SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Epinephelus morio

SPECIES NAME(s)

Red grouper

COMMON NAMES

Mero

Genetic analyses have shown low genetic variation across red grouper’s US and Mexican distribution suggesting the existence of a single stock, but not ruling out the possibility of several reproductively distinct stocks, supported by distribution discontinuity and life-history traits (Richardson and Gold 1997) (Zatcoff et al. 2004). Until further studies become available, we are using the former structure.

A 2017 study proposes adoption of the concept of a noxicline, or subarea unit, for which EBFM targets and limits can be set, which could be more appropriate for this species in this area (Arreguín-Sánchez et al. 2017). This is not currently being used.

Mexican and US stocks are minimally connected (SEDAR and Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) 2015).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Management is based on results of peer reviewed stock assessments relative to explicitly defined biological reference points.
  • Explicit harvest control rules and accountability measures are in place to minimize the risk of overfishing and allow overfished stocks to rebuild. 
  • Interactions with marine mammal species are considered to be low.
  • Management measures implemented in 2010 appear to have reduced previously excessive interactions with sea turtles in the longline fishery to acceptable levels.
  • Mandatory harvester reporting, with bycatch and discards sampled (not 100%) through bycatch logbooks and an observer program.
  • A system of managed areas protects critical habitat for target species and the ecosystem.
  • Management measures implemented in response to an overfished/overfishing determination were successful in fully redbuilding the stock above the biomass target within the specified rebuilding period
  • The most recent stock assessment concluded that the stock is not overfished and harvest rates are sustainable below the fishing mortality threshold.
Weaknesses
  • Stock structure is not well known and is managed separately by various organizations throughout its range. 
  • Multispecies fishery with limited selectivity; many species captured in fishery have no formal stock assessment.
  • Interactions with protected species are known to occur. Excessive interactions with sea turtles have been addressed, but no formal report on their effect has been developed.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

7.3

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Improve and increase discard data collection. 
  • Increase number and frequency of stock assessments on incidentally harvested species (species that are retained but are not the primary targets of this fishery).

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Gulf of Mexico US Gulf of Mexico United States Bottom-set longlines
Vertical Lines
NW Atlantic US NW Atlantic United States Hooks and lines
Southern Gulf of Mexico Mexico Gulf of Mexico Mexico Bottom-set longlines
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Strengths
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 28 January 2018

  • Management is based on results of peer reviewed stock assessments relative to explicitly defined biological reference points.
  • Explicit harvest control rules and accountability measures are in place to minimize the risk of overfishing and allow overfished stocks to rebuild. 
  • Interactions with marine mammal species are considered to be low.
  • Management measures implemented in 2010 appear to have reduced previously excessive interactions with sea turtles in the longline fishery to acceptable levels.
  • Mandatory harvester reporting, with bycatch and discards sampled (not 100%) through bycatch logbooks and an observer program.
  • A system of managed areas protects critical habitat for target species and the ecosystem.
  • Management measures implemented in response to an overfished/overfishing determination were successful in fully redbuilding the stock above the biomass target within the specified rebuilding period
  • The most recent stock assessment concluded that the stock is not overfished and harvest rates are sustainable below the fishing mortality threshold.
Weaknesses
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 27 March 2018

  • Stock structure is not well known and is managed separately by various organizations throughout its range. 
  • Multispecies fishery with limited selectivity; many species captured in fishery have no formal stock assessment.
  • Interactions with protected species are known to occur. Excessive interactions with sea turtles have been addressed, but no formal report on their effect has been developed.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Improve and increase discard data collection. 
  • Increase number and frequency of stock assessments on incidentally harvested species (species that are retained but are not the primary targets of this fishery).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 27 March 2018

The most recent benchmark stock assessment for red grouper in the Northern Gulf of Mexico was conducted through the Southeast Data, Assessment, Review (SEDAR) process with data through 2013 (SEDAR 2015). The data and assessment team consisted primarily of federal agency staff with additional representation from state agencies, universities, environmental groups, and scientific and advisory bodies of the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. The review panel consisted of members from the Center for Independent Experts (CIE) and the GMFMC Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). The preferred model was developed using Stock Synthesis 3 (SS3), an integrated statistical catch at age model used widely in the US and internationally. Input data included commercial and recreational harvest and discards plus a “fleet” to account for red tide mortality, four fishery-dependent and three fishery-independent indices of abundance, sector specific age and length composition data, and other biological information. Fishery and index selectivity was modeled for each fleet and index separately. Uncertainty in model results was investigated using a range of sensitivity runs to evaluate assumptions regarding data inputs and model configuration, plus a retrospective analysis.  Projections across a range of fishing mortality rates investigated harvest and stock status over a 17 year time horizon (SEDAR 2015)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 23 January 2018

Biological reference points were first established for Gulf of Mexico red grouper through the Generic Sustainable Fishery Management Act Amendment (GMFMC 1999), which recommended managing the stock based on spawning potential (SPR) as a proxy MSY-based reference points. A 2002 stock assessment determined the stock was overfished, resulting in a Secretarial Amendment that refined the biological reference points and implemented a 10-year rebuilding plan (GMFMC 2004). Annual catch limits and targets (ACL, ACT) were established for three years under the Secretarial Amendment, and have been re-evaluated regularly and adjusted appropriately (GMFMC 2008)(GMFMC 2011)(GMFMC 2016). GMFMC (2008) also established sector allocation of the ACL as 76% commercial and 24% recreational. A peer reviewed stock assessment in 2015 determined that red grouper in the Gulf of Mexico are not overfished and overfishing is not occurring. Applying established harvest control rules to the biomass estimates from this assessment resulted in increases to allowable harvest levels that were considered excessive (GMFMC 2016). A more conservative ACL was set, with sector specific ACTs determined as 95% of the commercial ACL and 92% of the recreational ACL based on an accepted ACT/ACL buffer determination strategy (GMFMC 2016).

Reference Points

Last updated on 23 Jan 2018

Biological reference points based on spawning potential ratio (SPR) were established for Gulf of Mexico red grouper through the Generic Sustainable Fishery Management Act Amendment (GMFMC 1999), but were revised to MSY-based reference points through Secretarial Amendment 1 (GMFMC 2004). During the 2015 stock assessment, stock status was evaluated relative to the MSY-based reference points, but the peer review panel recommended reverting back to SPR-based reference points due to uncertainty in fitting the spawner-recruit relationship necessary to estimate MSY reference points (SEDAR 2015). Stock status in the 2015 assessment was therefore evaluated using a biomass target of 30% of maximum spawning potential (SSB30%SPR; measured in terms of fecundity), a minimum stock size threshold (MSST) of (1-M)*SSB30%SPR, and a corresponding fishing mortality threshold that achieves the biomass target at equilibrium (F30%SPR) (SEDAR 2015). The assessment reports these values as F30%SPR = 0.204, SSB30%SPR = 1,203,500 eggs, and MSST = 1,035,000 eggs (SEDAR 2015).

CURRENT STATUS
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Terminal year spawning biomass (measured in fecundity) was estimated as SSB2013 = 2.223 million eggs, relative to the biomass target of SSB30%SPR = 1.204 million eggs (SEDAR 2015). The estimated fishing mortality in the terminal year of the assessment of F2013 = 0.121 is approximately 59% of the fishing mortality threshold of F30%SPR = 0.204 (SEDAR 2015). Results of the benchmark assessment indicate terminal year SSB exceeds the SSB target, and fishing mortality is well below the threshold, suggesting the stock is not overfished and overfishing is not occurring. Commercial landings increased in 2014, but declined to previous levels in 2015 and 2016, and have remained below the ACT in all years since the terminal year of the assessment (NMFS 2017).

Trends

Last updated on 27 Mar 2018

Spawning biomass (total fecundity) was relatively stable during the first decade of the stock assessment time series, fluctuating without trend between approximately 1.15 billion and 1.22 billion eggs from 1986 to 1997. Beginning in 1998, spawning biomass rose steadily to over 1.92 billion eggs by 2005. A red tide event occurred in 2005, causing significant mortality, which resulted in an abrupt decrease in spawning biomass back to pre-1998 levels. Since then total fecundity has increased rapidly, reaching a time series high of 2.25 billion eggs in 2012. Spawning biomass in the terminal year of the assessment was estimated at SSB2013 = 2.22 billion eggs.

Fishing mortality shows a generally inverse trend compared to spawning biomass. Harvest rates were generally stable around F = 0.2 during the early years of the assessment, but declined by approximately 50% from the early 1990s to early 2000s. The red tide event caused a spike in mortality (attributed to fishing) to over 0.47. Following the spike, mortality rates resumed their previous decline, reaching a time series low of F = 0.07 in 2010 before rising slightly in subsequent years. Terminal year fishing mortality is estimated as F2012 = 0.108.

Quota monitoring results for commercial red grouper are provided back to 2004 (NMFS 2017). From 2004 to 2010, landings generally declined from a high of 5.5 million pounds gutted weight (lb gw) (2,495.5 t) in 2004 to a low of 2.9 million lb gw (1,315.8 t) in 2010. In 2011, commercial landings increased to 4.8 million lb gw (2,177.9 t) and have fluctuated without trend between this value and 5.6 million lb gw (2,540.8 t) through 2016 (NMFS 2017)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 27 March 2018

In the Gulf of Mexico, red grouper are managed through the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC) Reef Fish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). Management decisions for red grouper generally follow available scientific advice.  A 2002 stock assessment determined that red grouper was overfished and experiencing overfishing. In response, the GMFMC implemented a 10-year rebuilding plan in 2004 through Secretarial Amendment 1, which included commercial and recreational trip limits and a reduction in annual allowable catch (GMFMC 2004). A subsequent stock assessment in 2006 found that stock size had fully recovered above MSY levels by 2005 (SEDAR 2006), which prompted managers to increase ACLs for the species in Amendment 30B (GMFMC 2008). Multi-year ACLs were specified for 2009-2011 in Amendment 30B (GMFMC 2008), for 2012-2015 through a red grouper regulatory amendment (GMFMC 2011), and for 2016+ in a recent framework adjustment (GMFMC 2016). The recent adjustments are based on results of the 2015 benchmark stock assessment, and follow harvest control rules established through Amendment 30B (GMFMC 2008). Both the ACL and ACT (3,715 ton and 3,530 ton, respectively) increased by approximately 36% in 2016 relative to 2015 values (NMFS 2017).

Commercial trip limits and season closures were phased out with the implementation of an individual fishing quota (IFQ) program in 2010 through Reef Fish Amendment 29 (GMFMC 2008). For the recreational sector, the aggregate shallow water grouper bag limit is four fish, with a possesion limit of 2 red grouper within this aggregate four fish bag limit (GMFMC 2014). A recreational closed season on shallow-water grouper is in effect from February 1 through March 31 for fishing beyond the 20 fathom break. Recreational harvest of red grouper is permitted all year inside 20 fathoms.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 27 Mar 2018

A stock assessment update in 2002 indicated the Gulf of Mexico red grouper stock was overfished and experiencing overfishing (GMFMC 2004). In response to these findings, a 10-year rebuilding plan was implemented in 2004 to rebuild the stock to target biomass levels by the end of the rebuilding period. Stock status had improved since the previous benchmark stock assessment, but additional rebuilding was necessary to achieve the target biomass. Two rebuilding strategies were considered that maintained constant F or constant harvest throughout the rebuilding period (GMFMC 2004). The GMFMC approved a compromise strategy that maintained a constant harvest for three years at a harvest level equal to the three year average harvest under a constant F strategy. The preferred alternative required catch levels after the initial three years to be established based on results of subsequent stock assessments (GMFMC 2004). A 2006 benchmark stock assessment, with data through 2005, concluded that the stock was fully recovered (SEDAR 2006). The most recent stock assessment conducted with data through 2013 indicated that the stock is not overfished, so rebuilding is currently not necessary (SEDAR 2015).

COMPLIANCE
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 28 January 2018

Harvester compliance with annual harvest limits has been excellent. Observed harvest relative to established catch limits and targets is available on the NMFS Historical Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Commercial Landings website for 2004 to 2016 (NMFS 2017).  Actual harvest has exceeded the ACT only once in this time period (2004), and only twice was the season closed prior to the end of the year (2004 and 2005). For the years 2006 to 2016, actual harvest has ranged from 50.6% to 99.5% of the ACT, with an average annual harvest equal to 79.73% of the annual target (NMFS 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 28 January 2018

Little information is available regarding interactions with marine mammals in the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery (handlines and longlines), but interactions with these species are considered to be low. No interactions were reported through the Coastal Fishery Logbook program (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016) or the 2010-2011 observer program (Scott-Denton et al. 2011), but the 2017 List of Fisheries (NMFS 2017) indicates that snapper-grouper fisheries (hook and line and bottom longline) in the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean collectively interact with greater than 5,000 bottlenose dolphin, but still receives a Tier III rating by NMFS for interactions with marine mammals, indicating little potential harm to the population. Regardless, improved monitoring of interactions between the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery and protected species (protected, endangered, threatened) would be beneficial.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 27 March 2018

A biological opinion (BiOp) developed for the reef fish fishery under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act anticipated 116 sea turtle interactions by the bottom longline fishery over three years (GMFMC 2010), but a number of reports released in 2008-2009 using observer and other monitoring data estimated actual interactions greatly exceeded the allowable levels. For example, a report released in 2009 estimated there were 967 sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery over a 30-month period (GMFMC 2010). In response, the GMFMC adopted Amendment 31, which established a seasonal closed area (inshore of 35 fathoms from June to August) to reduce the number of sea turtle interactions in this fishery (GMFMC 2010). No formal estimate of interactions could be found, but data from the coastal fishery logbook program suggest that the measures are working. More than 25 interactions were reported through the logbook program in 2010 and 2011 (NMFS 2013), and this number declined to only 12 in 2012 and 2013 (NMFS 2016).

Other Species
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 28 January 2018

The multispecies reef fish FMP covers a total of 31 species, including 11 snapper species, 11 groupers, three tilefishes, four jacks, one triggerfish, and one wrasse (GMFMC 2015). The gears used in the fishery (handline and longline) are non-selective, resulting in a wide range of species in the catch.  An observer program in the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery was implemented in 2006 as a requirement of Amendment 22 to the GMFMC reef fish FMP (GMFMC 2004)(Scott-Denton et al. 2011). Several reports have been published summarizing the data collected from this program, such as catch composition, disposition, and condition (Scott-Denton and Williams 2013)(Scott-Denton et al. 2011), and updated data on catch composition for the years 2012 to 2016 were obtained (E. Scott-Denton, NMFS, pers comm). Findings from these reports are reported below.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 28 January 2018

In the reef fish longline fishery, species covered under the reef fish FMP accounted for approximately 87.3% of the total catch (62.2% was red grouper) based on the recently obtained data (E Scott-Denton, NMFS, pers. comm.). The remaining 13.7% was composed of 171 species, although 27 of these species were seen only once in the five years of sampling, and an additional 44 species were only seen 2 to 5 times in those years (E. Scott-Denton, NMFS, pers. comm.). Cuban dogfish and Atlantic sharpnose shark had the highest proportion of the total catch (1.6% each) for species not included in the FMP (E. Scott-Denton, NMFS, pers. comm.). Data from 2012-2016 provided for this report do not break down catch by disposition, but data from a previous report indicate that target species make up between 93.0% of retained catch and 83.1% of discarded catch (red grouper accounted for 62.82% and 70.97%, respectively) (Scott-Denton and Williams 2013). Landings data from the SEFSC Trip Interview Program (TIP) (L. Beerkircher, NMFS, pers. comm.) and discard data from the SEFSC Coastal Fishery Logbook program (NMFS 2016) corroborate that species in the reef fish FMP constitute the vast majority (>85%) of the harvest and discards in the longline fishery.

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2018

Due to the biology and habitat preferences of the target species, the handline and longline fisheries operate over, or in close proximity to, sensitive habitat such as coral reefs or outcrops and other live bottom habitats. Specific studies evaluating the impacts of these gears on sensitivie habitat in the Gulf of Mexico and US South Atlantic could not be found, but the impacts are generally considered less severe than mobile gears. 

The ecosystem has been recently modelled, relating components to the environment (Sagarese et al. 2017)​.

Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 28 January 2018

A system of managed areas, including habitat areas of particular concern, marine protected areas, and special management zones, have been implemented by GMFMC over the years that aim to protect sensitive hard bottom habitat from fishing impacts.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 28 Jan 2018

The GMFMC reef fish FMP and subsequent amendments have established management measures that protect coral and hard bottom habitats necessary to many species managed through this plan. The original FMP established a “stressed area” akin to a specialized management zone (SMZ) within which several bottom damaging gears, including fish traps and rollerhead trawls, were prohibited (GMFMC 1981). The intent of this gear restriction was to prevent further damage from these gears and allow regrowth in areas previously affected. Amendment 1 extended the boundaries of the stressed area and also implemented restrictions on the use of bottom longline gear in inshore areas (GMFMC 1989). Although the longline restrictions were not specifically intended for habitat protection, their implementation protected large areas of nearshore waters where coral and live bottom habitats are common. A regulatory amendment in 1999 created the Steamboat Lumps and Madison-Swanson marine reserves which prohibited fishing with any gear within the combined 219 sq-mi reserves (GMFMC 1999). The reserves were originally created for a limited time, but their duration was extended through Amendment 21 (GMFMC 2003), and made permanent through Amendment 30B (GMFMC 2008). Additional closed areas were established through Amendment 19 (GMFMC 2001), which developed the Tortugas Ecological Reserves and prohibited all fishing activity and anchoring within the reserves.

In addition to the habitat protection measures implemented through the reef fish FMP, a number of beneficial measures have been implemented through other means. In particular, the joint GMFMC/SAFMC Fishery Management Plan for Coral and Coral Reefs (GMFMC 1982) established three Coral habitat areas of particular concern (HAPC) within the Gulf of Mexico where fishing with certain bottom tending gear (including longlines) is prohibited. The Coral FMP also prohibits the harvest of stony corals and most gorgonian corals. Subsequent amendments to the plan also address harvest of live rock.

US Gulf of Mexico
United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Longline gear are in contact with the substrate, which may negatively impact sensitive habitats.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 27 March 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 7.3.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F at low biomass is 0.140 (from management plan). The F management limit is 0.204 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management limit for this index is 68.6%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the ABC.

The Set TAC is 3.53 ('000 t). The ABC is 3.72 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/ABC for this index is 95.0%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 2.04 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 3.53 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 57.8%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Fecundity as a percentage of the Fecundity target.

The Fecundity is 2.22 (M eggs). The Fecundity target is 1.20 (M eggs) .

The underlying Fecundity/Fecundity target for this index is 185%.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 9.9.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.108 (age-averaged). The F management limit is 0.204 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 52.9%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  •  Red grouper is the main species of a multispecies fishery. A single stock is considered in the Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic, not ruling out the possibility of several reproductively distinct stocks (Richardson and Gold 1997)(Zatcoff et al. 2004). Two stock assessments are conducted, by US and Mexican entities, whose stocks are minimally connected (SEDAR and Southeast Data Assessment and Review (SEDAR) 2015).
Northern Gulf of Mexico

Last updated on 27 March 2018

  • Catch target and limit and annual landings values are reported for the commercial fishery only, in units of thousand metric tons (ton or t) gutted weight.
  • Biomass target and limit and annual spawning stock biomass values are reported in units of fecundity (egg production).
  • Biological reference point values, and SSB and F time series values are taken from SEDAR 42, Section 6, Tables A.1.4 through A.1.6 (SEDAR 2015). 
  • Biomass target reference point is defined as SSB30%SPR.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. López-Rocha, J.A., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., 2013.Spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) on the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico. Scientia Marina 77(2): 313-322, doi: 10.3989/scimar.03565.13Bhttp://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1453/1568
  2. SAGARPA, 2014. Acuerdo por el que se da a conocer el Plan de Manejo Pesquero de Mero (Epinephelus morio) y especies asociadas en la Península de Yucatán. Diario oficial 25 Noviembre 2014.http://www.inapesca.gob.mx/portal/documentos/Planes-de-Manejo-Pesquero/Golfo/2014_11_25_MAT_sagarpa-PLAN-DE-MERO.pdf
  3. SAGARPA, 2015. Establece SAGARPA zonas de refugio para la protección de 22 especies en Quintana Roo. Press release 13 de Abril de 2015.http://www.inapesca.gob.mx/portal/sala-de-prensa/boletines/467-establece-sagarpa-zonas-de-refugio-para-la-proteccion-de-22-especies-en-quintana-roo
  4. Scott, I., 2014. Pre-Assessment Report for The Campeche Grouper Fishery Final. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, June 2014. 62pp http://cedepesca.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/grouper-msc.pdf
  5. Rosas, R. B., Pérez, M. P., Aguilar, R. W. M., Cervera, K. C., González, J. C. M., Pech, E. F. C., Méndez, J. C. E., González, S. M. Evaluación de mero y especies afines del Golfo de México 2010 - Informe final, Evaluación de mero y especies afines del Golfo de México 2010. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Centro Regional de Investigación Pesquera de Yucalpeten, 25ppred_grouper_2010.pdf
  6. GMFMC. 2008a. Reef Fish Amendment 29: Effort Management in the Commercial Grouper and Tilefish Fisheries. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 484 pp with appendices. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Reef%20Fish%20Amdt%2029-Dec%2008.pdf
  7. GMFMC, 2008b. Final Reef Fish Amendment 30b: Gag – End Overfishing And Set Management Thresholds and Targets; Red Grouper – Set Optimum Yield Tac and Management Measures, Time/Area Closures; and Federal Regulatory Compliance. October 2008. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 462 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Amendment%2030B%2010_10_08.pdf
  8. GMFMC. 2009. Final Amendment 31 to the Fishery Management Plan for Reef Fish Resources in the Gulf of Mexico. June 2009. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 267 pp. http://gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Draft%20RF%20Amend%2031%206-11-09.pdf
  9. GMFMC. 2010. Regulatory amendment to the reef fish fishery management plan to set 2011 total allowable catch for red grouper and establish marking requirements for buoy gear. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 125 p. http://gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/2010%20Red%20Grouper%20Regulatory%20Amendment%209-17-10%20final%20with%20signed%20FONSI.pdf
  10. GMFMC. 2011a. Final Regulatory Amendment to set 2011-2015 Total Allowable Catch and Adjust Bag Limit for Red Grouper. August 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 54 pp. http://gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20Regulatory%20Amendment%20-%20Red%20Grouper%20TAC%20&%20Bag%20Limit%202011-8-30.pdf
  11. GMFMC, 2011b. Final Reef Fish Amendment 32: Gag Grouper– Rebuilding Plan, Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures; Red Grouper– Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures Grouper Accountability Measures. October 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 406 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20RF32_EIS_October_21_2011%5B2%5D.pdf
  12. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2011. U.S. National Bycatch Report [W. A. Karp, L. L. Desfosse, S. G. Brooke, Editors ]. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-117E, 508 p. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/BREP2011/2011_National_Bycatch_Report.pdf
  13. NMFS, 2012. FISHWATCH- US Seafood facts: red grouper. NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). [accessed on 31 May 2012]. http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/grouper/species_pages/red_grouper.htm
  14. NMFS. 2012. Gulf of Mexico Reef fish proposed quotas. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/ifq/Proposed_Quotas_20121126161930.pdf
  15. Poffenberger, J. 2004. A report on the discard data from the Southeast Fisheries Science Center’s Coastal Fisheries Logbook Program. National Marine Fisheries Service, SEFSC, Miami, FL. http://ocean.floridamarine.org/efh_coral/pdfs/FMPs/discardreport01_03.pdf
  16. Richardson, L.R. & J.. Gold, 1997. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in and population structure of red grouper, Epinephelus morio, from the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 95: 174-179.http://fishbull.noaa.gov/951/richardson.pdf
  17. SEDAR 12. 2006. Stock Assessment Report. Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper. SEDAR 12. Stock Assessment Report 1. SEDAR. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. Charleston, SC. 2006 http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S12SAR1%20Gulf%20Red%20Grouper%20Completev2.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  18. SEDAR 19, 2010. South Atlantic Red Grouper Stock Assessment Report. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/Red_grouper_SAR_FINAL.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  19. SEDAR, 2009. Stock Assessment of Red Grouper in the Gulf of Mexico. SEDAR Update Assessment, 143 p. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/Red_Grouper_2009_Assessment_Update_Report.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  20. SERO, 2011a. 2010 Commercial Quotas/Catch Allowances in gutted pounds. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). 3 January 2012. 11 March 2011. http://ifq.sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/ifqgt/documents/pdf/CommercialQuotasCatchAllowanceTable_2010.pdf
  21. SERO, 2011b. Gulf of Mexico 2010 Preliminary Recreational Landings (lbs) by Two-month Wave. last updated at 6 September 2011. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO).http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/pdfs/ACL_2010_rec_landings.pdf
  22. SERO, 2012a. 2011 Commercial Quotas/Catch Allowances in gutted pounds. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). 3 January 2012. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/pdfs/CommercialQuotasCatchAllowanceTable_2011.pdf
  23. SERO, 2012b. Gulf of Mexico 2011 Recreational Landings (lbs) by Two-month Wave. last updated May 15, 2012. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/2011GulfRecLandingsandACLs.html
  24. Sinclair, M. and G. Valdimarsson (eds). 2003. Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qwvNev8JiQwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA321&dq=bottom+longline+anchor+impacts+on+ecosystem+gulf+of+mexico&ots=oH0DjftOI0&sig=A06OoabNzCv525DrGgzn1hdP8DA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  25. Zatcoff, M.S., A.O. Ball & G.R. Sedberry, 2004. Population genetic analysis of red grouper, Epinephelus morio, and scamp, Mycteroperca phenax, from the southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 144: 769–777. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S19_RD05_ZatcoffEtAl_MarBio04.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Red grouper - Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic, Northern Gulf of Mexico, US Gulf of Mexico, United States, Bottom-set longlines

    comments powered by Disqus