Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Lutjanus campechanus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Northern red snapper

COMMON NAMES

Northern red snapper, Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper

Although there may not be significant genetic variation between red snapper in the northern Gulf of Mexico and southern Gulf of Mexico, it is thought they are unlikely to be part of the same population (Gold & Richardson, 1998; SEDAR, 2013). In the northern Gulf the species is assessed as two units: east and west of the Mississippi river, based on genetic, otolith and oceanographic results that suggest the existence of a metapopulation (SEDAR, 2013). However, management measures including: reference points, quotas, and indications of stock health, are for both sub-units combined. The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council has been strongly considering regional management of the species. The profile may be split into separate units when the new benchmark assessment is completed. Until that occurs, this profile represents the Northern Gulf of Mexico Management assessment unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Red snapper has been the subject of multiple stock assessments since 1990. A new benchmark assessment was completed in 2013 and indicated that the stock is still overfished, but is not experiencing overfishing and is rebuilding. The spawning stock biomass has been increasing since early 2000’s. A commercial ITQ program for red snapper was implemented in 2007 and involves stringent reporting and enforcement oversight. Since 2005, the commercial red snapper quota has not been exceeded. Shrimp fishing effort has declined substantially which has positive impact on juvenile survival. To avoid exceed the recreational quota, the Council implemented an annual catch target (ACT) set 20% below the recreational quota.

Weaknesses

Uncertainty is high in some stock assessments, and many retained species in the reef fish complex have never been assessed. Scientists and managers do not have adequate information on bycatch and discards, which is needed to estimate total mortality for use in stock assessments. Observer coverage is only 1% in the vertical line fishery and limited due to funding constraints. In addition, accuracy of data generated from discard logbooks has been questioned.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

7.4

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

3.6

Future Health:

9.4


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Improve and increase discard data collection.
2. Increase number and frequency of stock assessments on incidentally harvested species (species that are retained but are not the primary targets of this fishery).

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage producers and wholesalers to initiate or participate in an existing fishery improvement project focusing on increasing monitoring of discards (electronic/video monitoring, observer coverage, more user friendly self-reporting methods etc.)
2. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s Gulf of Mexico Snapper Grouper Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/snapper-and-grouper).


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Gulf of Mexico US Gulf of Mexico United States Handlines hand operated
Longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 29 July 2015

Strengths

Red snapper has been the subject of multiple stock assessments since 1990. A new benchmark assessment was completed in 2013 and indicated that the stock is still overfished, but is not experiencing overfishing and is rebuilding. The spawning stock biomass has been increasing since early 2000’s. A commercial ITQ program for red snapper was implemented in 2007 and involves stringent reporting and enforcement oversight. Since 2005, the commercial red snapper quota has not been exceeded. Shrimp fishing effort has declined substantially which has positive impact on juvenile survival. To avoid exceed the recreational quota, the Council implemented an annual catch target (ACT) set 20% below the recreational quota.

Weaknesses

Uncertainty is high in some stock assessments, and many retained species in the reef fish complex have never been assessed. Scientists and managers do not have adequate information on bycatch and discards, which is needed to estimate total mortality for use in stock assessments. Observer coverage is only 1% in the vertical line fishery and limited due to funding constraints. In addition, accuracy of data generated from discard logbooks has been questioned.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 26 October 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Improve and increase discard data collection.
2. Increase number and frequency of stock assessments on incidentally harvested species (species that are retained but are not the primary targets of this fishery).

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage producers and wholesalers to initiate or participate in an existing fishery improvement project focusing on increasing monitoring of discards (electronic/video monitoring, observer coverage, more user friendly self-reporting methods etc.)
2. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s Gulf of Mexico Snapper Grouper Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/snapper-and-grouper).

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 3 June 2015

Red snapper has been the subject of multiple stock assessments since 1990. The latest benchmark assessment was completed in 2013 (SEDAR, 2013). The stock assessment scientists were not able to complete their work in advance of the peer review workshop. The review workshop did convene and peer reviewers worked with the assessment scientists to improve and complete the assessment.But because the peer reviewers did not have time to review the final reports, they were unable to officially accept the final results (SEDAR, 2013). As a result, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council’s Scientific and Statistical Committee convened in May 2013 and conducted the peer review, accepting the 2013 red snapper stock assessment (SSC, 2013).

A red snapper update assessment was conducted by the Southeast Fishery Science Center (SEFSC) in 2014 and presented to the Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) in January 2015. This update assessment was based on the SEDAR 31 benchmark in 2012 and 2013. In general, 2014 Update and SEDAR 31 model results are quite similar (Cass-Calay et al., 2015). Main differences are: a new selectivity timeblock (2011-2013) was added in the model for all recreational fleets to accommodate recent changes in fishing patterns since recreational fishermen appear to be selecting for larger and older fish in recent years and, the Marine Recreational Information Program (MRIP) implemented new data collection methods since 2013 (MRIP recalibration) (GMFMC, 2015a; Cass-Calay et al., 2015).

At Council request, four proxies for FMSY were considered during projections (FSPR26%, FSPR24%, FSPR22% and FMAX (~ FSPR20%) (GMFMC, 2015b). Average recent recruitment levels were assumed. The projections for rebuilding yields show a decline to equilibrium levels over time as a result of strong year classes exiting the fishery combined with recent poor recruitment in the eastern Gulf (GMFMC, 2015b). NMFS will explore the possible impacts in the rebuilding plan in changing the FMSY proxy (GMFMC, 2015b).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 12 June 2015

During the May 2013 stock assessment peer review, the SSC selected the base model run for status determination, recommended that the proxy for Gulf of Mexico red snapper BMSY continue to be set at BSPR26%, and set the Overfishing Level (OFL) and Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for the next three years. The original SSC recommendations for red snapper OFL and ABC were based on projections that assumed harvest in 2014 would be the same as in 2013. However, provisional landings estimates for 2014 indicated that the recreational 2014 landings were less than in 2013 (GMFMC, 2015a). The Council asked the SSC to re-evaluate its ABC recommendations in light of this new information. Revised OFL and ABC yields were produced:

2015: OFL = 7,316 mt (16.13 mp) and ABC = 6,486 mt (14.13 mp)
2016: OFL = 6,949 mt (15.32 mp) and ABC = 6,322 mt (13.96 mp)
2017: OFL = 6,713 mt (14.80 mp) and ABC = 6,232 mt (13.74 mp)

Tree quota alternatives were presented for the period 2015-2017 in the Framework Action to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (GMFMC, 2015a). All alternatives are expected to allow the stock to recover by 2032, resulting in positive effects and maintaining consistency with the rebuilding plan. Alternative 1 maintains the total quota at 4,990 mt (11 mp) as defined at in the July 2013 Framework. Alternative 2 would set the annual total quota at the ABC for each year. This would result in a decreasing quota from 2015 (13.92 mp) to 2017 (13.66 mp). Alternative 3 would set the annual total quota at a fixed catch level equal to the smallest ABC (13.66 mp) for 2015 to 2017 (GMFMC, 2015a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 26 July 2013

Current reference points are based around a Spawning Potential Ratio (SPR) of 26%, which is low for a long lived species.Biomass reference points are based on projections assuming this SPR.Using current stock status, rebuilding goals are set.There is little significant difference between limit and threshold biomass reference points.

Based on the results of the 2013 stock assessment, the SSC set new reference points for the red snapper fishery. Biomass reference points were measured in number of eggs and fishing mortality was measured as instantaneous F (SSC, 2013).

Minimum stock size threshold (MSST): 1,110 billion eggs
Spawning stock biomass at maximum sustainable yield (SSBMSY): 1,220 billion eggs
Fishing mortality at maximum sustainable yield (FMSY, also the maximum fishing mortality threshold, or MFMT): 0.078

Current Status

Last updated on 3 June 2015

The red snapper stock had been severely overfished and undergoing overfishing since the late 1980s. The assessment indicated that red snapper is still overfished, but is no longer undergoing overfishing. The population is recovering (now at 54% of the target population size, up from less than 5% at the start of the rebuilding plan) and is on track to meet the rebuilding deadline in 2032 (SSC, 2013).

The 2013 Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimate was about 661 billion eggs, below the Minimum stock size threshold (MSST), 1,110 billion eggs (SSBcurrent/MSST =0.59).
For 2013, fishing mortality estimate, F=0.05, was below the recommended target, FMSY=0.078 (Fcurrent /FMSY: 0.65). Catches in 2014 (4,290 mt) reduced about 27% in comparison with the previous year (GMFMC, 2015b; Cass-Calay et al., 2015).

Trends

Last updated on 3 June 2015

The stock is rebuilding. However, projections assume future recruitment at the mean recruitment between 1984-2011, and continued sustainable levels of fishing mortality in the directed fishery (assuming quotas will not be exceeded, which has not been the case in the recreational fishery) and non-directed fishery (shrimp bycatch). Shrimp fishing effort has declined substantially which has positive impact on juvenile red snapper survival.

The projections show a peak in 2013 followed by decreases through 2017, after which population size increases resume. This trend is due to a few strong year-classes moving through the fishery, which are supporting the current increase in stock abundance, as well as below average recruitment in 2010 and 2011, which will begin to appear in the fished population in 2014 (SSC, 2013).

All management alternatives are expected to allow the stock to recover by 2032 (GMFMC, 2015a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions

Last updated on 3 June 2015

A red snapper IFQ program was initiated for the commercial sector in 2006. The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC) also established regulations to address the red snapper bycatch by the shrimp trawl fishery. The GMFMC approved a regulatory amendment that increased the red snapper stock annual catch limit (ACL) for 2012 and 2013 to 3,664 mt (8.080 mp) and 3,941 mt (8.690 mp) respectively. NOAA Fisheries (NMFS) set the 2013 red snapper ACL at the 2012 levels through a temporary rule on December 21, 2012 (NOAA, 2012). The ABC for 2012 was found to be exceeded due to recreational fishery overharvest (although not to the extent that exceeded the overfishing level), thus the allocation set in the previous final rule (May 30, 2012) was superseded.After the recreational overage was fully accounted for, the 2013 ACL was set at 3,837 mt (8.46 mp) (GMFMC, 2013a). In July, 2013 after the 2013 stock assessment was completed and the SSC recommended OFLs and ABCs, the Gulf Council increased the 2013 ACL to 4,990 mt (11 mp) (GMFMC, 2013b).

For 2015, the red snapper allowable catch is increasing from 4,990 mt (11 mp) whole weight to 6,490 mt (14.3 mp). The commercial and recreational sector quotas will be based on the current 51% commercial and 49% recreational allocation: the commercial quota will increase to 3,307 mt (7.29 mp) and the recreational quota will increase to 3,180 mt (7.01 mp) (NOAA, 2015). The total quota for 2015 was set at the recommended level.

To ensure the recreational sector does not exceed its quota, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council recently established a recreational catch target(ACL) that is less than the recreational quota by 20%. NOAA Fisheries also established a federally permitted charter vessel/headboat (for-hire) component and a private angling component within the recreational sector, allocated the red snapper recreational quota and annual catch target between the components, and established separate seasonal closure provisions for the two components. The federal-water red snapper bag limit is 2 fish with a 16-inch minimum total length size limit (NOAA, 2015).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 3 June 2015

The red snapper rebuilding plan established in 1990 had been revised several times in response to new data and assessments that have provided a better understanding of stock biomass and influencing factors, including shrimp trawl bycatch mortality. The current version of the rebuilding plan was put in place through the joint Amendment 27 to the Reef Fish FMP and Amendment 14 to the Shrimp FMP and has a deadline of 2032 (GMFMC, 2007). Actions in the rebuilding plan included: 1) maintain a constant TAC between 2008 and 2010 2) after 2010, TAC would correspond to the level of catch associated with fishing at a rate that produces MSY (proxy = 26 percent SPR); 3) management measures to achieve the recreational quota would be a two-fish bag limit, 16-inch minimum size limit and a recreational fishing season based upon projections of how quickly the recreational quota will be harvested and 4) review and adjust the rebuilding plan and directed fishery management measures based on periodic stock assessments (GMFMC, 2007).

In addition to the directed fishery mortality, juvenile red snapper are taken as bycatch in shrimp trawls, primarily in the western Gulf of Mexico at depths of 10-30 fathoms.A substantial component of the rebuilding plan is a reduction in shrimp fishery bycatch mortality.The currently used bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) are not capable of the reductions needed, thus the rebuilding plan also incorporated a 74% reduction in shrimp fishery effort (compared to the 2001-2003 baseline) during 2008-2010, which was then relaxed to a 67% reduction in 2011 and then 60% by the 2032 rebuilding deadline (i.e. some increases in shrimp effort are permitted as the red snapper population rebuilds). NOAA Fisheries is responsible for monitoring the shrimp fishery effort.If the effort exceeds the reduction targets, seasonal area closures will go into effect to limit effort.Due to economic conditions and hurricane damage, the shrimp fishery had already experienced a 65% reduction in effort (compared to the baseline) by 2006, surpassing the long-term deadlines (GMFMC, 2007).

The 2013 stock assessment enabled scientists and managers to verify that recovery is occurring and increase catch limits (helping to economically stabilize the fisheries) without compromising the likelihood of meeting the rebuilding deadline (SSC, 2013; GMFMC, 2015a).

Compliance

Last updated on 3 June 2015

Historically, compliance in the fishery has been low, as quotas were routinely exceeded.However, the commercial fishery is currently prosecuted through an ITQ program, which has led to nearly perfect compliance since its inception in 2007. Total catch in 2014 was below the total quota.

The recreational fishery continues to exceed its sector allocation. The recreational sector has been experiencing short red snapper fishing seasons even though the quota has been increasing. However, new regulations were introduced in 2015 to improve this situation (see Managers’ Decisions section).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 6 February 2013

The bottom longline component of the fishery was found to impact sea turtles through incidental takes.In response, the GMFMC implemented Amendment 31 to the Reef Fish FMP which included an extensive list of provisions for the longline fishery (gear restrictions, area closures, and permit endorsements).The most recent biological opinion for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery was completed on October 13, 2009.It concluded that this fishery is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of sea turtles, smalltooth sawfish, other listed species, or their designated critical habitat.The incidental take specified in that opinion has not been exceeded (GMFMC, 2011b).

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 3 June 2015

Current regulations require selected commercial and recreational for-hire participants in the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery to maintain and submit a fishing record on forms provided by NOAA Fisheries. Harrington et al. (2005) suggested that discards from commercial red snapper fishery reached 29.2 mt, 30.4 mt, and 16.2 mt in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively.Additionally, Harrington et al. (2005) estimated that the discards from recreational sector are much higher than from the commercial sector.

Scientists and managers do not have adequate information on bycatch and discards in the commercial reef fish fishery. This information is necessary to estimate total mortality for use in stock assessments. Observer coverage is only 1% and limited due to funding constraints. In addition, data generated from mandatory discard logbooks (20% of fleet selected annually) may be inaccurate. A number of fishermen submit reports of “no discards” almost exclusively, which is highly unlikely in such a multispecies fishery and where size and harvest limits necessitate regulatory discards (NMFS 2011).

Results of the study undertaken by Cullis-Suzuki et al. (2012) suggest that for the fishermen thatparticipate in the IFQ program, snapper discarding has decreased since program was implemented while for fishermen not involved in the program discarding has likely since increased.Size limits and no quota is the main reason for discards (Cullis-Suzuki et al.,2012).

Habitat

Last updated on 3 June 2015

The fishery does not directly impact Gulf of Mexico red snapper habitat.

The primary gear used in commercial and recreational fishing for red snapper is vertical line. There are just a few commercial landings from bottom longlines (GNFMC, 2015a) This gear is not expected to impact strongly the habitat but the cumulative impact could increase the potential impact (GMFMC, 2015a).

As result of extended closed seasons, fishermen may be changing targeting species. Species likely to be affected by changes in red snapper abundance include vermilion snapper, gray triggerfish, and gag, which all co-occur with red snapper (GMFMC, 2015a).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 3 June 2015

There are a number of established areas in the Gulf of Mexico created by the GMFMC specifically for the management and protection of marine species. These in turn protect red snapper.They are:Longline/Buoy Gear Area Closure; Madison/Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserves; The Edges; Tortugas North and South Marine Reserves; Individual reef areas and bank HAPCs of the northwestern Gulf – East and West Flower Garden Banks, Stetson Bank, Sonnier Bank, MacNeil Bank, 29 Fathom, Rankin Bright Bank, Geyer Bank, McGrail Bank, Bouma Bank, Rezak Sidner Bank, Alderice Bank, and Jakkula Bank; Florida Middle Grounds HAPC; and Pulley Ridge HAPC (GMFMC, 2011b).

In 2014, NMFS published a final rule (79 FR 39855) that designated 38 occupied marine areas within the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico as critical habitat for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean loggerhead sea turtle Distinct Population Segment and a final rule to list 22 coral species under the ESA (79 FR 53851). Five of the 22 species occur in the Gulf region (GMFMC, 2015).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.0506 . The F management target is 0.0780 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 64.8%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the ABC.

The Set TAC is 6.49 ('000 t). The ABC is 6.49 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/ABC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2014 data.

This measures the Landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Landings is 4.29 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 4.99 ('000 t) .

The underlying Landings/Set TAC for this index is 86.0%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

This measures the Fecundity as a percentage of the Fecundity limit.

The Fecundity is 661 (M eggs). The Fecundity limit is 1110 (M eggs) .

The underlying Fecundity/Fecundity limit for this index is 59.6%.

As calculated for 2013 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.0506 . The F management target is 0.0780 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 64.8%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for recruitment
Data notes

1) Fishing mortality is instantaneous mortality 2) Biomass criteria are reported in billions of eggs, NOT thousand metric tonnes. 3) Advised TAC, Set TAC, and Catch are in whole weight (thousand metric tonnes), and include both recreational and commercial sectors. 4) Allowable Biological Catch (ABC) is used a proxy for Advised TAC. 5) Red snapper assessment was benchmarked in 2013 and a update was undertaken in 2014 (GMFMC, 2015a,b,c).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Cass-Calay, S.L., Porch, C.E., Walter, J.F., Tetzlaff, J., 2015. 2014 Update Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Meeting. January 26, 2015http://www.gulfcouncil.org/council_meetings/Briefing%20Materials/BB-01-2015/B%20-%2014%20Red%20Snapper%202014%20Update%20Presentation.pdf
  2. Cullis-Suzuki, S., McAllister, M., Baker, P., Carruthers, T., Tate, T.J., 2012. Red snapper discards in the Gulf of Mexico: Fishermen’s perceptions following the implementation of Individual Fishing Quotas. Marine Policy 36: 583–591. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.10.003https://sarikacsuzuki.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/cullis-suzuki_etal_2012.pdf
  3. Gazey, W.J., B.J. Gallaway, J.G. Cole, and D.D. Fournier. 2008. Age composition, growth and density-dependent mortality in juvenile red snapper estimated from observer data from the Gulf of Mexico Penaeid shrimp fishery. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 28: 1828-1842.http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/SEDAR31-RD05%20Gazey%202008%20.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  4. GMFMC. 2006. Final Amendment 26 to the Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery Management Plan to Establish a Red Snapper Individual Fishing Quota Program. March 2006. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 298 pp.http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Amend26031606FINAL.pdf
  5. GMFMC. 2007. Final Amendment 27 to the reef fish fishery management plan and amendment 14 to the shrimp fishery management plan including supplemental environmental impact statement, regulatory impact review, and regulatory flexibility act analysis. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. Tampa, Florida. 480pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20RF%20Amend%2027-%20Shrimp%20Amend%2014.pdf
  6. GMFMC. 2009. Final Amendment 31 to the Fishery Management Plan for Reef Fish Resources in the Gulf of Mexico. June 2009. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 267 pp.http://gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Draft%20RF%20Amend%2031%206-11-09.pdf
  7. GMFMC. 2011a. Final generic annual catch limits/accountability measures amendment for the Gulf of Mexico fishery management council’s red drum, reef fish, shrimp, coral and coral reefs fishery management plans, including environmental impact statement, regulatory impact review, regulatory flexibility analysis, and fishery impact statement. September 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. Tampa, Florida. 362 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20Generic%20ACL_AM_Amendment-September%209%202011%20v.pdf
  8. GMFMC. 2011b. Final Reef Fish Amendment 32: Gag Grouper– Rebuilding Plan, Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures; Red Grouper– Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures Grouper Accountability Measures. October 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 406 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20RF32_EIS_October_21_2011%5B2%5D.pdf
  9. GMFMC. 2012. Final Regulatory Amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico: Revise Fall Recreational Fixed Closed Season and Set 2012 and 2013 Quotas for Red Snapper. March 2012. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 68 pp.http://gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Red%20Snapper%20Fall%20Season%20and%20Quota%20RegAmend%20-%2003-20-2012.pdf
  10. GMFMC. 2013a. Framework Action to Set the 2013 Red Snapper Commercial and Recreational Quotas and Modify the Recreational Bag Limit. March 2013. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 81 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Red%20Snapper%20Framework%20Action%20to%20Set%202013%20Quotas.pdf
  11. GMFMC. 2013b. Gulf Council Adjusts 2013 Red Snapper Quota and Sets Fall Recreational Red Snapper Season. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council press release. 17 July, 2013. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/news_resources/Press%20Releases/2013%20RS%20Quota%20&%20Fall%20Rec%20Season.pdf
  12. GMFMC, 2015a. Red Snapper Quotas for 2015-2017+. Framework Action to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico including Draft Environmental Assessment, Regulatory Impact Review, and Regulatory Flexibility Act Analysis. Tab A, No. 3. March 2015.Red_Snapper_Framework_Action_Set_2015-2017_Quotas_03-15_rev_1__GMFMC2015a.pdf
  13. GMFMC, 2015b. Standing, Special Reef Fish and Special Mackerel SSC. Tab B, No. 4. Meeting Summary, Tampa, Florida. January 6-8, 2015http://gulfcouncil.org/council_meetings/Briefing%20Materials/BB-01-2015/B%20-4%20SSC%20Summary.pdf
  14. Gold, JR & LR Richardson, 1998. Mitochondrial DNA Diversification and Population Structure in Fishes From the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic. The Journal of Heredity 89 (5).http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/content/89/5/404.full.pdf+html
  15. GSAFF. 2012. Continuation of a Project to Augment the Data Collection of an Electronic Logbook System used within the Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Fishery. November 2012. Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Foundation, Inc. Tampa, FL. 68 pp.http://www.gulfsouthfoundation.org/uploads/109_final.pdf
  16. J. M. Harrington, R. A. Myers, A. A. Rosenberg. 2005. Wasted Resources: Bycatch and discards in U. S. Fisheries. Prepared MRAG Americas, Inc. by For Oceana. July 2005. http://www.oceana.org/fileadmin/oceana/uploads/Big_Fish_Report/PDF_Bycatch_July28.pdf
  17. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2011. U.S. National Bycatch Report [W. A. Karp, L. L. Desfosse, S. G. Brooke, Editors]. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-117C, 508 p.http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/BREP2011/2011_National_Bycatch_Report.pdf
  18. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2012. Gulf of Mexico 2011 Red Snapper Individual Fishing Quota Annual Report. National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Regional Office, 263 13th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701. August 2, 2012. SERO-LAPP-2012-0. https://ifq.sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/
  19. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012. Federal Register Vol.77, No. 246, Friday, December 21, 2012. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; 2013 Commercial and Recreational Quotas for Red Snapper. Temporary Rule. 77 FR 75568. p. 75568-75569. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-12/pdf/2012-8756.pdf
  20. NOAA, 2015. NOAA Fisheries Announces Commercial and Recreational Quota Increases for Red Snapper and the Recreational Seasons in the Gulf of Mexico. Small Entity Compliance Guide. Southeast Fishery Bulletin, April 30, 2015. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishery_bulletins/documents/pdfs/2015/fb15-032_gulf_red_snapper_quotas.pdf
  21. Poffenberger, J. 2004. A report on the discard data from the Southeast Fisheries Science Center’s Coastal Fisheries Logbook Program. National Marine Fisheries Service, SEFSC, Miami, FL.http://ocean.floridamarine.org/efh_coral/pdfs/FMPs/discardreport01_03.pdf
  22. SEDAR, 2009. Red Snapper update:Stock Assessment of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico. SEDAR/SEFSC.http://www.gulfcouncil.org/beta/GMFMCweb/downloads/BB%202010-02/B%20-%204%20Red%20Snapper%20Update%202009%205%200.pdf
  23. SEDAR. 2012. Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper. SEDAR 31 Data Workshop Report. December 2012. SEDAR, Southeast Data, Assessment and Review. Charleston, SC. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/SEDAR%2031%20Data%20Workshop%20Report%20FINAL_sizereduced.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  24. SEDAR. 2013. SEDAR 31 – Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Stock Assessment Report. SEDAR, North Charleston SC. 1103 pp. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/Sedar_Workshops.jsp?WorkshopNum=31
  25. SEDAR 7. 2005. Stock Assessment Report of SEDAR 7 Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper. Assessment Report 1. 2005. SEDAR. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. Charleston, 2005http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S7SAR_FINALreduce.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  26. SERO, 2011a. 2010 Commercial Quotas/Catch Allowances in gutted pounds. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). 11 March 2011.http://ifq.sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/ifqgt/documents/pdf/CommercialQuotasCatchAllowanceTable_2010.pdf
  27. SERO, 2011b. Gulf of Mexico 2010 Preliminary Recreational Landings (lbs) by Two-month Wave. last updated at 6 September 2011.http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/pdfs/ACL_2010_rec_landings.pdf
  28. Sinclair, M. and G. Valdimarsson (eds). 2003. Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qwvNev8JiQwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA321&dq=bottom+longline+anchor+impacts+on+ecosystem+gulf+of+mexico&ots=oH0DjftOI0&sig=A06OoabNzCv525DrGgzn1hdP8DA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  29. SSC. 2013. Standing and Special Reef Fish SSC Meeting Summary. Tampa, Florida, May 29-31, 2013. Available online through the Gulf Council’s FTP server (http://www.gulfcouncil.org/about/ftp.php) in Archived Meetings>SSC Meetings>SSC Meeting-2013-05>Meeting SummariesReef_Fish_SSC_Meeting_Summary_05-2013.pdf
  30. The Ocean Conservancy. 2007. Court Rules To Save Red Snapper. Federal Court Strikes Down the “Do Nothing” Red Snapper Plan. 13 March 2007.http://www.oceanconservancy.org/site/News2?abbr=press_&page=NewsArticle&id=9477
References

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