Last updated on 25 January 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Portunus pelagicus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Blue swimming crab, Flower crab

COMMON NAMES

Rajungan (Indonesian common name)

The blue swimming crab (BSC) can be found throughout the Indo-West Pacific, from tropical to sub-tropical (Ng 1998). In Indonesia, BSC occurs throughout the archipelago with the most landings in Fisheries Management Area (FMA) 571 (Malacca Strait and Andaman Sea, where BSC contributed 9.5% of total average catches in the FMA from 2005 - 2014), FMA 711 (Karimata Strait, Natuna Sea, and South China Sea, 15.3%), FMA 713 (Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Flores Sea, and Bali Sea, 16.5%), and FMA 712 (Java Sea, 46.6%); FMA 712 is the area where BSC is mostly found and caught, particularly on the northern coast of Java, southern coast of Kalimantan, and south-eastern coast of Sumatra (KKP-RI 2016).

There are three (3) most common fishing gear that are used to catch BSC in the Java Sea: collapsible trap (Bubu), bottom gill net (Kejer), and mini bottom trawl (Arad) (Ernawati et al. 2017). Collapsible trap is a selective gear and thus, contribute the most BSC in any given landing. Therefore, it is widely used in the Java Sea, and consequently it is chosen as the standard gear for stock assessment analyses (Indrajaya 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • APRI, as the association for the BSC processing and exporting companies in Indonesia, has been very assertive in the execution of comprehensive FIP (Fishery Improvement Project) to support sustainable BSC fishery in Indonesia;
  • APRI’s advocacy has resulted in several key advances in 2014 - 2016, such as scientific collaborations, and the stipulation of several regulations, including the Blue Swimming Crab Fishery Management Plan that prescribe the Road Map for sustainable management of BSC fishery;
  • The leadership of APRI and its advocacy has snowballed collaboration with other organizations, such as the USAID-IMACS that extend studies on BSC beyond the scope of the Java Sea (e.g., to south-east Sulawesi), and with a focus that expanded beyond scientific (e.g., control document training, online data collection and assessment platform)
  • As a consequence of the BSC assessment research, Spawning Potential Ratio (SPR) has been adopted by the National Commission for Stock Assessment in 2015 as a method to complement the currently used surplus production modelling technique;
  • As of 2015, results of BSC stock assessment surveys were accommodated into the official stock assessment estimations following evaluation by the National Commission for Stock Assessment.
Weaknesses
  • Catch data has been under-reported, while bycatch are not accounted for in official statistics;
  • The use of non-selective gear that generates serious bycatch still persist; while the landing of under-size crabs and berried crabs are also still common;
  • As most BSC fishers are small scale fishers that operate boats < 5GT, by law they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI) and fishing business licenses (SIUP), making it more difficult to monitor and control the fishery by system;
  • Fishers’ compliance to management regime is still low; lack of awareness on recently-decreed regulations seems to be an issue, among others.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press for and support full implementation of the Control Document adopted in July 2018 by APRI and the National Fisheries Institute Crab Council to ensure that the minimum legal size and the berried female harvest ban are being complied with by fishers and supported by processors and their supply chain, and that there is credible, third party audit of the Control Document implementation. Auditing must follow the standards and requirements developed by APRI.
  • Work with the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) to implement the December 2016 ‘Fisheries Management Plan of the Blue Swimming Crab in the Fisheries Management Areas of Indonesia’ to deliver a sustainable fishery (including healthy stocks and environment, increasing socio-economic and welfare benefits to fishers, fisher compliance with regulations, and increased participation of stakeholders and fishers in developing  responsible management).
  • Work with provincial and national managers to ensure the ‘Fisheries Management Plan of the Blue Swimming Crab in the Fisheries Management Areas of Indonesia’ is appropriately adapted for each province.
  • Work with MMAF to simplify and expedite the registration of the small-scale vessels (< 5 GT) so as to improve the government’s capacity to monitor the fishery and enforce regulations.
  • Engage with managers and scientists to develop higher resolution data collection and analysis programs, for the target species as well as retained and discarded by-catch species.

FIPS

  • Indonesia Maros blue swimming crab - trap:

    Stage 2

  • Indonesian blue swimming crab - gillnet/trap:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Java Sea Java Sea (WPP 712) Indonesia Bottom trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Strengths
  • APRI, as the association for the BSC processing and exporting companies in Indonesia, has been very assertive in the execution of comprehensive FIP (Fishery Improvement Project) to support sustainable BSC fishery in Indonesia;
  • APRI’s advocacy has resulted in several key advances in 2014 - 2016, such as scientific collaborations, and the stipulation of several regulations, including the Blue Swimming Crab Fishery Management Plan that prescribe the Road Map for sustainable management of BSC fishery;
  • The leadership of APRI and its advocacy has snowballed collaboration with other organizations, such as the USAID-IMACS that extend studies on BSC beyond the scope of the Java Sea (e.g., to south-east Sulawesi), and with a focus that expanded beyond scientific (e.g., control document training, online data collection and assessment platform)
  • As a consequence of the BSC assessment research, Spawning Potential Ratio (SPR) has been adopted by the National Commission for Stock Assessment in 2015 as a method to complement the currently used surplus production modelling technique;
  • As of 2015, results of BSC stock assessment surveys were accommodated into the official stock assessment estimations following evaluation by the National Commission for Stock Assessment.
Weaknesses
  • Catch data has been under-reported, while bycatch are not accounted for in official statistics;
  • The use of non-selective gear that generates serious bycatch still persist; while the landing of under-size crabs and berried crabs are also still common;
  • As most BSC fishers are small scale fishers that operate boats < 5GT, by law they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI) and fishing business licenses (SIUP), making it more difficult to monitor and control the fishery by system;
  • Fishers’ compliance to management regime is still low; lack of awareness on recently-decreed regulations seems to be an issue, among others.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 24 September 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press for and support full implementation of the Control Document adopted in July 2018 by APRI and the National Fisheries Institute Crab Council to ensure that the minimum legal size and the berried female harvest ban are being complied with by fishers and supported by processors and their supply chain, and that there is credible, third party audit of the Control Document implementation. Auditing must follow the standards and requirements developed by APRI.
  • Work with the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) to implement the December 2016 ‘Fisheries Management Plan of the Blue Swimming Crab in the Fisheries Management Areas of Indonesia’ to deliver a sustainable fishery (including healthy stocks and environment, increasing socio-economic and welfare benefits to fishers, fisher compliance with regulations, and increased participation of stakeholders and fishers in developing  responsible management).
  • Work with provincial and national managers to ensure the ‘Fisheries Management Plan of the Blue Swimming Crab in the Fisheries Management Areas of Indonesia’ is appropriately adapted for each province.
  • Work with MMAF to simplify and expedite the registration of the small-scale vessels (< 5 GT) so as to improve the government’s capacity to monitor the fishery and enforce regulations.
  • Engage with managers and scientists to develop higher resolution data collection and analysis programs, for the target species as well as retained and discarded by-catch species.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Stock assessments in Indonesia are carried out by government fisheries scientists affiliated with the Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan). Pusriskan is a new name of P4KSI per February 2017. Research outputs from Pusriskan and other best scientific evidence are then reviewed and synthesized by the National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), an independent entity under (and report to) the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP-RI) and whose members have expertise in fisheries resources and are drawn from various relevant organizations (KKP-RI 2016). A series of workshops, as a form of peer-review, inviting representatives from various backgrounds are also conducted. Upon review and synthesis, Komnas Kajiskan then make policy recommendations to the Minister (KKP-RI 2016). The Minister then stipulate, decree, and gazette a Ministerial Decree pertaining to the estimation of MSYs, TACs, and exploitation rates (Es) of fish stocks within Indonesia’s FMAs (KKP-RI 2016).

Stock assessments are carried out continuously, although it is not always every year. To date, other than the most recent one in 2016, that is yet to be decreed by the Minister (Indrajaya 2017),  there have been six official stock assessments recorded since the founding of Komnas Kajiskan in 1998: 1997, 2001, 2005, 2011, 2013, and 2015 (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 29 October 2017). However for BSC, stock assessment had only started in 2014 (Ernawati et al. 2017), when, due to buyers’ growing interest on sustainable procurement from healthy BSC stocks, the Indonesian Blue Swimming Crab Processors Association (APRI – Asosiasi Pengelolaan Rajungan Indonesia) started to work together with researchers from Pusriskan to conduct stock assessments. The first stock assessment for BSC was for the Java Sea (FMA 712).

The official stock assessment carried out for BSC use Surplus Production modeling technique to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), where collapsible trap (bubu) is used as the standard effort in the assessment (Indrajaya 2017). Total allowable catch (TAC) was determined at 80% of MSY, and there were no referral to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses (Indrajaya 2017). The stock is considered as one big unit of biomass in the FMA and no attempt is made to model on an age- or length-based.

Additionally, an analytical modeling (Spawning Potential Ratio, SPR) that use more refined data (e.g., carapace width, individual weight, sex, etc.) is carried out by Pusriskan scientists (Ernawati et al. 2017) and is used to inform the official assessment. The SPR technique ((Prince et al. 2015), (Hordyk et al. 2015)) is known as a versatile technique for data poor fisheries. In 2015, the SPR technique was adopted by Komnas Kajiskan as a method to measure stock and the health of fishery (Ernawati et al. 2017)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

The 2016 stock assessment (Indrajaya 2017), that is yet to be decreed, used the Schaefer Model (Schaefer 1954) provided the following advice for the BSC in the Java Sea (FMA 712):

Blue swimming crab

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT

(units)

E

fcurrent

(units)

Ccurrent

(tons)

Standard effort

FMA 712

23,508

18,806

80,442

0.65

51,934

27,857

Collapsible traps

         Note: E < 0.5    = moderately-exploited;   0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;    E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)

An independent assessment on the BSC in the Java Sea that used Fox Model (Fox 1970) estimated exploitation rates (E) that ranges from 0.72 – 0.82 ((Sumiono 2015)(P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014)). Using catch and effort data from 2001 – 2012, (Sumiono 2015) estimated the MSY at 17,250 tons, and fOPT is estimated at 79,365 units equivalent to collapsible traps.

Meanwhile, the length-based SPR analytical model assessment (Ernawati et al. 2017) had suggested the followings:

  1. A closed season for the fishery in the Java Sea between March-May and August-September to conserve brood stock;
  2. A minimum landing size of 106 mm CW as an appropriate pre-cautionary approach to maintain a spawning and breeding female population and therefore stock productivity;
  3. A minimum 120 mm CW is needed to assist the recovery of the BSC stock in the Java Sea so that the SPR would increase beyond 20% level (the biological limit reference point).
Reference Points

Last updated on 01 Dec 2017

Biological reference points are not officially available for the BSC in Indonesia. However, recent independent study using SPR analytical model by (Ernawati et al. 2017) had suggested SPR 20% as the Biological Limit Reference Point (sensu (Bunnell and Miller 2005)) and SPR 40% as the Biological Target Reference Point to ensure sustainability (sensu (Hordyk et al. 2015)). As SPR has only recently been adopted by Komnas Kajiskan as a method to measure stock and the health of fishery (Ernawati et al. 2017), the official assessment (Indrajaya 2017) has not yet assigned these SPR reference points for BSC.

Indonesia
Traps

Last updated on 1 December 2017

CURRENT STATUS
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Recent official stock assessment in 2016 suggests that the exploitation rate for BSC in the Java Sea (FMA 712) had reached fully-exploited state (E = 0.65) and that Ccurrent needs to be limited or reduced (Indrajaya 2017).

Similarly, an independent study ((P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014), (Sumiono 2015)) also indicated that the exploitation rate for BSC in the Java Sea had reached fully-exploited state, with higher estimated exploitation rates (0.72 – 0.82) for various sampling sites in the area.

Meanwhile, stock assessment results from the length-based SPR analytical model (Ernawati et al. 2017) estimated the SPR at 11% (±0.6%) , 15% (±0.8%), 15% (±0.4%), and 24% (±0.4%) for Cirebon site, Demak site, Rembang site, and Sumenep site, respectively. Average length-based SPR for the Java Sea is, thus, estimated at 15% (±0.2%) (Ernawati et al. 2017).

Those estimated SPR from the first three sites are well below 20%, which is the Biological Limit Reference Point, suggesting that reproductive potential and recruitment of the BSC stock in these areas have been impaired. Meanwhile, the SPR in Sumenep site is 24%, and while this is slightly above the Biological Limit Reference Point, but it is a long way to the Biological Target Reference Point that would ensure sustainability (i.e., 40%).

No account on discarding has been mentioned.

Trends

Last updated on 01 Dec 2017

As displayed on the graph of reported landings, officially reported landing of BSC in the Java Sea showed a slow increase from 1975 (117 tons) to 1979 (287 tons), followed by a steady increase, almost seven times, to 1990 (1,965 tons). From then on, the reported landing of BSC increased significantly; by 2015, the reported landing of BSC in the Java Sea was 37,764 tons. Data from FAO-FIGIS showed that in 2015 there was 47,220 tons of BSC landed from the whole of Indonesia. That means that in 2015 the Java Sea contributed about 80% of total landing of BSC in Indonesia. Anecdotal observation by industry specialists indicates that these estimates of landings are grossly underestimated.

Continued increase of BSC catch is attributable to its value for export and international market demand (KKP-RI 2016). Export of Indonesian BSC reached over 400 million USD in 2014 (for 28,091 tons of export), with a slight decline to over 300 million USD in 2015 (for 23,746 tons of export). The majority (30 – 49%) of Indonesian BSC (in terms of volume) goes to the USA, with its corresponding export values (USD) range from 53 – 73% of total export of BSC from 2012 to 2015 (KKP-RI 2016).

This continued significant increase in catches had taken toll to the viability of the stock. Recent studies on stock status of BSC indicated that declining mean size and overfishing have occurred in some places such as in the northern coast of Java, and eastern of Sumatra (P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014). The use of non-selective gear may have also affected the BSC stock, as they have substantial bycatch species (Sumiono 2015).

According to APRI, there are about 65,000 fishers and 13,000 pickers that are directly involved in the BSC fishery in Indonesia; additionally, thousands other people were involved as middlemen, operators in the mini-plants, and in the final packing facilities (KKP-RI 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

The first official assessment  advise for BSC was for 2015 (Suman et al. 2016), where MSY, TAC and fOPT for the Java Sea (FMA 712) were decreed (KKP-RI 2016) and officially set as follows:

Year

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT (units)

E

Standard effort

2015 (decreed)

22,637

18,110

86,867

1.05 *

Collapsible traps

2016 **

23,508

18,806

80,442

0.65

Collapsible traps

Note: E < 0.5    = moderately-exploited;   0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;   E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)

**) latest assessment, to be decreed and adopted (Indrajaya 2017)

Minimum landing size as suggested by (P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014)  and (Ernawati et al. 2017) has also been addressed in the Managers’ decisions (KKP-RI 2015) that limit landing size to 100 mm CW and elucidated further in another Ministerial Regulation that ban under-size BSC from being caught and exported (KKP-RI 2016). The use of certain non-selective and unsustainable fishing gear, such as bottom trawls, for catching BSC has also been banned throughout Indonesia (KKP-RI 2015).

However, despite the reduction of exploitation rate from 1.05 (over-exploited) in 2015 to 0.65 (fully-exploited) in 2016, trend of catch-per-unit-effort of BSC in the Java Sea is declining (Budiarto et al. 2015). There seems to be lack of relationships between these management decisions and the stock condition. In 2016, as a concerted effort led by DG Capture Fisheries of KKP-RI, the new Blue Swimming Crab Fishery Management Plan (Rencana Pengelolaan Perikanan, RPP) that provide the Road Map to sustainably manage BSC in Indonesia was finally approved and decreed (KKP-RI 2016). Although it is a milestone in itself in the context of BSC fishery management, there is still room for improvement. For example, the Plan still lacks the explicit acknowledgement on the decreed minimum landing size (> 100 mm CW), as well any referrals to scientific suggestion on seasonal closures or protection of the brood stocks (Ernawati et al. 2017); although it provides directions to reduce bycatch and ETP species caught.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 01 Dec 2017

The Blue Swimming Crab Fishery Management Plan (RPP) presented a Road Map to restore the declining state of the BSC stock, and consequently the fishery. The RPP, which use ecosystem approach to fisheries management, has three objectives:

  1. To achieve sustainable management of BSC fishery and its habitat;
  2. To sustainably increase the economic benefit of BSC fishery for the prosperity of the BSC fishery business actors/appropriators, particularly the BSC fishers; and
  3. To increase the active participation and compliance of stakeholders in achieving responsible BSC fishery management.

Management targets, indicators, reference points, and activities were planned. Management targets were devised to be specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, and time-bound. Thirteen targets (under three objectives) with arrays of action plans to be implemented from 2016 – 2020 were drafted (KKP-RI 2016) and they are as follows:

  1. Improved status and sustainability of the BSC stock in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 in 4 years;
  2. 70% of all BSC landed should have the minimum size and conditions that comply with relevant regulations in 3 years;
  3. Improving habitat condition for BSC in FMA 712 (Java Sea) to ‘fair’ condition in 5 years;
  4. 50% of BSC fishers correctly report their BSC catches in FMA 571, FMA 711, FNA 712, and FMA 713 in 4 years;
  5. 90% of BSC processors correctly report their processed products in 4 years;
  6. The availability of more complete scientific information related to stock status, distribution, and life cycle of BSC in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 in 4 years;
  7. Better mechanism of monitoring and better control of BSC product in accordance with the prevalent standards and regulations in 4 years;
  8. Better facilitation to access business capital that would support the BSC fishers in several centers of BSC fishery in FMA 712 and FMA 713 in 3 years;
  9. 60% of all fishing gears used to target BSC in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 are considered as environmentally-friendly fishing gear in 2 years;
  10. 50% of fishers, mini plant operators, and other stakeholders in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 know about the importance of sustainable BSC for the sustainability of their business in 3 years;
  11. 25% of fishers in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 implement sustainable BSC fishery in 4 years;
  12. Compliance to laws and regulations on BSC fishery improved by 50% in FMA 571, FMA 711, FMA 712, and FMA 713 in 4 years;
  13. Improved participation of BSC fishers by 50% in various decision making meetings.

The time frame for the RPP is 5 years and review will take place thereafter, and for every 5 years.

COMPLIANCE
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Although compliance assessment has not been conducted, the BSC RPP acknowledged that under-sized BSC and berried BSC are still being landed throughout Indonesia, catch under-reporting and over-fishing remains an issue, and bycatch still exists, in addition to the continued use of non-selective and unsustainable fishing gear (KKP-RI 2016). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the number of fishing gear as the limit. It is not clear how these advices would be heeded by the fishers and controlled by the management body, since traps are considered as small scale fishing gear and are operated mainly using boats <5 GT. According to the Fisheries Act No.45/2009 (PEMRI 2009), small scale fishing households operating with boats less than 5 GT (or without boats) are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI, Surat Izin Penangkapan Ikan) and fishing business licences (SIUP, Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan(PEMRI 2009). Without these official documents, it is difficult to control and track.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

ETP species are caught only rarely as the bycatch of BSC (Budiarto 2015), particularly with the non-selective gear, such as the mini bottom trawl (Sumiono 2015). If they are caught, these would include some shark species, turtles, or dolphins (KKP-RI 2016), which are all protected by national law (PEMRI 1999).

Although no target and/or limit reference points have been adopted by management authorities for ETP species, management decisions have addressed the issue of ETP species caught and have provided directions by banning the use of such non-selective fishing gear ((KKP-RI 2015)(KKP-RI 2016)).

Other Species
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Of the three main fishing gear used, the collapsible traps is the most selective (Ernawati et al. 2017) with selectivity rate at around 70.25% (KKP-RI 2016). The mini bottom trawls and bottom gill net are known to have bycatch, with the trawls being the worst in terms of proportion of bycatch caught (Sumiono 2015)(Sumiono 2015)  found that the bycatch ratio (BSC : bycatch) are 1 : 70.2 (for mini bottom trawls) and 1 : 2.47 (for bottom gill net). Meanwhile, in another estimation, it was found as 1 : 5.8 for mini bottom trawls in Cirebon waters (P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014).

For example, bycatch species caught by mini bottom trawls in Cirebon waters (northern coast of Java) include (Sumiono 2015): demersal fish, 30% (Leiognathus splendens, Secutor ruconius,  Gazza minuta, Johnius sp., Pampus argenteus, Sillago sihama), pelagic fish, 28%  (Anadontostoma  chacunda, Alepes djedaba, Sphyraena  jello), Shrimps, 5% (Metapenaeus ensis, Trachypenaeus asper, M. dobsoni), Squids, 5% (Loligo edulis, L. davaucheli), Holothuroidea, 8%, Crabs, 17% (BSC, 2%, Charybdis cruciata, 6.7%, and C. ferriatus, 90%) and others.

As for bottom gill net, aside for the caught BSC (28%), the bycatch species found in the Cirebon waters include: Charybdis feriatus, C. affinis, Polydactylus plebeyus (3%), Polydactylus sp., Pampus chinensis, P. argenteus, Johnius johnii (26%), Atrobucca nibe (2%), Hilsa toli (10%), Thryssa hamiltonii, Platycephalidae, Harpiosquilla harpax, Synodus sp., Rastrelliger brachysoma, R. kanagurta, Lactarius lactarius, Decapterus ruselli, Leiognathus splendens, Arius thalassinus, Littorinidae, Naticidae, Muricidae, Strombidae (7%), Geryonidae, Ocypopidae, and Limulus polyphemus (5%).

Study on the fishing mortality of these BSC bycatch species does not exists yet. Measure to ban the use of bottom trawl is in place (KKP-RI 2015); however, the compliance is relatively poor. The use of collapsible traps as the sole fishing gear to catch BSC in Indonesia is planned in the Management Plan Road Map (KKP-RI 2016).

HABITAT
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

Indonesian BSC is mostly caught with collapsible crab traps and to a lesser extent by bottom gillnets and mini bottom trawls. The impacts of BSC fishing with these fishing gears in the Java Sea have been studied ((P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014), (Sumiono 2015)), and a more structured survey on non-target species in the Java Sea using the Marine Stewardship Council’s (MSC) Risk Based Framework (RBF) for data limited fisheries is also underway (NFI-Crab Council 2017). However these studies were focusing mainly on bycatch species and less on the habitat per se. Despite the lack of focus on habitat, it is considered that the impact of collapsible traps and bottom gill nets on the habitat to be minimal. On the other hand, mini bottom trawls is considered as detrimental to the habitat, given its nature in dredging the ocean floor when operated ((P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014), (Sumiono 2015)), and therefore, it is one of the types of fishing gear banned (KKP-RI 2015).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 01 Dec 2017

The Marine Protected Area Database (http://kkji.kp3k.kkp.go.id/index.php/en/marine-protected-area-data) recorded ten (10) marine protected areas located in the Java Sea; however, none of these MPAs have any specific plans to protect the habitat and spawning ground of BSC per se.

No.

Name

MPA type

Areal extent

IUCN Category

1.

District-based MPA Biawak Island, West Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

720 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

2.

District-based MPA Pantai Ujungnegoro - Roban (Batang), Central Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

4,015.20 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

3.

District-based MPA Karang Jeruk, Tegal, Central Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

53,460 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

4.

District-based MPA Kepulauan Sepanjang (Sumenep), Madura, East Java

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

118,406.20 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

5.

District-based MPA Pasir Putih Kabupaten Situbondo, East Java 

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

195.20 ha

6.

Marine National Park (MOF) Karimun Jawa, Central Java

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

110,117.30 ha

II (National Park)

7.

Marine National Park (MOF) Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta 

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

107,489.00 ha

II (National Park)

8.

Marine Wildlife Reserve Pulau Rambut dan Perairan, DKI Jakarta

Marine Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa Laut)

90 ha

IV (Habitat/ Species Management Area)

 

9.

District-based MPA Kotabaru, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,099 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

10.

District-based MPA Kab. Tanah Bumbu, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

12,860.14 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

 

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 15 December 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There are management objectives set for the BSC stock in the BSC Fishery Management Plan (KKP-RI 2016a), however, there seems to be lack of relationships between these management decisions and the stock condition.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Official Stock Assessment dictated that fishing effort for BSC is controlled through the number of collapsible traps. Scientific advice for minimal landing size and the banning of mini bottom trawls have also been accommodated. However, advice for seasonal closures has not.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Assessment report (Indrajaya, 2017) highlighted that under-reported catch is a problem. The BSC Fishery Management Plan (KKP-RI 2016a) also been highlighted that fishers' compliance to reporting their vessels and catches has been poor.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

The stock has been designated as 'overfished' in several scientific studies (e.g., Sumiono 2015; Ernawati et al., 2017) and has been designated as such in official stock assessments (KKP-RI 2016b; Indrajaya 2017); trend of CPUE of BSC in the Java Sea is declining (Budiarto et al., 2015).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Recent stock assessment (Indrajaya 2017) pointed out that the state of BSC in the Java Sea is ‘fully-exploited’ and had suggested a reduction of fishing effort (expressed as numbers of collapsible trap units).

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Click on the score to see subscore

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Bycatch Subscores

Substantial reliable information stemming from structured in-depth research survey in the Java Sea on non-target species is available (NFI-Crab Council 2017). The survey is using the Marine Stewardship Council’s (MSC) Risk Based Framework (RBF) for data limited fisheries.

ETP species are caught only rarely as the bycatch of BSC (Budiarto 2015), particularly with the non-selective gear, such as the mini bottom trawl (Sumiono 2015). If they are caught, these would include some shark species, turtles, or dolphins (KKP-RI 2016), which are all protected by national law (PEMRI 1999).

Bycatch is mainly caught by mini bottom trawl (1 : 70.2), which is now banned (KKP-RI 2015), and by bottom gill net (1 : 2.47) (Sumiono 2015). Collapsible trap is more selective (70.25%, (KKP-RI 2016)).

Bycatch species caught include demersal fish (e.g., Leiognathus splendens, Pampus argenteus, Sillago sihama), pelagic fish (e.g., Anadontostoma chacunda, Alepes djedaba, Sphyraena jello, Rastrelliger brachysoma), shrimps, sea cucumbers, squids, and other crabs and invertebrates.

Measure to ban the use of bottom trawl is in place (KKP-RI 2015); however, the compliance is relatively poor. The use of collapsible traps as the sole fishing gear to catch BSC in Indonesia is planned in the Management Plan Road Map (KKP-RI 2016).

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Habitat Subscores

Reliable studies on the impacts of fishing gear used to catch BSC in the Java Sea are available ((P4KSI Balitbang KP and APRI 2014)(Sumiono 2015)(NFI-Crab Council 2017)); however they are focusing on the bycatch rather than on the habitat per se, and they are not part of a monitoring program. Despite the lack of focus on habitat, it is considered that the impact of collapsible traps and bottom gill nets on the habitat to be minimal. On the other hand, mini bottom trawls is considered as detrimental to the habitat, given its nature in dredging the ocean floor when operated.

Reliable information on priority habitats relevant to BSC and their status is not available.

Measures that ban unsustainable gear (e.g., mini bottom trawl) exist (KKP-RI 2015), but compliance is considered poor. A management strategy (KKP-RI 2016) is in place to protect priority habitats from BSC fishing impacts using unsustainable fishing gear and thus, to promote the recovery of degraded habitats. However, this management strategy has just been recently implemented (< 1 year) and we have yet to see the results and efficacies.

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Ecosystem Subscores

There is no reliable information to allow for assessment of the impacts of the BSC fishery on ecosystem structure and processes. Existing ecosystem, trophodynamic model (Buchary 1999), while included BSC as part of a model component, it focused on another fishery (trawl) and is now out of date.

Reliable information on the state of the Java Sea ecosystem and its biota resulting from comprehensive trawl and acoustic research surveys exist, although they are more than 40 years old (Pauly and Martosubroto 1996). In-depth ecosystem dynamic research of the Java Sea ecosystem (using the Ecopath with Ecosim trophodynamic modeling technique) also exist (Buchary 1999), but this is more than 15 years old. These two studies, while comprehensive and allow for the characterization of the Java Sea ecosystem and the definition of the ecosystem reference state, they are quite old, opportunistic, and are not part of a monitoring system designed for the BSC fishery per se.

Measures that ban unsustainable gear (e.g., mini bottom trawl) exist (KKP-RI 2015), but compliance is considered poor. A management strategy (KKP-RI 2016) is in place to protect Java Sea ecosystem from BSC fishery impacts using unsustainable fishing gear and from being non-compliant to certain sustainable fishing conditions. However, this management strategy has just been recently implemented (< 1 year) and we have yet to see the results and efficacies.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
Java Sea (WPP 712)

Last updated on 1 December 2017

  1. Lack of quantitative data needed for the FishSource scoring prevented the calculation of quantitative scores, so qualitative scores were assigned, instead. Information on target reference points, limit reference points, precautionary reference points, and removal rate at low biomass do not exist.
  2. Official stock assessment outputs are only MSY, TAC and fOPT  per FMA  (Indrajaya 2017)
  3. BSC has only been considered for official stock assessment since 2015 and to date there are only two assessments for BSC (i.e., 2015 and 2016)
  4. Official reported landings, which is official government data and reported to UN-FAO, has no reference to discards or bycatch.
  5. Socio-economic scores evaluation (draft) for Indonesia blue swimming crab

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Evaluation Start Date: 1 Nov 2017
Type: Basic
1.
FIP Development
Nov 17
2.
FIP Launch
Dec 17
Nov 17
3.
FIP Implementation
FIP activities undertaken
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

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