Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 22 January 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Lutjanus spp.

SPECIES NAME(S)

Snappers nei, Red snappers

COMMON NAMES

Kakap merah, bambangan

This is a multi-species profile for the Lutjanus species (snappers). Snappers are not separated by species in official catch records or the fishery evaluations conducted by Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. This profile refers to Makassar Strait – Flores Sea (WPP-713) assessment unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The National Committee of Fisheries Stock Assessment was formed in 2005. Previously there has been no such commission, and there was no outlet for systematically offering advice to the government. The current Commission has released several recommendations for the government. The MMAF has showed good intention to improve the fisheries management by temporary issued a moratorium for vessels above 30 GT, reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhance monitoring of harvesting.

Weaknesses

Snapper in this area is mainly fished by small-scale fishery, which is unregulatd and unreported fishery. A comprehensive nation-wide biological stock assessment for snappers (Lutjanus spp.) is lacking. Although snappers are now included in the list of Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments (MMAF, 2011), evaluations are still based on limited information and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. No management strategy known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

  • Snapper-Grouper Makassar Strait:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

  • Indonesia snapper and grouper:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating Inactive

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Makassar Strait - Flores Sea Makassar Strait - Flores Sea (WPP-713) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Diving
Drift gillnets
Gillnets and entangling nets
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps
Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

The National Committee of Fisheries Stock Assessment was formed in 2005. Previously there has been no such commission, and there was no outlet for systematically offering advice to the government. The current Commission has released several recommendations for the government. The MMAF has showed good intention to improve the fisheries management by temporary issued a moratorium for vessels above 30 GT, reduce the numbers of fishing vessels and enhance monitoring of harvesting.

Weaknesses

Snapper in this area is mainly fished by small-scale fishery, which is unregulatd and unreported fishery. A comprehensive nation-wide biological stock assessment for snappers (Lutjanus spp.) is lacking. Although snappers are now included in the list of Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments (MMAF, 2011), evaluations are still based on limited information and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown. No management strategy known to be in place for this fishery. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Indonesia are practically unregulated, without any control over fishing capacity. The catch reporting system is deficient, with catch data being only collected for vessels > 5 GT.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on 8 January 2015

Until the early 2000s, snappers were not considered an important fishery resource from the management perspective. More recently, snappers were included in the list of Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments (MMAF, 2011), but evaluations are still based on limited information (e.g., catch from the small-scale fisheries is not considered) and not disaggregated by species. The lack of reliable catch data is one of the major sources of uncertainty. Although the Indonesian regulations anticipate catch data to be recorded at the landing ports, most of the catches (particularly of species important for exportation) go direct to the buyers (e.g. middlemen) facilities, and thus are not recorded.

For the Makassar strait specifically, the Reserach Centre for Fisheries Management and Conservation (Pusat Penelitian Pengelolaan Perikanan dan Konservasi Sumberdaya Ikan – P4KSI) of the MMAF conducted catch analysis on snapper in water of Barru and Pangkep water in Makassar Strait in 2006 (Sumiono et al, 2010). The study showed that the type of gears were used by the fishermen included handline, with one or two relatively small size hooks in the shallow waters (<50 m), bottom gillnets in shallow back reef areas at the depth of 5 m (with the average length of 40m, and mesh size of 4 inches). The gear used for fishing the deeper water snapper (50-150m) was bottom longline, with 600 hooks for each unit. The average length of each fishing trip was usually three days. The average catch rate (hook rate) for a bottom long line fishing trip was 6-8% (6 or 8 individual fish for 100 hooks). Meanwhile, the catch rate of bottom gill net was about 40-60kgs /boat/3 days trip.The catch was dominated by family Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus malabaricus, L. hyselopterus, L. sebae, L. vittus, and Pinjalo pinjalo. While the groupers (Serranidae) were dominated by species Epinephelus areolatus, E. malabaricus, E. microdon, and Plectropomus maculatus. Other groups were emperors (family Lethrinidae).

In 2011, the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries (Balai Penelitian Perikanan Laut, BPPL) studied the bottom longline and hook and line fishery for snapper and grouper in Barru District, Makassar Strait. Data was collected by betwen April – December 2011, and included length frequency, weight and catch composition (Nuraini, 2014).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on 8 January 2015

With the exception of the shared snapper fisheries in Arafura and Timor Sea, where there has been some research and specific management recommendations, information on the coastal snapper fisheries across Indonesia is very limited. Other than the National fisheries evaluations, which also include snappers, no specific scientific advice is known to be provided. The implementation of an effective licensing scheme and catch data reporting program, are some of the issues that need to be addressed in the SSFs sector in general (Sunoko and Huang, 2014).

Current Status

Last updated on 8 January 2015

Currently, Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments conducts evaluations for the most important fisheries groupings, in which snappers are included. The most recent evaluation considered snappers and groupers in the Makassar Strait (WPP 713) as moderately exploited (MMAF, 2011). However, uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown (CCIF, 2013).

In the in Makasar Strait and Sulawesi Sea specifically, there have been several additional studies on the biological aspects of snapper and grouper. The Research Centre for Oceanography (LIPI) conducted research in 2004 and 2005 to study the diversity and biological aspects of the deep sea snapper. A total 40 species of snapper (family Lutjanidae) and 18 species of deep sea snapper were identified (Hukom, 2007). Lengths for Pristipomoides multidens ranged from 30 – 90.3 cm, and from P. filamentosus from 17.4 – 50.9 cm. The study also showed that from 15 species found in Tarakan (northen part of Makassar Strait, east Kalimantan), 40% from the deep sea snapper was Lutjanus Johni, followed by L. malabaricus (29%). A study from the Sulawesi Sea showed that from 17 species of deep sea snapper, 22% was Pristipomoides filamentosus and 16% was Etelis radiosus. Finally, a study conducted in 2011 by the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries (details in the Stock Assessment section) estimated CPUEs for snapper/grouper 4.78 – 14.05 kg/ day. The dominant species of snapper were L. malabaricus (66% of total catch), followed byL. argentimaculatus, L. johni and L. bohar. Snappers ranged from 28 – 79cm (average: 48.1 cm) in length, and from 0.3 – 5.5 kg (average: 1.67 kg) by weight (Nuraini, 2014).

Trends

Last updated on 8 January 2015

There is no data on exploitation rates or biomass trends. Snapper landings data (includes snappers Lutjanus spp. and jobfish Pristipomoides spp.) is available from 2001. Landings increased from 67.8 thousand tons in 2005 to 118.8 thousand tons in 2007, and since then have oscillated between 110 and 127 thousand tons (MMAF, 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 8 January 2015

No specific recovery plan for snapper fishery at the Makassar Strait is in place. In order to control fishing effort in general, the Ministry office of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MAFF) has issued a moratorium for new license for vessels above 30 GT. However, provincial governments continue issuing fishing permits for vessels up to 10 GT.

Compliance

Last updated on 8 January 2015

Small-scale fisheries are practically unregulated in Indonesia, thus compliance cannot be fully ascertained. Catch from the small-scale sector (including the snapper/grouper fishery) is considered to be largely unreported. However, under the South Sulawesi provincial office, boat owners below 5 GT are required to register with the fisheries District office, and to apply for: PAS Kecil (boat Identification/ID), SIUP (License to conduct trade – Surat Ijin Usaha Perikanan), SIPI (License to operate fishing activity – Surat Ijin Penangkapan Ikan). The fishers often get help from their buyer (local trader) or processor to apply for these licenses.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on 8 January 2015

The effects of the snapper fishery on protected, endangered or threatened (PET) species in Indonesia are at present unknown.

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on 8 January 2015

Snappers in Makasar Strait are taken by small-scale fishing gears such as handlines, bottom longlines, bottom gillnets and traps. The main target species of this fishery are snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and groupers (Serranidae). Other reef species are also captured, but detailed information on the catch composition in this fishery is almost inexistent.

Habitat

Last updated on 4 February 2018

The studies by Mous and Pet ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)) concluded that both drop line and long line fisheries are characterized  by a very low and relatively low impact on habitat at the fishing ground, respectively. In both fisheries, impact to habitat is nothing near the impact from destructive dragging gears, for example, and also much less than could be expected from other demersal fisheries with nets or traps ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)).

Meanwhile, with long line fishery, (Mous and Pet 2018)  noted that there will be some tangling with various life forms or structure on the bottom at the fishing grounds, but captains avoid areas with high or complicated structure as they do not want to lose their gear. Studies on the habitat impact of set and drift gillnet that target snappers in FMA 713 were not found.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 4 February 2018

The snapper fishing grounds adjacent to South Sulawesi Province might overlap with some marine protected areas located within the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea area (FMA 713), these include: Taka Bone Rate National Park, District-based Marine Protected Area Pangkep, and District-based Marine Protected Area Selayar (SFP 2017). Some fishers may also venture out to fishing grounds that are located in FMA 714 (Tolo Bay – Banda Sea) and their fishing grounds might overlap with Wakatobi Marine National Park (SFP 2017).

Complete list of Marine Protected Areas in FMA 713 can be found in the Marine Protected Area Database. This MPA database recorded twenty-two (22) marine protected areas located in FMA 713. Other than the fishing ground of snappers that overlap with the MPAs noted above, there is no other information on snappers’ fishing grounds in these listed MPAs. Moreover, none of these MPAs have any specific plans to protect the habitat and spawning ground of snappers per se.

No.

Name

MPA type

Areal extent

IUCN Category

1.

District-based MPA Pangkep, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

171,937.71 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

2.

District-based MPA Selayar, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

4,317 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

3.

Marine National Park (MOF) Taka Bone Rate, South Sulawesi

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

530,765 ha

II (National Park)

4.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Kapoposang, South Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

50,000 ha

5.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Majene, West Sulawesi 

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

49,000 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

6.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

33,880 ha

7.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Kolaka, South-East Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

60,400 ha

8.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Kepulauan Padamarang, South-East Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

36,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

9.

District-based MPA Bontang, East Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,121.38 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

10.

District-based MPA Kotabaru, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,099 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

11.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

12,860.14 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

12.

Nature Tourism Park Buleleng, Bali

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

14,041.13 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

13.

District-based MPA Gili Sulat dan Gili Lawang, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,807 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

14.

District-based MPA Bima (Gili Banta), Bima, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

43,750 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

15.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Moyo, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

6,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

16.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Satonda, Dompu, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

2,600 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

17.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Gili Ayer, Gili Meno, Gili Trawangan, North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

2,954 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

18.

Marine Nature Reserve (MOF) Riung, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam Laut)

2,000 ha

Ib (Wilderness Area)

19.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

42,250 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

20.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Lombok Tengah, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,940.45 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

21.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Teluk Maumere, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

59,450 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

22.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Tujuh Belas Pulau, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

9,900 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

 

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

Small-scale fisheries in Indonesia are managed at the local districts level, but are practically unregulated and without any control over fishing capacity. Although the Province of South Sulawesi has implemented the policy on the requirement for boats below 5 GT to have fishing license, fishing effort has not been reduced as provincial governments continue issuing fishing permits for vessels up to 10 GT.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The most recent evaluation from the Indonesia Commission for Stock Assessments considered snappers in the Makassar Strait (WPP 713) as “moderately exploited” (MMAF, 2011). However, uncertainty in this evaluation is likely high and the exploitation status of particular species is unknown (CCIF, 2013).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
Data notes

1) Landings data refer to national landings. Landings are for the Lutjanidae family, i.e., include snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and jobfish (Pristipomoides spp. ) species (source: MMAF, 2012).
2) Advised TAC, set TAC, and biomass or fishing mortality reference points are not defined; thus none of the scores can be computed. Qualitative scores have been attributed for scores #1 and #4, based on the available information.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Jan 2015
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP rating remains B. Last stage 4 achievement within 12 months

1.
FIP Development
Jan 15
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 15
Jan 15
3.
FIP Implementation
Jun 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jan 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Additional References and Sources

Hukom, 2007. Penelitian Sumberdaya Perikanan Kakap Laut Dalam di Selat Makasar dan laut Sulawesi. [Research on Deep Sea Fishery Resource in Makassar Strait and Sulawesi Sea]. Research Centre for Oceanography (LIPI). p. 2O.

Nuraini, S. 2014. Data Collection for Stock Assessment of Demersal Fisheries in Makasssar Strait. Power Point Presented at Small ScaleSnapper-Groupe Meeting in Makassar, September 2014.Unpublished report.

  1. CCIF, 2013. Assessment of the Enabling Conditions for Rights-Based Management of Fisheries and Coastal Marine Resources. July 2013. Conservation and Community Investment Forum (CCIF). San Francisco, CA. 34 pp.http://www.trustforconservationinnovation.org/sponsored/inc/CCIF_ExecutiveSummary_web.pdf
  2. Chuenpagdee, R., Morgan, L.E., Maxwell, S.M., Norse, E.A. and Pauly, D., 2003. Shifting gears: assessing collateral impacts of fishing methods in US waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 10: 517-524.http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295(2003)001%5B0517%3ASGACIO%5D2.0.CO%3B2
  3. MMAF, 2011. Minister Decree of MMAF No 45/MEN/2011 on the Estimation of Fishery Resources Potential in Fishery Management Areas of Republic of Indonesia. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).STATUS_TINGKAT_EKSPLOITASI_SDI_WPP_RI_2011.pdf
  4. MMAF, 2012. Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia, 2011. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF). Directorate General of Capture Fisheries. Jakarta. Vol. 12, No. 1. 182 pp.http://statistik.kkp.go.id/index.php/arsip/file/58/statistik-pt-tahun-2011.pdf/
  5. Reefbase, undated. The Coral Triangle Atlas - Indonesia Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Retrieved on December 16, 2014.http://ctatlas.reefbase.org/pdf/Marine%20Protected%20Areas%20%28MPAs%29%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
  6. Sumiono, B. Ernawati, T. And Widjatmiko. 2010. Analysis of Snapper and Grouper Fishing Activities in Barru Sea, South Sulawesi. Journal Fishery Research of Indonesia. Vol 16: 4. 2010 p: 293-303.http://www.sidik.litbang.kkp.go.id/index.php/searchkatalog/byId/4230
  7. Sunoko, R. and Huang, H.W., 2014. Indonesia tuna fisheries development and future strategy. Marine Policy, 43, 0: 174-183.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X13001255
  8. Susanto, H. A. 2011. Progress on Indonesia Marine Conservationa System Development: A Consultancy Report.Collaboration between Ministry of Marne Affairs and Fisheries and Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP). Jakarta.http://www.usctsp.org/document/Progres_Pengembangan_Sistem_Kawasan_Konservasi_Perairan_Indonesia-Handoko_Adi_Susanto.pdf
        References

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          Snappers nei - Makassar Strait - Flores Sea, Makassar Strait - Flores Sea (WPP-713), Indonesia, Handlines hand operated

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