Last updated on 10 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Limanda ferruginea

SPECIES NAME(s)

Yellowtail flounder

COMMON NAMES

Rusty dab, Sandy dab

Southern New England Yellowtail flouder (Limanda ferruginea) stock is managed by the New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC). This resource is managed  by United States authorities as four separate stocks (southern New England, Georges Bank, Cape Cod, Middle Atlantic Bight) under the Multispecies Fishery Management Plan of the New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC 1993). Intermingling among the relatively distinct stocks has not been confirmed, and the species occurs as well inside the Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and the NAFO Regulatory Area (NRA) beyond Canada’s 200 mile limit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Stock is rebuilt and not experiencing overfishing if the recent low recruitment scenario is used. Managers comply with scientific advice and harvesters follow quotas.

Weaknesses

Majority of of mortality in some years is due to bycatch and discards. Stock is experiencing lower recruitment as a result of environmental facts or as a result of previous over exploitation. Previously stock was more productive.

Options

Despite status, managers should hold harvest levels and mortality near current levels and not allow for increased exploitation. Stock is in a low recruitment phase which may be the result of previous over exploitation or environmental factors. Until higher recruitment is realized, managers should be more precautionary.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

7

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9.2

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

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RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Southern New England/Mid Atlantic US New England United States Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Strengths
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Stock is rebuilt and not experiencing overfishing if the recent low recruitment scenario is used. Managers comply with scientific advice and harvesters follow quotas.

Weaknesses
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Majority of of mortality in some years is due to bycatch and discards. Stock is experiencing lower recruitment as a result of environmental facts or as a result of previous over exploitation. Previously stock was more productive.

Options
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Despite status, managers should hold harvest levels and mortality near current levels and not allow for increased exploitation. Stock is in a low recruitment phase which may be the result of previous over exploitation or environmental factors. Until higher recruitment is realized, managers should be more precautionary.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
2. To apply to develop content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for update/development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Analytic assessment used with two recruitment scenarios explored in latest SARC; low and higher recruitment. Reference points are based on lower recruitment.

Stock assessment has retrospective bias and over predicts F in terminal year.

The 2008 GARM III assessment represents a benchmark update. Major changes from the previous assessment include a thorough consideration of commercial discard and revisions to the biological reference points. Biological reference points were re-estimated similarly to the previous assessments but adopted a two stanza approach for sampling the cumulative distribution for recruitment to account for apparent change in productivity. The reference points were estimated as follows: FMSY = 0.254 and SSBMSY = 27,400mt. Despite the decrease in terminal estimates of F (0.411) and increase in terminal SSB (3,508mt), the stock was still considered overfished and overfishing was occurring. The large increase in SSB was contingent on the 54th SAW Assessment Report SNE MA Yellowtail Flounder 362 relative strength of the 2005 and to a greater degree, the 2004 year class. The 2004 year class was estimated at 10.9 million, the highest observed in the last decade and half.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

In spite of its commercial importance, relatively little is know about the early life history and development of yellowtail flounder. The Research needs are indicated by Johnson et al 1999, as follows:

• A spatial and temporal comparison of early-life history characteristics based on otolith microstructure.
• Analysis of current age and length at maturity contrasted against historic information on age and length at maturity.
• Habitat specific examination of biotic and abiotic factors, which ultimately affect adult recruitment.

Projections are usually based on lower recruitment scenarios (NEFSC, 2012)

Reference Points

Last updated on 31 Aug 2016

Reference points are based on lower recruitment scenarios. BMSY is much higher if a median recruitment since 1970 is used.

CURRENT STATUS
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Status depends on which recruitment scenario is used. under low recruitment stock is not subject to overfishing and is rebuilt. Under median recruitment since 1970, stock is well below limit SSB.

The 1999 NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-140, indicates that the yellowtail flounder became a key constituent of the U.S. demersal fishery in the early 1930s when the stock of winter flounder declined. Twenty four years later, landings suffered a dramatic decline; however landings peaked in the late 1960s due in large part to an increase in fishing effort.

It is also indicated that from 1973 to 1975, the spawning stock biomass (SSB) for southern New England dropped 10,000 mt. By 1982, it increased to 22,000 mt due to the strong 1980 year-class and then declined to a low of 2,400 mt in 1984 due to heavy fishing. Numbers increased again to 22,000 mt due to a strong year-class in 1987. It was heavily fished and SSB dropped to 1,057 mt in 1993. Large numbers of discards were generated because of minimum size regulations. The SSB slowly rose during the mid 1990s to < 10,000 mt in autumn 1997.

During the 1980s, the abundance of New England groundfish declined by 65% when haddock, redfish, and yellowtail flounder reached record low levels (Northeast Fisheries Science Center 1991). Commercial indices of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and standardized research trawl survey indices indicate that yellowtail flounder underwent substantial fluctuations and dramatic declines over a twenty year span (Northeast Fisheries Science Center 1994a, 1994b). During 1963-1967, adult and juvenile yellowtail were abundant along the 60 m contour in southern New England and between at 60-100 m on Georges Bank during autumn. During 1984-1988, yellowtail abundance declined significantly in these areas. According to a recent report to Congress from the Secretary of Commerce (National Marine Fisheries Service 1997), yellowtail flounder are no longer considered overfished on Georges Bank and in southern New England; the status for the Cape Cod and Middle Atlantic Bight stocks is unknown.

Trends

Last updated on 31 Aug 2016

Stock has been experiencing low recruitment over the past 2 decades. Prior to that stock was nearly 4 times higher then it is presently. Indications are that stock will maintain low levels of abundance which are only marginally better then 1980-2000.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
US New England

Last updated on 4 July 2016

Managers follow scientific advice.

COMPLIANCE
US New England

Last updated on 4 July 2016

Harvesters follow quotas and other management actions/regulations.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

HABITAT
US New England

Last updated on 31 August 2016

Type of gear used, has some impact on bottom habitat, though minimally given the bulk of the fishery is located on sandy substrates.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 7.0.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.240 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 75.0%.

As calculated for 1970 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

As calculated for 1970 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 9.2.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the 40%B0.

The SSB is 3.87 ('000 t). The 40%B0 is 3.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/40%B0 for this index is 129%.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.121 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 37.8%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. NEFSC, 2012. Souther NewEngland Mid-Atlantic Yellowtail Flounder Assesment 2012. NOAA NMFS. http://nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/crd/crd1218/

  2. Johnson, D.L., Morse, W.W., Berrien, P.L. and Vitaliano, J.J., 1999. Essential fish habitat source document: yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE, 140, p.29. http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm140/tm140.pdf

  3. NEFSC (Northeast Fisheries Science Center). 2008. Assessment of 19 northeast groundfish stocks through 2007: Report of the 3rd groundfish assessment review meeting (GARM III), Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 4-8, 2008. US Dept. Commerce, NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc. 08-15; 884 p + xvii.

References

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    Yellowtail flounder - Southern New England/Mid Atlantic, US New England, United States, Single boat bottom otter trawls

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