SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Katsuwonus pelamis

SPECIES NAME(s)

Skipjack tuna

Skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are considered a single stock for assessment purposes {Rice et al. 2014}.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). Regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species are conducted. Therefore the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored.The Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA)(EEZ’s of Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, FS Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu) purse seine (unassociated or free school sets) fishery is MSC certified for skipjack tuna. Skipjack tuna have a healthy population size and fishing mortality rates are sustainable. There are several management measures specific to skipjack tuna purse seine fisheries currently in place through the WCPFC.

Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process.Skipjack tuna are difficult to assess because of their high and variable productivity. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries is a problem which mainly contributes to the significant uncertainties in the stock assessment results. The Japanese pole and line fishery, which represents less than 4% of the total catch in this region is the only long term abundance data set. Calculating an index of abundance for the purse seine fishery, which dominates the equatorial catches, is difficult. The impact of fish aggregating device (FAD) purse seine fishing on ecologically important species, continues to be an issue. The WCPFC has yet to formally adopt management measures that require the use of non-entanglement FAD designs. The WCPFC Scientific Committee management advice included concerns over high catches of skipjack in equatorial waters. The Scientific Committee suggested that there should be management of total effort in the WCPO, including stricter rules surrounding purse seine fishing. In 2012, the WCPFC adopted a measure prohibiting the discard of skipjack (bigeye and yellowfin) tuna caught in purse seine fisheries, but it is too early to determine if this had reduced fishing pressure.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

Stock-wide recommendations

  • Conduct outreach to the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) requesting continued work on the development and adoption of a harvest control rule, and encourage the WCPFC to take demonstrably effective actions to keep the spawning biomass near the adopted target reference point.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the WCPFC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual members (nations). Press individual members to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain into compliance with best practices.
  • Encourage the supply chain to adopt voluntary shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the WCPFC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks (e-reporting). 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn how to initiate your own fishery improvement project (FIP), engage in an ongoing FIP, and/or SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.

FIPS

  • Hawaii tuna and large pelagics - longline:

    Stage 5

  • Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi yellowfin tuna and skipjack tuna - purse seine:

    Stage 2

  • Indonesia Western and Central Pacific Ocean skipjack tuna - pole and line:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

  • Western and Central Pacific Ocean tropical tuna - purse seine (OPAGAC):

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Ishihara Marine Products albacore and skipjack pole and line fishery:

    MSC Certified

  • Japanese Pole and Line skipjack and albacore tuna fishery:

    MSC Certified

  • PNA Western and Central Pacific skipjack and yellowfin:

    MSC Certified

  • PNG Fishing Industry Association’s purse seine Skipjack & Yellowfin Tuna Fishery:

    MSC Full Assessment

  • PT Citraraja Ampat, Sorong pole and line Skipjack and Yellowfin Tuna:

    MSC Certified

  • Solomon Islands skipjack and yellowfin tuna purse seine and pole and line:

    MSC Certified

  • Talleys New Zealand Skipjack Tuna Purse Seine:

    MSC Certified

  • Tosakatsuo Suisan skipjack tuna:

    Withdrawn

  • Tri Marine Western and Central Pacific skipjack and yellowfin tuna:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

Fisheries
ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western and Central Pacific Ocean Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) China Associated purse seining
FAD-free
Japan FAD-free
Hooks and lines
Pole-lines mechanized
Purse seines
Kiribati FAD-free
Purse seines
Korea, Republic of FAD-free
Purse seines
Marshall Islands FAD-free
Purse seines
Micronesia, Federated States of FAD-free
Purse seines
Nauru FAD-free
Purse seines
New Zealand FAD-free
Purse seines
Palau FAD-free
Purse seines
Papua New Guinea FAD-free
Purse seines
Philippines FAD-free
Purse seines
Solomon Islands FAD-free
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Spain FAD-free
Purse seines
Taiwan, Province of China FAD-free
Purse seines
Tuvalu FAD-free
Purse seines
United States FAD-free
Purse seines
Vanuatu FAD-free
Purse seines
Viet Nam Viet Nam Purse seines
WCPFC China FAD-free
Purse seines
Indonesia FAD-free
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Trolling lines
Japan FAD-free
Mechanized lines
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Kiribati FAD-free
Purse seines
Korea, Republic of FAD-free
Purse seines
Marshall Islands FAD-free
Purse seines
Micronesia, Federated States of FAD-free
Purse seines
Nauru FAD-free
Purse seines
New Zealand FAD-free
Purse seines
Palau FAD-free
Purse seines
Papua New Guinea FAD-free
Purse seines
Philippines FAD-free
Pole-lines hand operated
Purse seines
Solomon Islands FAD-free
Purse seines
Spain FAD-free
Purse seines
Taiwan, Province of China FAD-free
Purse seines
Thailand FAD-free
Pole-lines mechanized
Purse seines
Tuvalu FAD-free
Purse seines
United States FAD-free
Longlines
Purse seines
Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 17 October 2014

Strengths

Skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). Regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species are conducted. Therefore the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored.The Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA)(EEZ’s of Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, FS Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu) purse seine (unassociated or free school sets) fishery is MSC certified for skipjack tuna. Skipjack tuna have a healthy population size and fishing mortality rates are sustainable. There are several management measures specific to skipjack tuna purse seine fisheries currently in place through the WCPFC.

Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process.Skipjack tuna are difficult to assess because of their high and variable productivity. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries is a problem which mainly contributes to the significant uncertainties in the stock assessment results. The Japanese pole and line fishery, which represents less than 4% of the total catch in this region is the only long term abundance data set. Calculating an index of abundance for the purse seine fishery, which dominates the equatorial catches, is difficult. The impact of fish aggregating device (FAD) purse seine fishing on ecologically important species, continues to be an issue. The WCPFC has yet to formally adopt management measures that require the use of non-entanglement FAD designs. The WCPFC Scientific Committee management advice included concerns over high catches of skipjack in equatorial waters. The Scientific Committee suggested that there should be management of total effort in the WCPO, including stricter rules surrounding purse seine fishing. In 2012, the WCPFC adopted a measure prohibiting the discard of skipjack (bigeye and yellowfin) tuna caught in purse seine fisheries, but it is too early to determine if this had reduced fishing pressure.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 31 July 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

Stock-wide recommendations

  • Conduct outreach to the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) requesting continued work on the development and adoption of a harvest control rule, and encourage the WCPFC to take demonstrably effective actions to keep the spawning biomass near the adopted target reference point.
  • Request improved transparency of and by the WCPFC, especially regarding the Compliance Committee and issues of non-compliance by individual members (nations). Press individual members to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain into compliance with best practices.
  • Encourage the supply chain to adopt voluntary shark fins naturally attached regulations and promote the adoption of this rule by the WCPFC.
  • Improve data collection (i.e. catches, effort, size), on both target and bycatch species, and reporting through measures such as electronic logbooks (e-reporting). 
  • Identify and mandate the use of best practice bycatch mitigation techniques.
  • Contact SFP to learn how to initiate your own fishery improvement project (FIP), engage in an ongoing FIP, and/or SFP’s Supply Chain Roundtables.
Kiribati
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Marshall Islands
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Micronesia, Federated States of
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Nauru
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Palau
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Papua New Guinea
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
Solomon Islands
Purse seines

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
FAD-free

Last updated on 27 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    Pole-lines hand operated

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    Tuvalu
    FAD-free

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    United States
    FAD-free

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    Indonesia
    Pole-lines hand operated

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    Japan
    Pole-lines hand operated

    Last updated on 30 October 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.
    United States
    FAD-free

    Last updated on 27 December 2018

    Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
    • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

    1.STOCK STATUS

    STOCK ASSESSMENT

    Last updated on 16 January 2018

    The skipjack tuna population in the western and central Pacific Ocean is assessed using the MULTIFAN-CL software, which has been used since 2000. The last assessment was conduced in 2016. The model is age (16 quarterly age classes) and spatially structured for quarterly time periods from 1972-2014 and includes catch, effort, size composition and tagging data. This new assessment included a modified tagging input file, changes to the relative weighting of the CPUE, legnth composition and tagging data and modifications to some model parameters {McKechnie et al. 2016}.

    SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

    Last updated on 16 January 2018

    The Scientific Committee advised the Commission in 2016 that managers should be aware of the total effort in the WCPO region and should take action to keep the spawning biomass near the target reference point (McKechnie et al. 2016).

    Reference Points

    Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

    ParameterValue
    Frecent/FMSY0.45 (0.40-0.62)
    SBrecent/SBMSY2.31 (1.80 - 2.63)
    SBlatest/SBMSY2.56 (1.81-2.93)
    MSY1.891 million mt (1.591 million mt – 2.076 million mt)

    *current represents 2011-2014 and latest represents 2014
    (Rice et al. 2014)

    CURRENT STATUS

    Last updated on 16 January 2018

    The current biomass is above levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and fishing mortality rates are below MSY levels. The population of skipjack tuna in the WCPO is neither overfished nor undergoing overfishing (McKechnie et al. 2016).

    Trends

    Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

    Skipjack tuna populations are strongly linked to environmental factors such as El Niño. This is especially true in the eastern equatorial region (region 3), where the performance of the fishery is strongly influenced by environmental conditions.

    The population of skipjack tuna is currently moderately exploited and fishing levels are sustainable. Fishing levels have been increasing through time but are still below levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) {McKechnie et al. 2016}.

    Japan
    Mechanized lines

    Last updated on 12 July 2012

    Trends

    Last updated on 12 Jul 2012

    Around 27 distant water pole and line vessels currently operate in the Pacific Ocean, with most of these vessels >300GRT (MSC 2009). The Japanese pole and line fleet operates in both the Japanese EEZ and EEZs of foreign countries such as Pacific island nations in the WCPO region.

    During 2010, there were 92 pole and line vessels (>20 GRT) operating in WCPO waters (WCPFC 2011). Skipjack tuna catches in WCPO region increased from 51,700 tonnes in 2009 to 73,837 tonnes. All distant water pole and line larger than 20 GRT have to submit their logsheets within 30 days after returning from the fishing trip (WCPFC 2011).

    2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    MANAGEMENT

    Last updated on 13 September 2018

    Tuna fisheries in the Central and Western Pacific are managed through the recently established Western and Central Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), which is headquartered in Micronesia. The members of the Commission have agreed that only vessels flying the flag of the members of the Commission may be authorized to fish in the Western and Central Pacific. The Commission is tasked with managing the largest industrial tuna fishery in the world.

    The most recent management measures for this species were adopted in 2017 (WCPFC 2017). These measures apply to the longline, purse seine and other surface fisheries.  The WCPFC has implemented several management measures specific to the purse seine fisheries. For purse seine fisheries, there is a three month prohibition (July, August and September) on setting on fish aggregating devices (FAD’s) for all purse seine vessels in EEZ’s and the high seas in the area between 200 N and 200 S. In addition, member nations (except Kiribati and Philippines) must iprohibit FAD fishing (deployement and service as well) during an additional two sequential months, either April-May or November-December (WCPFC 2017). Coastal CCM's must also adhere to purse seine effort limits in their EEZs (WCPFC 2017). Other CCMs (non Small Islands Developing States and Indonesia) must limit the number of purse seine vessels larger than 24 m operaring between 200 N and 200 S to the level required under CCM 2013-01 (WCPFC 2017)Member nations must have a FAD management plan in place to help reduce the capture of small bigeye and yellowfin tuans, and implementing FAD closures and discarding bigeye, skipjack or yellowfin tuna is prohibited {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2013b}{WCPFC 2016b}. In addition, member countries of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement have agreed to use a regional fishing vessel register, abide by a high seas pocket area closures, are prohibited from fishing on FAD’s, utilize a Vessel Day Scheme and retain all catch {PNA 2013}{PNA 2012} [PNA 2010}{WCPFC 2016b}{WCPFC 2016c}. 

    In addition, biomass based limit and target reference points have been adopted by the WCPFC for skipjack tuna and are used to determine the status of tuna populations (WCPFC 2015). However, there are no harvest control rules (WCPFC 2017). The WCPFC does have a working group that is working on identifying potential target reference points {WCPFC 2013c}.

    Recovery Plans

    Skipjack tuna populations are healthy in the western and central Pacific Ocean, so no recovery plans are needed. However, they are covered under the current Conservation and Management Measures adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Ocean for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna (WCPFC 2017).

    Indonesia

    Indonesian Law Number 31/2004 of Fisheries in Article 5 (2) stipulates that fishery management outside the Fishery Management Zones of the Republic of Indonesia shall be carried out in conformity with the laws and regulations, prerequisites, and/or generally accepted international standards. It is conducted to achieve the optimum and sustainable benefits while ensuring sustainable fishery resources (Article 6 (1)). Furthermore, Article 10 stipulated that the Government shall participate actively in the membership of any body/institution/ organization at the regional or international levels with respect to the cooperation for regional and international fishery management.

    Indonesia has created a National Plan of Action for the management of tuna and there is a draft National Tuna Management Plan. The plan includes ways to improve monitoring, identifying catch limits, and aiding in enforcement and compliance measures {MMAF 2012}{MMAF 2014a}. Indonesia also has a National Plan of Action, tuna skipjack and neritic tuna in place {MMAF 2014b}. Indonesia is also a cooperating member of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and is required to abide by the measures but compliance is not yet 100% {MMAF 2012}. Indonesia does have a port sampling program and observer program in place {Indonesia 2013}.

    Gillnets and entangling nets

    Last updated on 9 February 2015

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 09 Feb 2015

    There is no recovery plan for skipjack tuna in place. However, their populations are currently healthy.

    Hooks and lines

    Last updated on 9 February 2015

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 09 Feb 2015

    There is no recovery plan for skipjack tuna in place. However, their populations are currently healthy.

    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 9 February 2015

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 09 Feb 2015

    There is no recovery plan for skipjack tuna in place. However, their populations are currently healthy.

    Purse seines

    Last updated on 9 February 2015

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 09 Feb 2015

    There is no recovery plan for skipjack tuna in place. However, their populations are currently healthy.

    New Zealand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 25 October 2012

    Management of purse seine operations is undertaken through:
    1. Observer programme (9% of purse seine sets were sampled in 2011, through the observer programme).
    2. Two domestic port sampling programs.
    3. Monitoring of returns (Monthly reports) from fishers and fish receiver centers.
    4. Monthly harvest return data
    5. Licensed fish receiver data
    6. Out of zone purse seine data (where large purse seiner s operating in high seas and EEZs of foreign nations fill and submit regional purse seine effort forms.
    7. Non-fish bycatch data (Fishers are required to submit complete record of interactions with protected species on the non-fish/protected species bycatch form, incl. “to record incidental catches of seabirds, marine mammals, marine reptiles, corals, sponges, bryozoans, and fish species” (WCPFC 2012).

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 25 Oct 2012

    Stock is well managed in New Zealand waters and no recovery plans are reported in the current management plan.

    Philippines
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 28 October 2012

    The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) has stipulated several Fisheries Administrative Orders to improve documentation and compliance of landings in the tuna sector. They include ((Barut and Garvilles 2012):
    1. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 238 – catch data documentation and improving collection of tuna landing statistics. This regulation is aimed at all vessels exporting tuna to EU market and the catch logsheets assist in giving catch certificates to export fish to EU.
    2. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 240 – Fisheries observer program. BFAR has 135 trained observers for monitoring the tuna sector esp., in the high seas.
    3. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 241 – implementation of vessel monitoring system, esp., to track vessel operations in the high seas.
    4. A fishing license is required for all commercial vessels larger than 3 GT that are authorized to operate beyond 15 km from the shore.
    5. BFAR has launched tuna catch documentation scheme for purse seiners and rung seine operators, requiring them to submit monthly tuna logsheet reports and; Canneries are required to submit monthly unloading data as well for cross-verification.
    6. Transhipment is only permitted at Davao port in Philippines.
    7. Catch sampling as undergone radical improvement over the last 3 years due to assistance under the West Pacific East Asia Oceanic Fisheries Management Project (WPEA-OFMP).

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 28 Oct 2012

    None are foreseen under the current management plan.

    United States
    Longlines

    Last updated on 25 September 2009

    There is a limited entry permit system for the Hawaiian longline fishery but no catch limits, either domestically or internationally, for skipjack tuna.

    The Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council’s (WPRFMC) Pelagics Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP) includes overfishing thresholds for skipjack tunas but no target or rebuilding control rules or reference points. The FEP does include a limit to the number of longline permits. The WPRFMC will work with the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)to create rebuilding plans if a species is deemed depleted {WPRFMC 2009b}. The WCPFC has not implemented any catch limits for skipjack tuna caught in longline fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean {WCPFC 2012a}. Biomass based limit reference points have been adopted by the WCPFC for skipjack tuna and are used to determine the status of tuna populations. However target reference points are not yet in place and there are no harvest control rules {ISSF 2013a}.

    Recovery Plans

    Last updated on 25 Sep 2009

    Skipjack tuna are not overfished and so there are no recovery plans in place either domestically within Hawaiian waters or internationally within the western and central Pacific Ocean.

    In Hawaiian waters, the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (WPRFMC) must take “remedial” action within two years if a stock is overfished, undergoing overfishing or approaching an overfished state. If the stock is overfished a rebuilding plan must be developed and management would shift from a target control rule to a rebuilding control rule. The rebuilding control rule allows WPRFMC to determine if the conservation and management plans are working. If they do not appear to be working, additional measures will be put into place. The United States is a member of the Western and Central Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and therefore abides by those recovery efforts as well (WPRFMC 2009}.

    COMPLIANCE

    Last updated on 2 June 2008

    Although some compliance, monitoring and enforcement measures have been put into place by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, it is often difficult to determine their success.

    The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has a compliance monitoring scheme in place that assess’s members compliance with obligations, identifies areas of conservation and management that may need refinement, responds to non-compliance and monitors and resolves non-compliance issues.The Commission evaluates compliance by members annually with respect to: catch and effort limits and reporting for target species, spatial and temporal closures, observer and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) coverage and provision of scientific data {WCPFC 2012b}.

    There are specific reporting requirements in place to monitor compliance with the FAD set limiting options {WCPFC 2013a}. Vessel Monitoring Systems are required on all vessels fishing for highly migratory species in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean south of 20N and east of 175E.The area north of 20N and west of 175W will have an activation date for VMS’s set at a later time {WCPFC 2012d}.There are measures in place allowing for the boarding and inspection of vessels in the Convention Area {WCPFC 2006b} and the WCPFC maintains a list of illegal, unreported and unregulated vessels {WCPFC 2010b}.

    Indonesia
    Gillnets and entangling nets

    Last updated on 6 February 2015

    There is no TAC in place for skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission has noted Indonesia as being non-compliant with some management measures including aspects of the regional observer program, sea turtle, shark and cetacean regulations, transshipment, vessel monitoring systems, reporting deadlines for tuna catches and other aspects of the tropical tuna management measures, and estimation of annual catches (WCPFC 2014).

    Hooks and lines

    Last updated on 6 February 2015

    There is no TAC in place for skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission has noted Indonesia as being non-compliant with some management measures including aspects of the regional observer program, sea turtle, shark and cetacean regulations, transshipment, vessel monitoring systems, reporting deadlines for tuna catches and other aspects of the tropical tuna management measures, and estimation of annual catches (WCPFC 2014).

    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 6 February 2015

    There is no TAC in place for skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission has noted Indonesia as being non-compliant with some management measures including aspects of the regional observer program, sea turtle, shark and cetacean regulations, transshipment, vessel monitoring systems, reporting deadlines for tuna catches and other aspects of the tropical tuna management measures, and estimation of annual catches (WCPFC 2014).

    Purse seines

    Last updated on 6 February 2015

    There is no TAC in place for skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission has noted Indonesia as being non-compliant with some management measures including aspects of the regional observer program, sea turtle, shark and cetacean regulations, transshipment, vessel monitoring systems, reporting deadlines for tuna catches and other aspects of the tropical tuna management measures, and estimation of annual catches (WCPFC 2014).

    Japan
    Mechanized lines

    Last updated on 23 October 2008

    Compliance with national and WCPO regulations are monitored through logbooks (90-100% logbook coverage), and port inspections for all vessels calling at Japanese ports (WCPFC 2011).

    New Zealand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 25 October 2012

    Compliance is very good in this fishery and no IUU related activities are reported by WCPFC for New Zealand flagged purse seiners.

    Philippines
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 30 October 2012

    Compliance is relatively good for national fleets operating within the EEZ, and foreign fishing vessels are not permitted to fish in the Philippine EEZ. However, catches from fishing vessels <3 GT are not adequately quantified leading to under-reporting from this fleet, and there is also considerable loss due to IUU fishing by foreign fleets operating without a license in the Philippine EEZ, with PTRP (1995) study suggesting IUU catches of up to 10,000 tonnes taken by IUU longliners itself from within the Philippine EEZ.

    Taiwan, Province of China
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 17 May 2011

    Illegal practices by Taiwanese distant water fleet are poorly controlled by the national Fisheries Agency (Greenpeace 2011; Zhang 2009).

    Observers on fishing vessels are often in disagreement with vessel operators over quantities of by-catch caught during trips and true figures of by-catch are not reflected in logbook records (Greenpeace 2011, page 9).

    Poor Deterrence: “The Patrolling vessels – Patrol vessel No.1, Patrol vessel No.2 and Patrol vessel No.3 – will share their patrolling times and locations on the website before they start their missions and give distant water fishing vessels advanced notice. However, the Fisheries Agency did not disclose the results nor the details of the work of its three patrolling vessels on its website or in annual reports”(Greenpeace 2011).

    United States
    Longlines

    Last updated on 25 September 2009

    In the USA Highly migratory species fishery, compliance was more than 95% during the year 2010 (NOAA 2012).Hawaii based longliners are also require to use a NMFS owned VMS transmitter to detect any violations and prevent incursions into protected areas.

    3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

    BYCATCH
    ETP Species

    Last updated on 28 June 2013

    Purse seine fisheries do incidentally capture non-target species.Bycatch rates are much lower in unassociated compared to associated fisheries. Bycatch ratios in associated sets in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) region are 1.7% and for unassociated 0.3% {Dagorn et al. 2012}. In associated fisheries, marine mammals are most often caught during sets made in the western section of the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean, specifically near Papua New Guinea (north-east of EEZ) and the Solomon Islands (north-western EEZ).Sets made on floating objects (logs, dFADs, FADs, whales and whale sharks) caught the most marine mammals.In most instances it was not recorded whether marine mammals were alive or dead when returned, but when it was recorded, the majority were alive.Based on the catch per unit effort of incidental catches, less than 3,500 marine mammals are caught per year in the entire purse seine fleet and the mortality rate is estimated to be less than 10% {Molony 2005}.The purse seine fishery is thought to have little impact on the sustainability of marine mammals in this region. Observer records from the tropical region of the WCPO suggest most interactions between marine mammals and purse seines occurred during sets made on floating objects {Molony 2005}. Sea turtle interactions with the purse seine fishery in the western and central Pacific Ocean are not common, with an estimated encounter frequency (1995-2007) of 0.1% on FAD and 0.8% on log sets {Hall and Roman 2013}. The most commonly caught sea turtles, in descending order, are olive ridley, hawksbill and green {Hall and Roman 2013}.Sea turtle interactions in animal associated sets are the highest, 1.6%, resulting in around 105 captures per year. However the majority are released alive {Hall and Molony 2013}. It is estimated that total turtle captures in the purse seine fishery are 200 per year, with fewer than 20 moralities {Molony 2005}.

    Observer records from the tropical region of the WCPO for unassociated purse seine fisheries suggest most interactions between marine mammals and purse seines occurred during sets made on floating objects.In addition, observer records from the same region suggests a very low incidence rate, 0.36%, of sea turtles and purse seine fisheries {Molony 2005}.

    The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species incidentally captured in purse seine fisheries. For example, purse seine vessels in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure.If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident.However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012e}.In addition, vessels are restricted from making a set on a school of tuna associated with a cetacean or encircle sea turtles and if this does occur they must take measures to ensure its safe release and to report the incident {WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008b}.

    Viet Nam
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 10 March 2011

    Bycatch of seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals and sharks in purse seine tuna fisheries threatens some populations with extinction.Bycatch of juvenile tunas and unmarketable species and/or sizes of other fish in purse seine fisheries, and juvenile swordfish in longline fisheries, contributes to the overexploitation of some stocks, and is an allocation issue among gear types and fishing nations (Gilman and Lundin, 2010).

    WCPFC measures for mitigating problematic bycatch that are applicable to purse seine vessels are:

    WCPFC Sea Turtle CMM
    A 2008 measure requires purse seine vessels to: (i) avoid encircling sea turtles; (ii) safely release turtles that are encircled or entangled in FADs or other gear, including, when turtles are entangled in the net, stopping net roll and disentangling the turtle; and (iii) carry and use dip nets to handle turtles (WCPFC, 2008).

    WCPFC Shark CMM
    A 2009 measure requires members to either: (i) have onboard fins totaling < 5% of the weight of sharks; (ii) land sharks with fins attached to the carcass; or (iii) land fins with the corresponding carcass 219.The measure calls for the reporting of annual shark catches at the species-level for identified species of concern (WCPFC, 2009).

    Indonesia
    Gillnets and entangling nets

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Several species of sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in Indonesian longline fisheries. These include olive ridley, leatherbacks, hawksbill, green and loggerhead sea turtles .Observer records have indicated a catch rate of 0.225 turtles per 1000 hooks {Zainudin et al. 2007}.A survey conducted by the WWF (2005) estimated that Indonesian tuna longline bycatch rate in the Pacific is estimated to be 256 to 768 animals per year for leatherback turtles and 768 to 2,304 animals per year for loggerhead turtles. Leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN {Martinez 2000}{Mortimer and Donnelly 2008}, loggerhead and green sea turtles are listed as Endangered and olive ridley as Vulnerable by the IUCN {MTSG 1996}{Seminorff 2004}{Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin 2008}.Interactions with sea birds are likely minimal in this fishery because due to low overlap {Filippi 2010}.

    Indonesia is a members of the WCPFC and must comply with their measures. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species.For example, WCPFCmembers are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries.Vessels fishing north of 23N in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and eastern Pacific Ocean and purse seine fisheries are not allowed to encircle sea turtles (EPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line.Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012a}.Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles.Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks and purse seine fisheries are prohibited from encircling sea turtles {WCPFC 2008b}.In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2008b}.It appears Indonesia complies with seabird regulations but it is unclear if sea turtle measures are followed {WCPFC 2013b}.Indonesia has recently created the Indonesia National Tuna Management Plan that indicates fishers must utilize proper handling and release measures for bycatch. This plan is planned for implementation during 2014 {MMAF 2012}.

    Purse seine fisheries do incidentally capture non-target species.Bycatch rates are much lower in unassociated compared to associated fisheries. Bycatch ratios in associated sets in the WCPO region are 1.7% and for unassociated 0.3% {Dagorn et al. 2012}. In associated fisheries, marine mammals are most often caught during sets made in the western section of the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean.Sets made on floating objects (logs, dFADs, FADs, whales and whale sharks) catch the most marine mammals.Based on the catch per unit effort of incidental catches, less than 3,500 marine mammals are caught per year in the entire purse seine fleet (all countries operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and the mortality rate is estimated to be less than 10% {Molony 2005}.Purse seine fisheries are thought to have little impact on the sustainability of marine mammals in this region {Molony 2005}. Sea turtle interactions with the purse seine fishery in the WCPO are not common.Between 1980 and 2009 the incidence rate was about 0.36%, with most interactions occurring during associated sets (>70%) {Molony 2005}It is estimated that total turtle captures in the purse seine fishery are 200 per year, with fewer than 20 moralities {Molony 2005}.

    The WCPFC has some management measures in place specific to purse seine fisheries.For example, purse seine vessels in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure.If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident.However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012e}.In addition, vessels are restricted from making a set on a school of tuna associated with a cetacean or encircle sea turtles and if this does occur they must take measures to ensure its safe release and to report the incident {WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008b}.

    Handline and hook and line fisheries traditionally have low bycatch levels.

    Hooks and lines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Several species of sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in Indonesian longline fisheries. These include olive ridley, leatherbacks, hawksbill, green and loggerhead sea turtles .Observer records have indicated a catch rate of 0.225 turtles per 1000 hooks {Zainudin et al. 2007}.A survey conducted by the WWF (2005) estimated that Indonesian tuna longline bycatch rate in the Pacific is estimated to be 256 to 768 animals per year for leatherback turtles and 768 to 2,304 animals per year for loggerhead turtles. Leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN {Martinez 2000}{Mortimer and Donnelly 2008}, loggerhead and green sea turtles are listed as Endangered and olive ridley as Vulnerable by the IUCN {MTSG 1996}{Seminorff 2004}{Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin 2008}.Interactions with sea birds are likely minimal in this fishery because due to low overlap {Filippi 2010}.

    Indonesia is a members of the WCPFC and must comply with their measures. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species.For example, WCPFCmembers are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries.Vessels fishing north of 23N in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and eastern Pacific Ocean and purse seine fisheries are not allowed to encircle sea turtles (EPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line.Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012a}.Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles.Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks and purse seine fisheries are prohibited from encircling sea turtles {WCPFC 2008b}.In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2008b}.It appears Indonesia complies with seabird regulations but it is unclear if sea turtle measures are followed {WCPFC 2013b}.Indonesia has recently created the Indonesia National Tuna Management Plan that indicates fishers must utilize proper handling and release measures for bycatch. This plan is planned for implementation during 2014 {MMAF 2012}.

    Purse seine fisheries do incidentally capture non-target species.Bycatch rates are much lower in unassociated compared to associated fisheries. Bycatch ratios in associated sets in the WCPO region are 1.7% and for unassociated 0.3% {Dagorn et al. 2012}. In associated fisheries, marine mammals are most often caught during sets made in the western section of the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean.Sets made on floating objects (logs, dFADs, FADs, whales and whale sharks) catch the most marine mammals.Based on the catch per unit effort of incidental catches, less than 3,500 marine mammals are caught per year in the entire purse seine fleet (all countries operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and the mortality rate is estimated to be less than 10% {Molony 2005}.Purse seine fisheries are thought to have little impact on the sustainability of marine mammals in this region {Molony 2005}. Sea turtle interactions with the purse seine fishery in the WCPO are not common.Between 1980 and 2009 the incidence rate was about 0.36%, with most interactions occurring during associated sets (>70%) {Molony 2005}It is estimated that total turtle captures in the purse seine fishery are 200 per year, with fewer than 20 moralities {Molony 2005}.

    The WCPFC has some management measures in place specific to purse seine fisheries.For example, purse seine vessels in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure.If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident.However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012e}.In addition, vessels are restricted from making a set on a school of tuna associated with a cetacean or encircle sea turtles and if this does occur they must take measures to ensure its safe release and to report the incident {WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008b}.

    Handline and hook and line fisheries traditionally have low bycatch levels.

    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Several species of sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in Indonesian longline fisheries. These include olive ridley, leatherbacks, hawksbill, green and loggerhead sea turtles .Observer records have indicated a catch rate of 0.225 turtles per 1000 hooks {Zainudin et al. 2007}.A survey conducted by the WWF (2005) estimated that Indonesian tuna longline bycatch rate in the Pacific is estimated to be 256 to 768 animals per year for leatherback turtles and 768 to 2,304 animals per year for loggerhead turtles. Leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN {Martinez 2000}{Mortimer and Donnelly 2008}, loggerhead and green sea turtles are listed as Endangered and olive ridley as Vulnerable by the IUCN {MTSG 1996}{Seminorff 2004}{Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin 2008}.Interactions with sea birds are likely minimal in this fishery because due to low overlap {Filippi 2010}.

    Indonesia is a members of the WCPFC and must comply with their measures. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species.For example, WCPFCmembers are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries.Vessels fishing north of 23N in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and eastern Pacific Ocean and purse seine fisheries are not allowed to encircle sea turtles (EPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line.Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012a}.Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles.Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks and purse seine fisheries are prohibited from encircling sea turtles {WCPFC 2008b}.In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2008b}.It appears Indonesia complies with seabird regulations but it is unclear if sea turtle measures are followed {WCPFC 2013b}.Indonesia has recently created the Indonesia National Tuna Management Plan that indicates fishers must utilize proper handling and release measures for bycatch. This plan is planned for implementation during 2014 {MMAF 2012}.

    Purse seine fisheries do incidentally capture non-target species.Bycatch rates are much lower in unassociated compared to associated fisheries. Bycatch ratios in associated sets in the WCPO region are 1.7% and for unassociated 0.3% {Dagorn et al. 2012}. In associated fisheries, marine mammals are most often caught during sets made in the western section of the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean.Sets made on floating objects (logs, dFADs, FADs, whales and whale sharks) catch the most marine mammals.Based on the catch per unit effort of incidental catches, less than 3,500 marine mammals are caught per year in the entire purse seine fleet (all countries operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and the mortality rate is estimated to be less than 10% {Molony 2005}.Purse seine fisheries are thought to have little impact on the sustainability of marine mammals in this region {Molony 2005}. Sea turtle interactions with the purse seine fishery in the WCPO are not common.Between 1980 and 2009 the incidence rate was about 0.36%, with most interactions occurring during associated sets (>70%) {Molony 2005}It is estimated that total turtle captures in the purse seine fishery are 200 per year, with fewer than 20 moralities {Molony 2005}.

    The WCPFC has some management measures in place specific to purse seine fisheries.For example, purse seine vessels in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure.If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident.However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012e}.In addition, vessels are restricted from making a set on a school of tuna associated with a cetacean or encircle sea turtles and if this does occur they must take measures to ensure its safe release and to report the incident {WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008b}.

    Handline and hook and line fisheries traditionally have low bycatch levels.

    Purse seines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Several species of sea turtles have been reported as incidentally captured in Indonesian longline fisheries. These include olive ridley, leatherbacks, hawksbill, green and loggerhead sea turtles .Observer records have indicated a catch rate of 0.225 turtles per 1000 hooks {Zainudin et al. 2007}.A survey conducted by the WWF (2005) estimated that Indonesian tuna longline bycatch rate in the Pacific is estimated to be 256 to 768 animals per year for leatherback turtles and 768 to 2,304 animals per year for loggerhead turtles. Leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN {Martinez 2000}{Mortimer and Donnelly 2008}, loggerhead and green sea turtles are listed as Endangered and olive ridley as Vulnerable by the IUCN {MTSG 1996}{Seminorff 2004}{Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin 2008}.Interactions with sea birds are likely minimal in this fishery because due to low overlap {Filippi 2010}.

    Indonesia is a members of the WCPFC and must comply with their measures. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species.For example, WCPFCmembers are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries.Vessels fishing north of 23N in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and eastern Pacific Ocean and purse seine fisheries are not allowed to encircle sea turtles (EPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line.Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012a}.Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles.Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks and purse seine fisheries are prohibited from encircling sea turtles {WCPFC 2008b}.In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2008b}.It appears Indonesia complies with seabird regulations but it is unclear if sea turtle measures are followed {WCPFC 2013b}.Indonesia has recently created the Indonesia National Tuna Management Plan that indicates fishers must utilize proper handling and release measures for bycatch. This plan is planned for implementation during 2014 {MMAF 2012}.

    Purse seine fisheries do incidentally capture non-target species.Bycatch rates are much lower in unassociated compared to associated fisheries. Bycatch ratios in associated sets in the WCPO region are 1.7% and for unassociated 0.3% {Dagorn et al. 2012}. In associated fisheries, marine mammals are most often caught during sets made in the western section of the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean.Sets made on floating objects (logs, dFADs, FADs, whales and whale sharks) catch the most marine mammals.Based on the catch per unit effort of incidental catches, less than 3,500 marine mammals are caught per year in the entire purse seine fleet (all countries operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and the mortality rate is estimated to be less than 10% {Molony 2005}.Purse seine fisheries are thought to have little impact on the sustainability of marine mammals in this region {Molony 2005}. Sea turtle interactions with the purse seine fishery in the WCPO are not common.Between 1980 and 2009 the incidence rate was about 0.36%, with most interactions occurring during associated sets (>70%) {Molony 2005}It is estimated that total turtle captures in the purse seine fishery are 200 per year, with fewer than 20 moralities {Molony 2005}.

    The WCPFC has some management measures in place specific to purse seine fisheries.For example, purse seine vessels in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure.If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident.However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012e}.In addition, vessels are restricted from making a set on a school of tuna associated with a cetacean or encircle sea turtles and if this does occur they must take measures to ensure its safe release and to report the incident {WCPFC 2012f}{WCPFC 2008b}.

    Handline and hook and line fisheries traditionally have low bycatch levels.

    Pole-lines hand operated

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Handline fisheries have low levels of bycatch associated with them.

    Japan
    Mechanized lines

    Last updated on 23 October 2008

    Data on by-catch of non-target species like sharks and PET species is not available for this fishery.

    New Zealand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 25 October 2012

    For the period 2010-2011, there were no reported interactions with sea birds, turtles and marine mammals for New Zealand purse seiners operating within their EEZ waters (WCPFC 2012).

    Philippines
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 30 October 2012

    Data on interactions with protected, threatened and endangered species is not available in this fishery.

    Taiwan, Province of China
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 17 May 2011

    Data on by-catch of non-target species like sharks and PET species is not available for this fishery.

    Thailand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 3 December 2013

    The longline and purse seine fisheries that capture skipjack tuna also incidentally capture species of concern such as seabirds, sea turtles and marine mammals. Some of these species have been awarded global protection through CITES, while other species are provided domestic protection.

    United States
    Longlines

    Last updated on 25 September 2009

    Longline vessels that target tunas in the Hawaiian longline fisheries must abide by certain measures aimed at reducing seabird and sea turtle bycatch.There are both domestic and international bycatch mitigation measures in place.

    Other Species

    Last updated on 2 June 2008

    Purse seine fisheries, primarily associated fisheries, do capture additional non-target species, including other tunas, billfish, sharks and bony fish. Within the western and central Pacific Ocean, silky sharks are the most commonly caught shark species, followed by whales sharks – which are incidentally captured in unassociated fisheries. Oceanic whitetips are also commonly captured in purse seine fisheries. Both silkyand oceanic whitetip sharks are overfished and undergoing overfishing in this region {Rice and Harley 2012a,b}. Recently the Western and Central Pacific Ocean banned the retention of both silky and oceanic whitetip sharks {WCPFC 2012g}{WCPFC 2013f} and setting around whale sharks is now prohibited {WCPFC 2012e}. Starting on 1 January 2010, WCPFC coverage of purse seine vessels is intended to be 100% within the area bounded by 20oN and 20oS, and has adopted a target of 5% coverage by 30 June 2012 of all trips by longline and other vessels (WCPFC 2008). Blue and black marlin are reported as the most common billfish bycatch species, but they are caught in very low numbers. The most common bonny fish bycatch species in this region is the rainbow runner, followed by mahi-mahi and wahoo {Hall and Roman 2013}.

    Viet Nam
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 4 December 2013

    Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).Networks of thousands of artificial drifting and anchored FADs aggregate tunas from surrounding waters and possibly act as ‘ecological traps’ of pelagic species by altering their natural spatial and temporal distributions, habitat associations, migration patterns and residence times (Marsac et al., 2000; Bromhead et al., 2003; Hallier and Gaertner, 2008; WCPFC, 2009; Dagorn et al., 2010).

    Indonesia
    Gillnets and entangling nets

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], _T. orientalis _[Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga_) for canning.Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis_) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna.

    Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).

    Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

    Members of the WCPFC are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012f}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks.Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010b}.In the South Pacific, the WCPFC limited the number of vessels targeting swordfish and catches to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 and required this information to be reported to the Commission {WCPFC 2009}. Starting on 1 January 2010, WCPFC coverage of purse seine vessels is intended to be 100% within the area bounded by 20oN and 20oS, and has adopted a target of 5% coverage by 30 June 2012 of all trips by longline and other vessels (WCPFC 2008).

    There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata).Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997).However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

    Information specific to Indonesian fisheries is limited.Handline fisheries typically have low bycatch rates of other species. Although, other tuna species and sharks can be incidentally captured in low amounts.

    Hooks and lines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], _T. orientalis _[Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga_) for canning.Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis_) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna.

    Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).

    Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

    Members of the WCPFC are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012f}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks.Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010b}.In the South Pacific, the WCPFC limited the number of vessels targeting swordfish and catches to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 and required this information to be reported to the Commission {WCPFC 2009}. Starting on 1 January 2010, WCPFC coverage of purse seine vessels is intended to be 100% within the area bounded by 20oN and 20oS, and has adopted a target of 5% coverage by 30 June 2012 of all trips by longline and other vessels (WCPFC 2008).

    There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata).Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997).However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

    Information specific to Indonesian fisheries is limited.Handline fisheries typically have low bycatch rates of other species. Although, other tuna species and sharks can be incidentally captured in low amounts.

    Trolling lines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], _T. orientalis _[Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga_) for canning.Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis_) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna.

    Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).

    Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

    Members of the WCPFC are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012f}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks.Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010b}.In the South Pacific, the WCPFC limited the number of vessels targeting swordfish and catches to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 and required this information to be reported to the Commission {WCPFC 2009}. Starting on 1 January 2010, WCPFC coverage of purse seine vessels is intended to be 100% within the area bounded by 20oN and 20oS, and has adopted a target of 5% coverage by 30 June 2012 of all trips by longline and other vessels (WCPFC 2008).

    There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata).Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997).However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

    Information specific to Indonesian fisheries is limited.Handline fisheries typically have low bycatch rates of other species. Although, other tuna species and sharks can be incidentally captured in low amounts.

    Purse seines

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Large longline vessels generally catch older age classes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tunas (T. maccoyii [southern], _T. orientalis _[Pacific] and T. thynnus [Atlantic]) for the sashimi market and some longline fleets target albacore (T. alalunga_) for canning.Purse seine vessels target younger age classes of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis_) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna for canning with incidental catch of bigeye tuna.

    Purse seine sets on anchored and drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and natural floating objects (logs, flotsam) is widespread, with about half of tropical tuna catches coming from FAD sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000).FAD sets have high catch rates of small and juvenile bigeye and yellowfin tunas and unmarketable species and sizes of other fish species, as well as high sea turtle and shark bycatch rates, relative to unassociated sets (Fonteneau et al., 2000; IOTC, 2002; Romanov, 2002; Bromhead et al., 2003; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006; WCPFC, 2007; An et al., 2009; Nicol et al., 2009).

    Smaller swordfish are often discarded in pelagic longline tuna fisheries due to minimum size requirements or low market value (Cramer, 2003; Ward et al., 2008).

    Members of the WCPFC are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012f}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks.Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010b}.In the South Pacific, the WCPFC limited the number of vessels targeting swordfish and catches to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 and required this information to be reported to the Commission {WCPFC 2009}. Starting on 1 January 2010, WCPFC coverage of purse seine vessels is intended to be 100% within the area bounded by 20oN and 20oS, and has adopted a target of 5% coverage by 30 June 2012 of all trips by longline and other vessels (WCPFC 2008).

    There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata).Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997).However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

    Information specific to Indonesian fisheries is limited.Handline fisheries typically have low bycatch rates of other species. Although, other tuna species and sharks can be incidentally captured in low amounts.

    Pole-lines hand operated

    Last updated on 19 February 2015

    Handline fisheries have little bycatch associated with them.

    Japan
    Mechanized lines

    Last updated on 23 October 2008

    Since 2008, all Japanese pole and line vessels licensed to operate in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are required to submit by-catch reports which collect data on sharks, sea turtles and sea birds in this fishery (MSC 2009).

    There are extremely low bycatch levels in pole-and-line fisheries, where bycatch that does occur generally consists of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis), frigate mackerel (Auxis rochei), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bupinnulata). Discards are believed to have high post release survival rates due to the use of barbless hooks and flick-off practices (FAO, 1997). However, concern over bycatch of reef fish and juvenile classes of target species in baitfish fisheries that supply live bait to pole-and-line fisheries has been raised, as have other ecological issues (ecosystem effects of removal of baitfish species, overexploitation of target baitfish species, habitat degradation) and socioeconomic issues (food security impacts with coastal communities) (FAO, 2008; Gillett, 2010).

    New Zealand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 25 October 2012

    Estimated catches of non-target and by-catch species is available. Estimates of by-catch species of commercial interest that are landed is available from fishers records, while for other lesser known non-commercial species observer records provide more reliable information (WCPFC 2012).

    Since 2005, observers have been used to estimate levels of by-catch for purse seiners operating in the New Zealand waters. By-catch rates are relatively minimal as the vessels target free schools of Skipjack tuna (WCPFC 2012).

    Philippines
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 30 October 2012

    Estimated catches of non-target species and interactions with by-catch species is not available for this fishery.

    Taiwan, Province of China
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 17 May 2011

    Since 2003, an additional columns have been included in logbook to record catches of non-target and associate species like sharks, sea birds, turtles and marine mammals (WCPFC 2011). There is very limited observer coverage, with 6 trips assigned to distant water purse seine fleet in 2010. Logbooks of DWPS licensed to operate in WCPFC area are collected during port calls, with all fleets required to catch reports on a weekly basis (WCPFC 2011).

    United States
    Longlines

    Last updated on 25 September 2009

    The Hawaii longline deep-set longline fishery that targets skipjack tuna also catches other species of tunas, fish, and sharks.Billfish can also be caught but to a much lesser degree.There are some measures in place both domestically and internationally for these other species.

    HABITAT

    Last updated on 2 June 2008

    The major gears used to capture skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean do not typically come in contact with bottom habitats.

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 02 Jun 2008

    There are some areas in the western and central Pacific Ocean where some types of purse seine fishing are prohibited.

    Viet Nam
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 10 March 2011

    Primary gear used to catch tunas, including purse seine, pelagic longline and pole-and-line gear, do not come in direct contact with the seafloor.Lost and discarded gear can damage coastal habitats.

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 10 Mar 2011

    WCPFC has a time/area closure on purse seine sets on FADs and other floating objects by purse seine vessels for three months annually in the area bounded by 20ºN and 20ºS (WCPFC, 2008a, 2009a).In 2008, the Parties to the Nauru Agreement, a regional agreement establishing terms and conditions for foreign access to the Exclusive Economic Zones of eight Pacific Island Countries, closed to purse seine fishing by vessels licensed by the Parties two areas of international waters that are enclosed by the Parties’ domestic waters, and in 2010 further closed international waters between 10oN and 20oS and 170oE and 140oW (Gilman, 2011).

    Japan
    Mechanized lines

    Last updated on 23 October 2008

    Primary gear used to catch yellowfin tuna, including purse seine, pelagic longline and pole-and-line gear, do not come in direct contact with the seafloor. Lost and discarded gear can damage coastal habitats.

    New Zealand
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 25 October 2012

    Primary gears used to target skipjack tuna do not come into contact with the seafloor (e.g., pole and line, purse seines, etc.) and therefore have a minimal impact on habitat.

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 25 Oct 2012

    None are reported for the concerned areas.

    Philippines
    Purse seines

    Last updated on 1 November 2012

    Primary gears used to target skipjack tuna do not come into contact with the seafloor (e.g., pole and line, purse seines, etc.) and therefore have a minimal impact on habitat.

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 01 Nov 2012

    None are reported within jurisdiction of this fishery in the Philippines EEZ.

    “Area bounded by 20ºN and 20ºS closed to fishing on FADs August
    1-Sept 30, 2009 and July 1- September 30 in 2010 and 2011. During this period, all purse seine vessels are required to carry an observer from the Regional Observer Program” (Dickson et al., 2012).

    United States
    Longlines

    Last updated on 25 September 2009

    Pelagic longline gear have a negligible effect on the biogenic and physical habitat because they have no contact with the seafloor.

    Marine Reserves

    Last updated on 25 Sep 2009

    A mandatory observer program is in place to collect information on interaction between longliners and sea turtles for the Hawaii-based longline fishery and the American Samoa longline fishery.

    Hawaii based longliners are also require to use a NMFS owned VMS transmitter to detect any violations of longliners and prevent such incursions into protected areas.

    FishSource Scores

    Last updated on 10 August 2017

    SELECT SCORES

    MANAGEMENT QUALITY

    As calculated for 2015 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    Management strategy is not precautionary because no formal target reference points have been adopted and there is no formal harvest control rule to ensure that fishing mortality rates will be reduced as limit reference points are reached. The 2014 tropical tuna CMM is very similar to previous CMM's.

    As calculated for 2015 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The stock is NOT managed through quotas or TACs; Some but not all of the key recommendations made by the scientific organization responsible for the stock assessments are being taken into account by the management bodies via tangibly implemented conservation measures.

    As calculated for 2015 data.

    The score is ≥ 6.

    The Scientific Committee has noted that the Commission consider stricter control rules for purse seine fisheries.

    STOCK HEALTH:

    As calculated for 2015 data.

    The score is 10.0.

    This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

    The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 2.56 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

    The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 256%.

    As calculated for 2015 data.

    The score is 10.0.

    This measures the Ratio F/Fmsy as a percentage of the F management target.

    The Ratio F/Fmsy is 0.450 . The F management target is 1.00 .

    The underlying Ratio F/Fmsy/F management target for this index is 45.0%.

    To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
    No data available for recruitment
    No data available for recruitment
    To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
    To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
    DATA NOTES

    1) The time series of F and SSB are provided relative to MSY (F/FMSY; SB/SBMSY); 2) Skipjack is not managed as a quota management / TAC species, therefore, qualitative scores have been computed for scores 2 and 3. The most recent updates for reference points Fcurrent/Fmsy and SBlatest/SBmsy were done using last WCPFC stock assessment for this stock in 2016 (McKechnie et al. 2016) and catches came from the WCPFC annual catch report presented at the 2016 Scientific Committee meeting.


     

    Download Source Data

    Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

    Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

    SELECT FIP

    Access FIP Public Report

    Evaluation Start Date: 1 Feb 2015
    Type: Basic

    Comments:

    FIP rating has been removed as FIP has been moved to inactive on FisheryProgress.org due to two consecutive missed reports 

    1.
    FIP Development
    Aug 14
    2.
    FIP Launch
    May 14
    May 16
    3.
    FIP Implementation
    Nov 17
    4.
    Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
    Jul 18
    5.
    Improvements on the Water
    Aug 17
    6.
    MSC certification (optional)
    MSC certificate made public

    Certifications

    Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

    SELECT MSC

    NAME

    Ishihara Marine Products albacore and skipjack pole and line fishery

    STATUS

    MSC Certified on 12 March 2019

    SCORES

    Principle Level Scores:

    Principle Skipjack Albacore
    Principle 1 – Target Species 85.8 82.5
    Principle 2 – Ecosystem 90.3
    Principle 3 – Management System 84.2

    Certification Type: Silver

    Sources

    Credits

    Hoyle, S., Kleiber, P., Davies, N., Langley, A., Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of Skipjack tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-04, Scientific Committee, Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August 2011, 134 pages.

    Harley, S,J., Berger, A.M., Pilling, G.M., Davies, N., Hampton, J. 2012. Evaluation of stock status of south Pacific albacore, bigeye, skipjack, and yellowfin tunas and southwest Pacific striped marlin against potential limit reference points, Scientific Committee, Eighth Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012, WCPFC-SC8-2012/MI-WP-01_rev1, 22 pages.

    Harley, S. J., Williams, P., Nicol, S. and Hampton, J., 2011. The western and central Pacific tuna fishery: 2010 overview and status of stocks. Tuna Fisheries Assessment Report 11. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 38 pages.

    IOTC. 2014. Status of Indian Ocean skipjack tuna (SKJ: Katsuwonus pelamis) resource. IOTC-2014-SC17-ES03.

    McKechnie, S., Hampton, J., Pillling, G.M. and Davies, N. 2016. Stock assessment of skipjack tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. WCPFC-SC12-2016/SA-WP-04. Available at: https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC12-SA-WP-04%20skj%20assessment.pdf

    Pilling, G.M., Harley, S.J., Berger, A.M., Davies, N., Hampton, J. 2012. Consideration of target reference points for WCPO stocks with an emphasis on skipjack tuna, Scientific Committee, Eight Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012, WCPFC-SC8-2012/ MI-WP-02, 27 pages.

    Rice, J., Harley, S., Davies, N. and Hampton, J. 2014. Stock assessment of skipjack tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Scientific Committee Ninth Regular Session, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands. WCPFC-SC10-2014/SA-WP-05.

    WCPFC. 2014. Scientific Committee Tenth Regular Session, summary report. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 6-14, August 2014. https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/0_SC10%20Summary%20Report%20-%20Adopted%20Version%20-%2021Aug2014%20%28Rev.3.5%2C%20t-c%29_1.pdf

    WCPFC. 2015. Conservation and Management Measuer on a target reference point for WCPO skipjack tuna. CMM 2015-06. Availalbe at: http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/cmm-2015-06/conservation-and-management-measure-target-reference-point-wcpo-skipjack-tuna

    WCPFC. 2016. WCPFC 13 Outcomes Document. Circular No. 2016/73. Decebmer 21, 2016. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC%20Circular%202016-73%20WCPFC13%20Outcomes%20document.%2021%20December%202016.pdf

    WCPFC. 2016b. Conservation and Management Measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Western adn Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-01. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20O_CMM%202016-01%20CMM%20for%20Bigeye%20Yellowfin%20and%20Skipjack%20Tuna_p_1.pdf

    WCPFC. 2016c. Conservation and Management Measure for the Eastern High Seas Pocket Special Management Area. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-02. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20K_CMM%202016-02%20CMM%20for%20EHSP-SMA_p.pdf

    WCPFC. 2016d. Reference document for the development of harvest strategies under CMM 2014-06. WCPFC13-2016-11A. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC13-2016-11A%20%5BReference%20document%20for%20Harvest%20Strategy%5D.pdf

    Williams, P., Terawasi, P. 2012. Overview of tuna fisheries in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, including economic conditions – 2011, Scientific Committee, Eighth Regular Session, 7-15 August 2012, WCPFC-SC8-2012/GN WP-1, 53 pages.

    References

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      Skipjack tuna - Western and Central Pacific Ocean

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