Last updated on 2 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Limanda ferruginea

SPECIES NAME(s)

Yellowtail flounder

COMMON NAMES

Rusty dab, Sandy dab

Yellowtail flounder are concentrated mainly in Div. 3N and the bordering areas of Div. 3O and to a lesser extent the border of Div. 3LN, similar to most years in the time series. As stock size increased from the low level in the mid-90s, the stock expanded northward and continues to occupy this wider distribution. This expansion coincided with warmer temperatures; temperatures continue to warm, and will likely not limit the stock distribution in the near future. Despite the increase in stock size observed since the mid-90s, length at which 50% of fish are mature has been lower for both males and females in the recent period. There also seems to have been a slight downward trend in weight at length since 1996. The cause of these changes is unknown (Parsons et al. 2015).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Weaknesses

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

8.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • OCI Grand Bank Yellowtail Flounder Trawl:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Newfoundland Grand Banks NAFO 3LNO Canada Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 September 2016

Strengths
NAFO 3LNO

Last updated on 2 September 2016

Weaknesses
NAFO 3LNO

Last updated on 2 September 2016

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

The stock occurs in Divisions 3LNO, mainly concentrated on the southern Grand Bank and is recruited from the Southeast Shoal area nursery ground (Parsons et al. 2015).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Fishing mortality up to 85% FMSY corresponding to a catch of 26 000 t in 2014 and 23 500 t in 2015 has low risk (<5%) of exceeding Flim, and is projected to maintain the stock well above BMSY (Parsons et al. 2015)

Reference Points

Blim is 30% BMSY and Flim is FMSY.

CURRENT STATUS

The stock size has steadily increased since 1994 and is now well above BMSY. There is very low risk of the stock being below Bmsy or F being above FMSY. Recent recruitment appears about average (Parsons et al. 2015).

Trends

Catch of yellowtail flounder has been low in recent years. If catches increase fishing mortality on Div. 3NO cod and Div. 3LNO American plaice will also increase.

Canadian and Spanish surveys show the stock size has increased since the moratorium on directed fishing was declared in 1994. The 2011 and 2012 survey estimates of biomass were among the highest in the series for the Canadian spring and fall surveys and also for the Spanish spring surveys. The 2013 assessment uses ASPIC version 5.34 with updated catch and survey biomass indices for 2011 and 2012 to produce relative biomass and fishing mortality estimates. Relative biomass remains high in 2012 (1.7 times BMSY) and fishing mortality remains low (F2012=0.09 FMSY). Projections in the short and medium term are also updated and results are presented in a precautionary approach framework (Parsons et al. 2015).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Yellowtail flounder is caught in a directed trawl fishery and as by-catch in other trawl fisheries. The fishery is regulated by quota and minimum size restrictions. American plaice and cod, are taken as by-catch in the yellowtail flounder fishery. There is a 15% bycatch restriction on American plaice and a 4% bycatch limit on cod in Div. 3NO (Parsons et al. 2015).

No explicit management plan or management objectives are defined by Fisheries Commission. General convention objectives (GC Doc. 08/3) are applied. Advice is provided in the context of the Precautionary Approach Framework (FC Doc. 04/18).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 2 September 2016

Effects of this fishery on endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species have not been reported (Parsons et al. 2015).

Within NAFO fisheries, specific measures cover the conservation and management of sharks, with mandatory reporting of all catches and a requirement that the weight of fins not exceed 5% of the weight of sharks onboard. Non-directed catches of live sharks are encouraged to be released (NAFO, 2010a). A number of sharks, rays and skates are classified as at risk on the IUCN Red List for the North-west Atlantic (IUCN, 2010).

Other Species

Last updated on 2 September 2016

Cod and American plaice are bycatch of this fishery and the impacts on the Division 3NO cod stock and the Division 3LNO American plaice stock must be considered when setting TACs for yellowtail flounder (NAFO, 2009b). American plaice is currently depleted and 3NO cod has been under moratorium to directed fishery since 1994, with bycatch recommended to be kept as low as possible (NAFO, 2010b).

Bycatch of commercial species for which the vessel does not possess a quota must not exceed the greater of 2500 kg or 10% of catches, and species whose fishing is banned or whose quota has been reached must not exceed the greater of 1250 kg or 5% (DFO, 2010a).

Fishing intensity on yellowtail flounder has impacts on Div. 3NO cod and Div. 3LNO American plaice through bycatch. General impacts of fishing gears on the ecosystem should also be considered (Parsons et al. 2015).

HABITAT

Last updated on 2 September 2016

In general bottom trawling causes adverse effects on benthic communities and habitats, but these effects are not uniform, depending on the seafloor habitats, the communities present, the type and frequency of the gear used and past fishing activities in the area (DFO, 2006).

Bottom trawling areas within NAFO fisheries have been mapped and fishing in new areas or with new gear is subject to an assessment procedure following which either conservation and management measures will be introduced or fishing not permitted (NAFO, 2010a). Corals are found on the slopes of the Grand Banks and several closures are in force (NAFO, 2010a).

Mainly fishery related mortality has been documented. Other sources (e.g. pollution, shipping, oil-industry) are undocumented.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 02 Sep 2016

The directed yellowtail fishery in Division 3NO closes from June 15 to July 31 (DFO, 2009).

A large coral closure area has been declared on the south-western slope of the Grand Banks from 2008 to the end of 2012 to all bottom-contacting gears. Three further areas of coral and sponges on the eastern slope have been closed for the duration of 2010 and 2011 (NAFO, 2010a).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 1 February 2017

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 6.0.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.167 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.167 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 17.0 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 23.5 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 72.3%.

As calculated for 2009 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Reported catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Reported catch is 6.20 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 17.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Reported catch/Set TAC for this index is 36.5%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the TB as a percentage of the TBmsy.

The TB is 127 ('000 t). The TBmsy is 78.6 ('000 t) .

The underlying TB/TBmsy for this index is 162%.

As calculated for 2009 data.

The score is 8.9.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.131 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.167 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 78.6%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

There is not thought to be a previously defined fishing mortality to be adopted at low biomass, which reduces the score for the precaution of the management strategy. However, when faced with low stock biomass in the past, managers declared a fishing moratorium followed by a precautionary recovery TAC.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

OCI Grand Bank Yellowtail Flounder Trawl

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 21 October 2016

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 88.8
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.3
Principle 3 – Management System 85.8

Certification Type: Gold

Sources

Credits
  1. DFO, 2009. Integrated Fisheries Management Plan (IFMP) 3Ps Cod (Gadus morhua).

  2. DFO, 2006. Impacts of trawl gears and scallop dredges on benthic habitats, populations and communities. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2006/025.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf

  3. IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org

  4. NAFO, 2009b. Scientific Council Reports 2009. Part A – Report of the Scientific Council Meeting, 4-18 June 2009.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/science.html

  5. NAFO, 2009. Yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization.http://www.nafo.int/fisheries/frames/fish-yel.html

  6. NAFO, 2010a. NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures – 2010.http://www.nafo.int/about/frames/about.html

  7. NAFO, 2010b. Scientific Council Meeting – 2010. NAFO SCS Doc. 10/18.http://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/general.html

  8. Parsons DM, 2009a. Divisions 3LNO Yellowtail Flounder (Limanda ferruginea) in the 2008 Canadian Stratified Bottom Trawl Survey; NAFO SCR Doc. 09/31; Scientific Council Meeting – June 2009.http://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/science.html

  9. Parsons DM, 2009b. Divisions 3LNO Yellowtail Flounder: Updated Survey and Catch Information for 2009 used in a Stock Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC); NAFO SCR Doc. 09/32; Scientific Council Meeting – June 2009.http://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/science.html

  10. Parsons DM, 2015. Divisions 3LNO Yellowtail Flounder: Updated Survey and Catch Information for 2015 used in a Stock Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC); NAFO SCR Doc. 09/32; Scientific Council Meeting – http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2015/scr15-026.pdf.

  11. Parsons DM, Brodie WB, Morgan MJ & Power D, 2008. The 2008 Assessment of the Grand Bank Yellowtail Flounder Stock, NAFO Divisions 3LNO; NAFO SCR Doc. 08/45; Scientific Council Meeting – June 2008.http://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/science.html

  12. Aldous, D. Atkinson, B. Byth-Skyrme, R. 2013. Second Annual Surveillance Report: OCI Yellowtail Flounder Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, January 2013. 43pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/OCI-grand-bank-yellowtail-flounder/assessment-downloads-1/20130114_SR_FLO92.pdf

  13. Atkinson, B. Blyth-Skyrme, R. Angel, J. Aldous, D. Knapman, P. 2010. MSC Assessment Report for The OCI Grand Bank Yellowtail Flounder Trawl. Ref: 82104/v4. Moody Marine LTD.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-west-atlantic/OCI-grand-bank-yellowtail-flounder/assessment-downloads-1/30.09.2010-final-report-determination.pdf

  14. Blyth-Skyrme, R., Atkinson, B., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report OCI Grand Bank Yellowtail Flounder Fishery. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, december 2014. 17pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/OCI-grand-bank-yellowtail-flounder/assessment-downloads-1/20150108_SR_FLO92.pdf

  15. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO), 2010. Scientific Council Meeting - 2010. NAFO SCS Doc. 10/18 revised.http://www.nafo.int/science/frames/res-pubs.html

References

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