Profile updated on 15 March 2023





Xiphias gladius




western and central North Pacific Ocean stock, North Pacific swordfish

There is high uncertainty about the actual stock structure of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Pacific Ocean. According to (IATTC 2020), there might be as many as 6 different stocks, but the exact boundaries of these stocks, as well as their exchange rates, are currently uncertain. FishSource profiles for swordfish follow (ISC 2014) for the identification of the two northern stocks, and (IATTC 2022) for the identification of the southeast stock:

  • Swordfish - Northwest Pacific, for the Western and Central North Pacific Ocean stock (WCNPO). It is managed by the WCPFC (west of 150ºN) and the IATTC (east of 150ºE).
  • Swordfish - Northeast Pacific, for the Northeastern Pacific Ocean stock (North EPO), although (ISC 2014) considers that stretches down to 20ºS. It is managed by the IATTC, although there is a reduced overlapping area with the WCPFC below 5ºN and between 150ºW and 165ºW.
  • Swordfish - Southeast Pacific, for the Southeastern Pacific Ocean stock (South EPO). It is managed by the IATTC, although there is an overlapping area with the WCPFC west of 130ºW.

This profile deals with the Western and Central North Pacific Ocean stock (WCNPO). The stock area consists of the waters of the North Pacific Ocean west of 150ºN, with the only exception of waters below 5ºN and between 130ºW and 150ºW which are considered to belong to the North EPO stock area (ISC 2014)


  • According to the latest stock assessment performed in 2018 (ISC 2018) the spawning biomass (SSB) is estimated to be well above SSBMSY (SSB2016/SSBMSY=1.87).  


Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6