Last updated on 28 March 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lutjanus spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Snappers nei, Red snappers

COMMON NAMES

Kakap merah, bambangan

This is a multi-species profile for the snapper (Lutjanidae) species in the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea, with at least 4 Lutjanid species identified: Lutjanus malabaricus (the most dominant in the catch), L sebae, L. erythropterus, and L vittus (Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016)(Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017). However, snappers (particularly the Lutjanus genus), regardless of species, are collectively referred to as kakap merah or bambangan in the trade, and thus, their official catch records are also reported as an aggregate value under that common name and not separated by species. In the official stock assessment, all snappers species are collectively grouped into 'demersal fish group'.

In terms of Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to FMA 713 assessment unit that covers Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Bali Sea, and Flores Sea (under the jurisdiction of 10 provinces). However, in short, we refer it to “Makassar Strait – Flores Sea”. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Exploitation rate for demersal fish group (of which snappers are lumped into) in FMA 713 has slightly improved from over-exploited (in 2015) to fully-exploited (in 2016), although this is not specifically refers to snappers species per se.
  • Activities in FMA 713, such as biological study on snappers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the snappers fisheries. 
  • Beginning 2015, official reported landing of a few snappers species has had their local common names reported separately, although their corresponding scientific names have not yet been assigned to.  
Weaknesses
  • Most snapper catches are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities.. 
  • Snappers are aggregated into demersal fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.
  • Snappers in FMA 713 are mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009), (PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries
  • There are no management objectives for the snapper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.
Options
  • FIP is currently underway and is moving forward with training course for enumerator and local traders on recording catch data using log-book, and with training course for processing plan staff to conduct biological sampling.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 
  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many snapper fishers are categorized into.
  • Improve research on stock assessment for this group of species to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


FIPS

  • Snapper-Grouper Makassar Strait:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Makassar Strait - Flores Sea Makassar Strait - Flores Sea (WPP-713) Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Diving
Drift gillnets
Gillnets and entangling nets
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Set gillnets (anchored)
Traps
Trolling lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 14 March 2018

Strengths
  • Exploitation rate for demersal fish group (of which snappers are lumped into) in FMA 713 has slightly improved from over-exploited (in 2015) to fully-exploited (in 2016), although this is not specifically refers to snappers species per se.
  • Activities in FMA 713, such as biological study on snappers (i.e., length-weight relationship, growth and mortality models, and estimation of mortality and exploitation rates), implementation of log-book system, and other activities have been developed to improve the snappers fisheries. 
  • Beginning 2015, official reported landing of a few snappers species has had their local common names reported separately, although their corresponding scientific names have not yet been assigned to.  
Weaknesses
  • Most snapper catches are not recorded, especially those destined for export that go directly to the buyers’ (middlemen’s) facilities.. 
  • Snappers are aggregated into demersal fish group in the assessment, resulting a high level of uncertainty on the real condition of the resources.
  • Snappers in FMA 713 are mainly fished by small-scale fishery, and by law, they are exempted from applying for fishing licenses ((PEMRI 2009), (PEMRI 2016)), rendering it more difficult to control and track these fisheries
  • There are no management objectives for the snapper stock(s). Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the limitation of the number of fishing gear to be licensed.
Options
  • FIP is currently underway and is moving forward with training course for enumerator and local traders on recording catch data using log-book, and with training course for processing plan staff to conduct biological sampling.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system. 
  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance that would fit the small-scale fishery system, of which many snapper fishers are categorized into.
  • Improve research on stock assessment for this group of species to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 14 March 2018

Stock assessments in Indonesia are carried out by government fisheries scientists affiliated with the Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan). Research outputs from Pusriskan and other best scientific evidence are then reviewed and synthesized by the National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), an independent entity under (and report to) the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP-RI) and whose members have expertise in fisheries resources and are drawn from various relevant organizations (KKP-RI 2016). Upon peer-reviews and synthesis, Komnas Kajiskan then make policy recommendations to the Minister (KKP-RI 2016). The Minister then stipulate, decree, and gazette a Ministerial Decree pertaining to the estimation of maximum sustainable yields (MSYs), total allowable catches (TACs), and exploitation rates (Es) of fish stocks within Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Areas (FMAs) (KKP-RI 2016). Stock assessments are carried out continuously, although it is not always every year (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 29 October 2017). There are significant discrepancies (inter-annual variability) in the results of stock assessment between the most recent one (2016) and the last one (2015), with a tendency of increased values for the basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and fOPT for most ecologically-related groups in 2016. In this report, (Indrajaya 2017) explained that the use of limited or under-reported data (mostly from reported cacthes) as model inputs in the previous assessment have resulted in significantly lower assessment results. In earlier assessment (prior to 2015), heavy reliance (~ 90%) was given to landing and effort statistics as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016). To improve the accuracy of model estimates, from 2015 assessment and onward, primary data from acoustic survey, when possible, was primarily (~80%) used as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016).

Indonesia’s fisheries are highly multispecies and multi-fleet; spanning across 11 FMAs (KKP-RI 2009). Consequently, basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and Es assessment system per species groups in each FMA had been chosen as an empirical solution to a very difficult and potentially very expensive problem (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 25 October 2017). Fish resources are allocated into nine ecologically-related groups: small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish (except tuna and skipjack), demersal fish, reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid. Snappers (Lutjanidae) is, thus, lumped together in the demersal fish group and do not have their own MSYs, TACs, or Es (KKP-RI 2016).

The most recent (2016) official stock assessment (KKP-RI 2017) carried out for demersal fish group use bottom long line (rawai dasar) as the standard effort in the assessment, and used the Cadima model (in (Troadec 1977))  (Indrajaya 2017). TAC was determined at 80% of MSY, and there were no referral to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses ((Suman et al. 2016)(Indrajaya 2017)).  The stock is considered as one big unit of biomass and no attempt is made to model on an age- or length-based. Despite several studies on snappers in the Makassar Strait area, comprehensive biological stock assessment for snappers is not available ((Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016), (Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017)). 

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 14 March 2018

In the 2016 stock assessment (KKP-RI 2017) for the demersal fish group in the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea (FMA 713), MSY and TAC are determined at 252,869 tons and 202,295 tons, respectively. This advised TAC is more or less equal to 29,059 units of standard effort bottom long lines, and this reflects the value for optimal fishing effort, or fOPT

Overall, in the most recent assessment, the demersal fish group in FMA 713 can be considered as 'fully-exploited' with an E value of 0.96 (note: E < 0.5 = moderately-exploited;  0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;  E ≥ 1 = over-exploited).

Reference Points

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018

No biological reference points have been officially defined for Snappers in FMA 713. 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 28 March 2018

Based on the 2016 assessment, the exploitation rate for demersal fish (in which snappers are included) in FMA 713 was found to have reached fully-exploited state (E = 0.96) (KKP-RI 2017). Compared to the 2015 assessment (KKP-RI 2016) where E was estimated to be 1.04 (over-exploited), the state of demersal fish in FMA 713 seemed to be slightly improving. An on-going study of snappers and groupers in the Makassar Strait which covers about 17 species of snappers and 34 species of groupers have preliminary concluded that the stock status of some of these snappers are still good ((Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)). No account on discarding has been mentioned.

Trends

Last updated on 28 Mar 2018

The multi-species of snapper (Lutjanus spp.) have distinct local common names for each snapper species, however, all of them (particularly Lutjanus genus) are collectively referred to as kakap merah or bambangan in the trade, and thus, their official catch records are also reported as an aggregated value under that common name. However, beginning in 2015 catch record, a few snapper species’ local common names have started to be reported separately; unfortunately, their corresponding scientific names have not yet been assigned to (Mr. Muhammad Anas, DG Capture Fisheries-KKP, pers. comm., 28 Dec 2017).

Annual catch records of kakap merah/bambangan in FMA 713, stemming from 10 provinces, are currently not available. At this moment, we present the annual catch records of kakap merah/bambangan from five (5) provinces of which the catch data are available (DG Capture Fisheries KKP-RI, 1975 – 2015): the eastern coasts of East and South Kalimantan provinces, and from the southern coasts of West, South and South-East Sulawesi provinces, which contributed a significant proportion of catches for Lutjanus spp. in FMA 713.

Total catches of kakap merah/bambangan from these five provinces increased slowly from 1975 (2,642 tons) to 2015 (19,492 tons), with a mean annual increase of 7% throughout these 40 years. Compared to the total catches of kakap merah/bambangan throughout Indonesia, the contribution of catches from these 5 provinces ranges from 8 – 34%, with a mean percentage contribution of 19% throughout these 40 years (estimated/computed from dataset of DG Capture Fisheries KKP-RI, 1975 – 2015) (see Scores section to time-series data).

An on-going biological and ecological sampling survey as part of the FIP program for Snappers and Groupers in Makassar Strait has been carried out to scope-out the situation, including sampling snapper species in middlemen facilities (Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)). From February to November 2016, 7729 fish were enumerated and 56.3% of these specimens were snappers (17 species), with Lutjanus malabaricus (21%), L. sebae (4%), and L. erythropterus (4%), being the most dominant in weight and number ((Nuraini 2016), (Nuraini 2017)(SFP 2017)). This recent study by (Nuraini 2017) also found that assuming the exploitation rate was optimum at a value of E = 0.5, the exploitation rate for Lutjanus sebae was found to be above the optimum at E = 0.55, while the E for L. malabaricus was under the optimum exploitation rate at E = 0.21.

An earlier study in 2006 by Pusriskan scientists (Sumiono et al. 2010) on the catch rate and catch composition of select fishing gears that target snappers and groupers in the area showed catch composition that was also dominated (47.2%) by kakap merah/bambangan (Lutjanus spp.) and comprised of Lutjanus malabaricus, L. hyselopterus, L. sebae, L. vittus, dan Pinjalo pinjalo. Meanwhile, catch rate results showed a bottom long line hook-rate of 4 – 6% (i.e., 4 to 6 individual fish per 100 hooks, in April 2006) to 6 – 8% (in October 2006); while, the catch rate of bottom gill net was about 40-60kgs /boat/3-days fishing trip.

There is no other data on exploitation rates or biomass trends for these snapper fisheries.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 14 March 2018

The official assessment advise for demersal fish (of which snappers are embedded) in FMA 713 for 2015 (Suman et al. 2016) and 2016 (Indrajaya 2017) that were adopted as management decisions were legally decreed ((KKP-RI 2016) , (KKP-RI 2017))  and officially set as follows:  

Year

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT (units)

E

Standard effort

2015 (decreed)

77,238

61,790

43,063

1.04*

Demersal Danish Seine

2016 (decreed)

252,869

202,295

29,059

0.96

Bottom long line

                                  Note: E < 0.5    = moderately-exploited;   0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;    E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)

                               

Management decisions consist on controlling fishing effort through the number of fishing gear as the limit. It is not clear how these advices would be heeded by the fishers and controlled by the management body, since most fishing units are considered as small scale and are operated mainly using boats of 1-5 GT. According to the Fisheries Act No.45/2009 (PEMRI 2009), small scale fishing households operating with boats less than 5 GT or without boats (and later its definition is changed to less than 10 GT in Fishers’ Protection Act No.7/2016 (PEMRI 2016)) are exempted from applying for fishing licenses (SIPI, Surat Izin Penangkapan Ikan) and fishing business licences (SIUP, Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan) (PEMRI 2009). Without these official documents, it is difficult to control and track.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018

Specific Fishery Management Plan (Rencana Pengelolaan Perikanan, RPP) for Indonesia's Snapper fisheries does not exist yet, and therefore, the corresponding Road Map and recovery plans for snapper fishery are also non-existent. However, an RPP for the entire FMA 713 assessment unit does exist (KKP-RI 2016) and covers all fisheries in the 10 provinces and provided a more general strategic plan and road map for the nine ecologically-related group fisheries as aggregated groups (i.e., small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish, demersal fish (where snappers are embedded in), reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 14 March 2018

These snappers are targeted both for export and domestic consumption and are usually caught together with groupers, and to a lesser extent, with emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species ((Nuraini 2016), (Nuraini 2017)). They are caught mainly by hook-and-lines (pancing), including drop lines (pancing ulur), i.e., active vertical hook-and-line for deep slope areas; bottom long line (rawai dasar), on the shelf area and top of the slopes; bottom gillnet, set and drift gillnet (pukat); troll line (pancing tonda); traps (bubu); and occasionally caught by natural divers with speargun (panah) and hookah ((Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2016)(Fisheries Improvement Indonesia 2017)(Mous and Pet 2017)(FIP Participants-South Sulawesi Small-Scale Snapper-Grouper 2017)(SFP 2017), (Nuraini 2017)).

Although medium size long liners from Probolinggo (East Java, FMA 712) also ply the waters of Makassar Strait for snappers (Mous and Pet 2017), the majority of fishing boats are local small-scale boats, ranging in size between 1 GT (daily fishing) to 3 - 5 GT (approx. 15-20 days/fishing trip), and powered by 5 to 24 HP outboard engines (FIP Participants-South Sulawesi Small-Scale Snapper-Grouper 2017).

Most of the snapper catches (particularly of species important for exportation) go directly to the buyers’ (i.e., middlemen’s) facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are, unfortunately, most likely not recorded or under-reported. Compliance assessment has not been conducted; however, stakeholders in the snapper fishery and supply chains have acknowledged problems about catch data recording and its consequential under-reporting (SFP 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 14 March 2018

Specific studies on the effects of the snapper fisheries on ETP species in Makassar Strait – Flores Sea (FMA 713) is presently not available. However, a study on the shark and rays bycatch from deep-slope (50-500m) dropline and demersal longline fisheries targeting various snapper, grouper and emperor species in central and eastern Indonesia exists (Jaiteh 2017). In this study (Jaiteh 2017), sharks and rays caught were recorded by captains onboard fishing vessels as part of the Captain Operated Data Recording System (CODRS). Photographs were taken by 27 vessels on 81 days between 17 October 2015 and 29 October 2016, estimating 207 individuals that belonged to at least 36 species and 18 families. Bycatch was dominated (56% of the catch, n = 110) by Carcharhinids (requiem/whaler sharks), followed by Sphyrnidae/hammerhead sharks (11%, n = 22, mainly of the species Sphyrna lewini, scalloped hammerhead) and Rhynchobatidae/guitarfish (9%, n = 17, mainly whitespotted guitarfish, Rhynchobatos australiae); meanwhile, the remaining 15 families contributed 5% or less to the total catch. 

In Indonesia, Carcharhinid shark of the species Ocean Whitetip Shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) is protected by law (KKP-RI 2016), so is hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae, Sphyrna spp.) (KKP-RI 2016). Other species of sharks that are protected by law in Indonesia are: whale shark, Rhincodon Typus (KKP-RI 2013), thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus, A. supreciliosus (KKP-RI 2013) and Saw Shark (Pristis mocrodon) (PEMRI 1999).

Future studies on the shark and rays bycatch from snapper and grouper fisheries in more areas of Indonesian waters will be carried out in due course (Dr Peter Mous, TNC Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program, pers. comm., 13 March 2018).

Other Species

Last updated on 14 March 2018

Snappers in FMA 713 are taken by small-scale fishing gears that mainly use hook-and-lines, including drop lines (for deep slope areas), bottom long line (on the shelf area and top of the slopes), bottom gillnet, troll line, traps, and occasionally caught by natural divers using speargun and hookah. The main target species of this fishery are snappers (Lutjanus spp.) and groupers (Serranidae), and to a lesser extent, emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species ((Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)).

Other than the shark species noted in the study of (Jaiteh 2017), the deep-water long line and drop line fisheries targetting snappers and groupers in central and eastern Indonesia (including in FMA 713) are considered fairly clean in terms of non-target species being caught ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)). In their reports, (Mous and Pet 2018) and (Mous and Pet 2018) concluded that both fisheries are admittedly much more species-rich then sometimes assumed, but they are still within the snapper category, which forms the main target group.

However, as to bottom long line fishery targeting snappers in FMA 713 (and the adjacent FMA 712) on the shelf areas and tops of slopes (50 – 150 meters), (Mous and Pet 2018) wrote: “The bottom long line fishery is characterized by a more substantial by-catch of small sharks, cobia and trevallies, which are currently not preferred by the processors who are buying the target species. By-catch species are usually sun-dried by the crew and sold separately, outside of the catch of snappers, groupers and emperors, which belongs to the owner of the boat and goes to the processors for middle and higher end local and export markets.”.

Studies on the other target and bycatch species of the other fishing gear that target snappers in FMA 713 were not found.

HABITAT

Last updated on 4 February 2018

The studies by Mous and Pet ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)) concluded that both (deepwater) drop line and (bottom) long line fisheries are characterized  by a very low and relatively low impact on habitat at the fishing ground, respectively. In both fisheries, impact to habitat is nothing near the impact from destructive dragging gears, for example, and also much less than could be expected from other demersal fisheries with nets or traps ((Mous and Pet 2018)(Mous and Pet 2018)).

Meanwhile, with long line fishery, (Mous and Pet 2018)  noted that there will be some tangling with various life forms or structure on the bottom at the fishing grounds, but captains avoid areas with high or complicated structure as they do not want to lose their gear. 

However, (Mous and Pet 2018) cautioned that “due to limited available habitat (fishing grounds) and predictable locations of fish concentrations, combined with a very high fishing effort on the best known fishing grounds, as well as the targeting of juveniles, there is a very high potential for overfishing in the deep slope fisheries for snappers, groupers, and emperors.”

Studies on the habitat impact of set and drift gillnet that target snappers in FMA 713 were not found.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 04 Feb 2018

The snapper fishing grounds adjacent to South Sulawesi Province might overlap with some marine protected areas located within the Makassar Strait – Flores Sea area (FMA 713), these include: Taka Bone Rate National Park, District-based Marine Protected Area Pangkep, and District-based Marine Protected Area Selayar (SFP 2017). Some fishers may also venture out to fishing grounds that are located in FMA 714 (Tolo Bay – Banda Sea) and their fishing grounds might overlap with Wakatobi Marine National Park (SFP 2017).

Complete list of Marine Protected Areas in FMA 713 can be found in the Marine Protected Area Database. This MPA database recorded twenty-two (22) marine protected areas located in FMA 713. Other than the fishing ground of snappers that overlap with the MPAs noted above, there is no other information on snappers’ fishing grounds in these listed MPAs. Moreover, none of these MPAs have any specific plans to protect the habitat and spawning ground of snappers per se.

No.

Name

MPA type

Areal extent

IUCN Category

1.

District-based MPA Pangkep, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

171,937.71 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

2.

District-based MPA Selayar, South Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

4,317 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

3.

Marine National Park (MOF) Taka Bone Rate, South Sulawesi

Marine National Park (Taman Nasional Laut)

530,765 ha

II (National Park)

4.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Kapoposang, South Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

50,000 ha

5.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Majene, West Sulawesi 

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

49,000 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

6.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

33,880 ha

7.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Kolaka, South-East Sulawesi

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

60,400 ha

8.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Kepulauan Padamarang, South-East Sulawesi

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

36,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

9.

District-based MPA Bontang, East Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,121.38 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

10.

District-based MPA Kotabaru, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,099 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

11.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu, South Kalimantan

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

12,860.14 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

12.

Nature Tourism Park Buleleng, Bali

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

14,041.13 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

13.

District-based MPA Gili Sulat dan Gili Lawang, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

5,807 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

14.

District-based MPA Bima (Gili Banta), Bima, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

43,750 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

15.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Moyo, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

6,000 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

16.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Pulau Satonda, Dompu, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

2,600 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

17.

Marine Tourism Park (MMAF) Gili Ayer, Gili Meno, Gili Trawangan, North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Perairan)

2,954 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

18.

Marine Nature Reserve (MOF) Riung, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam Laut)

2,000 ha

Ib (Wilderness Area)

19.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

42,250 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

20.

District-based MPA Kabupaten Lombok Tengah, West Nusa Tenggara

District-based MPA (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah)

22,940.45 ha

VI (Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)

21.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Teluk Maumere, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

59,450 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

22.

Marine Tourism Park (MOF) Tujuh Belas Pulau, Ngada, East Nusa Tenggara

Marine Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam Laut)

9,900 ha

V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

 

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 14 March 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no management objectives for the snappers stock(s) in FMA 713. Available management objectives per FMA are set for aggregated demersal fish group only (KKP-RI 2017).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Snapper fisheries in FMA 713 are mostly small-scale (< 5 GT) and practically unregulated by law. Scientific advice (MSY, TAC, and fOPT) existed at aggregated biomass level (i.e., demersal fish group) per FMA, however, there is no direct operational connection to the small scale fishing units plying the waters targeting snappers.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Most of the snapper catches (particularly species of export quality) go directly to the buyers'/middlemen’s facilities. Meanwhile, official enumeration of catches take place in government fish landing sites, and thus these catches are most likely not recorded or under-reported.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Recent assessment in 2016 considered 'demersal fish group' in FMA 713 as “fully-exploited (E = 0.96)” (Indrajaya, 2017), an improvement from "over-exploited (E = 1.04)" in the previous assessment in 2015 (KKP-RI, 2016). Study by Nuraini (2016) also suggested that the stock status of some of the snappers surveyed are still good. However, there were no referral to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses (Suman et al. 2016; Indrajaya 2017; Nuraini 2016).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Despite acknowledged problems of catch under-reporting, the fishery seems to be doing pretty well, with the aggregated-level's (i.e., demersal fish group) exploitation status slightly improving from 2015 to 2016. On-going FIPs are currently taking place to improve, among others, the quality of the catch data.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Reported landing data of Lutjanus spp. were computed from 5 provinces in FMA 713 of which the data is currently available: the eastern coasts of East and South Kalimantan provinces, and the southern coasts of South Sulawesi, South-East Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi provinces, which contributed a significant proportion of catches for Lutjanus spp. in FMA 713. Complete reported landing data from FMA 713 (10 provinces) will be updated to this profile as they become available.
  • Reported landing data of snappers are separated from that of jobfish (Pristipomoides spp.) species.
  • Total snappers landings in Indonesia are represented above as Landings.
  • Scientific advice and the consequential manager’s decisions are based on basket/aggregate stock assessment system, in which all snappers (Lutjanus spp.) are lumped into the demersal fish group, together with other demersal fish species. Therefore the quoted maximum sustainable yield (MSY), total allowable catch (TAC), exploitation rate (E), and optimal fishing effort (fOPT) in this profile refer to those of demersal fish and not of snappers per se. Meanwhile, the plotted reported landing refers to the landing of solely Lutjanus spp. Therefore, the plotted data of MSY and TAC cannot be compared directly with the plotted data of reported landing. These data are plotted only to provide some insight about the fisheries.
  • Qualitative scoring is chosen due to the lack of quantitative data.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Jan 2015
Type: Basic

Comments:

FIP remains B with last stage 4 achievement within 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Jan 15
2.
FIP Launch
Jan 18
Jan 15
3.
FIP Implementation
Feb 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Nov 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is grateful to the following persons for contributing with information to the development of this fishery profile: 

  • Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan), member of National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), 2012 – present, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Mr. Muhammad Anas, Staff at Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Dr Peter Mous, The Nature Conservacy  Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program.
References

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