG PANDALUS ASSESSMENT GROUP—OCTOBER 2011: Bycatch rates in the West Greenland shrimp fishery, 1975–2010. NAFO SCR Doc. 11/057.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2011/scr11-057.pdf
  12. Lassen, H., Powles, H., Bannister, C., and Knapman, P. 2012. Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Public Consultation Draft Report for the West Greenland Cold Water prawn trawl fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd, 238pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/in-assessment/arctic-ocean/West-Greenland-Coldwater-Prawn/assessment-downloads-1/20121030_PCDR_PRA126.pdf
  13. NAFO, 2009a. Advice on Coastal Stocks. 2009 – Northern Shrimp in Subareas 0 and 1.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  14. NAFO, 2009b. NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures 2009. North Atlantic Fisheries Organization. NAFO FC Doc. 09/1 Serial No. N5614.http://www.nafo.int/about/frames/about.html
  15. NAFO, 2011a. Scientific Council Meeting 19-26 October 2011. NAFO SCS Doc. 11/21.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  16. NAFO, 2011b. Scientific Council Meeting - 2011. NAFO SCS Doc. 11/16.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  17. NAFO/ICES, 2008. NAFO/ICES Pandalus Assessment Group Meeting, 22-30 October 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark. NAFO SCS Doc. 08/25; ICES CM 2008/ACOM:11.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2008/scs08-25.pdf
  18. NAFO/ICES, 2009. NAFO/ICES Pandalus Assessment Group Meeting, 21–29 October 2009, NAFO Secretariat, Dartmouth, NS, Canada. NAFO SCS Doc. 09/27 Serial No. N5731. ICES CM 2009/ACOM:11.http://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/general.html
  19. NAFO/ICES, 2011. NAFO/ICES Pandalus Assessment Group Meeting, 19–26 October 2011, NAFO Headquarters, Dartmouth NS, Canada. NAFO SCS Doc. 11/20 Serial No. N5998 ICES CM 2011/ACOM:14.http://www.nafo.int/publications/meetproc/2011/sc/scs11-20.pdf
  20. Sosebee KA, 2007. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Scientific Council Meeting – June 2007, United States Research Report for 2006, Nafo SCS Doc. 07/07.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2007/scs07-007.pdf
  21. Wood LJ, 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org
  22. Zerbi A, Aliaume C, Do Chi T, Lasserre G, 2003. The ecosystem approach to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 443.http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/Y4773E/y4773e00.HTM
  23. Ziemer, N. and H. Siegstad, 2009. Scientific Council Meeting – October 2009. Results of the Greenland Bottom Trawl Survey for Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Off West Greenland (NAFO Sub area 1 and Division 0A), 1988-2009. http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2009/scr09-067.pdf

Appended content

  1. Aldous, D., Powles, H., 2013. Pandalus borealis SFA 1 Fishery – Second Annual Surveillance Report. Intertek Moody Marine, december 2013. 29pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/20131210_SR_SFA_1_SHR25.pdf
  2. Aldous, D., Powles, H., 2014. Third Annual Surveillance Report Pandalus borealis SFA 1 Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, December 2014. 32pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/copy_of_assessment-downloads-1/20150108_SR_SFA1_SHR25.pdf
  3. Aldous, D., Powles, H., Bannister, C., 2012. Surveillance Report Pandalus borealis SFA 1 Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, December 2012. 46pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/20130103_SR_SFA1_SHR25.pdf
  4. Aschan, Michaela, Powles, Howard and Angel, John, 2011a. Public Certification Report for the Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Areas 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Moody Marine Ltd. June 2011. 183 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/PbSFA2-6_v5.pdf
  5. Aschan, Michaela, Powles, Howard and Angel, John, 2011b. Public Certification Report for the Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Area 7. Moody Marine Ltd. June 2011. 176 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/PbSFA7_v5.pdf
  6. Aschan, M., Powles, H., Angel, J. 2012. MSC Assessment Report for The Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Area 1. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd, March 2012. 176pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/copy_of_assessment-downloads-1/20120320_PCR.pdf
  7. DFO, 2007. Integrated Fisheries Management Plan: Northern Shrimp - Shrimp Fishing Areas (SFAs) 0-7 and the Flemish Cap. Resource Management Operations, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/peches-fisheries/ifmp-gmp/shrimp-crevette/shrimp-crevette-2007-eng.htm
  8. DFO, 2008. Assessment of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and striped shrimp (Pandalus montagui) in shrimp fishing areas 0, 2 and 3. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2008/018.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/SAR-AS/2008/SAR-AS2008_018_e.pdf
  9. DFO, 2010a. Assessment of Divisions 2G-3K Northern Shrimp. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/018.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_018_e.pdf
  10. DFO, 2010b. Assessment of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in SFA 0, 2, 3 and Striped Shrimp (Pandalus montagui) in SFA 2, 3 and 4 west of 63°W. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/024.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_024_e.pdf
  11. DFO, 2011a. Assessment of Divisions 2G-3K Northern Shrimp. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/003. 22 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2011/2011_003-eng.pdf
  12. DFO, 2011b. Assessment of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and Striped Shrimp (Pandalus montagui) in Western and Eastern assessment zones (SFA 2 and 3). . DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/010. 19 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/sar-as/2011/2011_010-eng.pdf
  13. DFO, 2011c. Total Allowable Catches (TAC) and Sharing Arrangements for the Northern Shrimp Fishing Areas (SFAs) 0, 1 and 7. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) website. [Accessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2011-gp/atl-001-eng.htm
  14. DFO, 2011d. Total Allowable Catches (TAC) and Sharing Arrangements for the Northern Shrimp Fishing Areas (SFAs) 2-6 2011/12 Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) website. [Accessed on 02 March 2012].http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2011-gp/atl-043-eng.htm
  15. Intertek Moody Marine. 2011. MSC Assessment Report for The Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Area 1.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/copy_of_assessment-downloads-1/20120320_ANMT_PCR_FA1.pdf
  16. Intertek Moody Marine. 2012. Surveillance Report Pandalus borealis SFA 1 Fishery.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/Canada-offshore-northern-and-striped-shrimp/assessment-downloads-1/20130103_SR_SFA1_SHR25.pdf
  17. NAFO and ICES, 2013. NAFO/ICES Pandalus assessment group meeting, 13-19 September 2013. NAFO SCS Doc. 13/19, ICES CM 2013/ACOM:14.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2013/scs13-19.pdf
  18. NAFO/ICES, 2010. NAFO/ICES Pandalus assessment group meeting, 20-27 October 2010. NAFO SCS Doc. 10/22, ICES CM 2010/ACOM:14. http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  1. Arboe, N.H. & M.C.S. Kingsley, 2010. The Fishery for Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) off West Greenland, 1970-2010. NAFO/ICES WG Pandalus Assessment Group – October 2010. NFO SCR Doc. 10/53.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  2. Bannister, C., Powles, H., Cappell, R., 2014. Surveillance Report West Greenland Coldwater Prawn Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification (IFC), March 2014. 48pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/arctic-ocean/West-Greenland-Coldwater-Prawn/assessment-downloads-1/20140423_SR_PRA126.pdf
  3. Cappell, R., Powles, H., 2015. Intertek Fisheries Certification (IFC). 2nd annual Surveillance Report. MArch 2015. 46pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/arctic-ocean/West-Greenland-Coldwater-Prawn/assessment-downloads-1/20150319_SR_PRA126.pdf
  4. Kingsley, M.C.S., and N.H. Arboe, 2010. A Provisional Assessment of the Shrimp Stock off West Greenland in 2010. NAFO/ICES Pandalus assessment group – October 2010 Serial No. N5842, NAFO SCR Doc. 010/051.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html
  5. Lassen, H., Powles, H., Bannister, C., Knapman, P. 2013. Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Public Certification Report - West Greenland coldwater prawn Trawl fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd, February 2013. 251pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/arctic-ocean/West-Greenland-Coldwater-Prawn/assessment-downloads-1/82026%20Public%20Certification%20Report%20v5%20amend.pdf
  6. Ministry of Fisheries, 2010. Management plan for the shrimp fishery in West Greenland. Nuuk, June 2010.http://uk.nanoq.gl/Emner/Government/Departments/ministry_of_fisheries/Fisheries%20unit/~/media/D708106B20EF457292CA5520E874F955.ashx
  7. NAFO/ICES, 2010. NAFO/ICES Pandalus Assessment Group Meeting, 20–27 October 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark. NAFO SCS Doc. 10/22 Serial No. N5853. ICES CM 2010/ACOM:14.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/NIPAG/scs10-22-nipag%20Report.pdf
References

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