SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Epinephelus morio

SPECIES NAME(s)

Red grouper

COMMON NAMES

Mero

Genetic analyses have shown low genetic variation across red grouper’s US and Mexican distribution suggesting the existence of a single stock, but not ruling out the possibility of several reproductively distinct stocks, supported by distribution discontinuity and life-history traits (Richardson and Gold 1997) (Zatcoff et al. 2004). Until further studies become available, we are using the former structure.

A 2017 study proposes adoption of the concept of a noxicline, or subarea unit, for which EBFM targets and limits can be set, which could be more appropriate for this species in this area (Arreguín-Sánchez et al. 2017). This is not currently being used.

Mexican and US stocks are minimally connected (SEDAR and Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) 2015).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Management is based on results of peer reviewed stock assessments relative to explicitly defined biological reference points.
  • Explicit harvest control rules and accountability measures are in place to minimize the risk of overfishing and allow overfished stocks to rebuild. 
  • Interactions with marine mammal species are considered to be low.
  • Mandatory harvester reporting, with bycatch and discards sampled (not 100%) through bycatch logbooks and an observer program.
  • A system of managed areas protects critical habitat for target species and the ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • Stock structure is not well known and is managed separately by various organizations throughout its range. 
  • Multispecies fishery with limited selectivity; many species captured in fishery have no formal stock assessment.
  • Discarding practices are known only from a three year pilot observer program for the vertical line fishery. No observer information is available for the longline fishery.
  • Uncertainty may not be adequately considered when setting harvest levels since annual catch limits are set equal to the optimum yield. However, accountability measures are in place which require paybacks for excessive harvest.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

4

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

2.3

Future Health:

6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Gulf of Mexico US Gulf of Mexico United States Bottom-set longlines
Vertical Lines
NW Atlantic US NW Atlantic United States Hooks and lines
Southern Gulf of Mexico Mexico Gulf of Mexico Mexico Bottom-set longlines
Handlines hand operated
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 27 March 2018

Strengths
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 27 March 2018

  • Management is based on results of peer reviewed stock assessments relative to explicitly defined biological reference points.
  • Explicit harvest control rules and accountability measures are in place to minimize the risk of overfishing and allow overfished stocks to rebuild. 
  • Interactions with marine mammal species are considered to be low.
  • Mandatory harvester reporting, with bycatch and discards sampled (not 100%) through bycatch logbooks and an observer program.
  • A system of managed areas protects critical habitat for target species and the ecosystem.
Weaknesses
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 27 March 2018

  • Stock structure is not well known and is managed separately by various organizations throughout its range. 
  • Multispecies fishery with limited selectivity; many species captured in fishery have no formal stock assessment.
  • Discarding practices are known only from a three year pilot observer program for the vertical line fishery. No observer information is available for the longline fishery.
  • Uncertainty may not be adequately considered when setting harvest levels since annual catch limits are set equal to the optimum yield. However, accountability measures are in place which require paybacks for excessive harvest.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 27 March 2018

A benchmark stock assessment for red grouper in the US South Atlantic region was peer reviewed through the Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) process with data through 2008 (SEDAR 2010). Members of the data and assessment teams included state and federal agency personnel and representatives from the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) and Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC) Science and Statistical Committees (SSC). The peer review panel consisted of members from the Center for Independent Experts (CIE), plus federal agency and Council representatives. The preferred model was the Beaufort Assessment model, a statistical catch at age model used commonly on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts for a wide range of species, such as menhaden, black sea bass, and several grouper species. Input data included annual removals (harvest and discards) from four fishery sectors (2 commercial, 2 recreational), sector specific length at age data, and three fishery dependent and two fishery independent indices of abundance. Uncertainty in model results was investigated using a range of sensitivity runs to evaluate assumptions regarding data inputs and model configuration, as well as a retrospective analysis.  Projections across a range of fishing mortality rates investigated harvest and stock status using both SSB methods.  In 2017 the model was updated with data through 2016 using a “standard” assessment, which is based on the benchmark accepted base run, but allows minor modifications to the data and model configuration (SEDAR 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 23 January 2018

Biological reference points were originally defined for species managed under the SAFMC snapper-grouper fishery management plan through the Comprehensive Sustainable Fisheries Management Act Amendment (SAFMC 1998), but were more recently updated for red grouper under Amendment 24 (SAFMC 2011). The 2010 stock assessment and SSC recommended managing the fishery based on MSY-based reference points (SEDAR 2010). The 2010 stock assessment determined that the stock was overfished and overfishing was occuring (SAFMC 2011) so Amendment 24 (SAFMC 2011) 

established a 10-year rebuilding period for the stock, and defined annual catch limits (ACL) and accountability measures to minimize the potential for overfishing in the future. A recent stock assessment update concluded the stock is still overfished, and stock projections conducted during the assessment indicate the stock will not recover during the originally established rebuilding deadline of 2020 (SEDAR 2017). The ACL for the stock is set equal to the harvest when fishing at 75% of FMSY, and is allocated among sectors as 44% commercial and 56% recreational (SAFMC 2011).

Reference Points

Last updated on 23 Jan 2018

SEDAR 2010 and the SAFMC SSC recommend using MSY-based reference points. Amendment 24 (SAFMC 2011) established a fishing mortality threshold as the fishing mortality rate that achieves maximum sustainable yield (FMSY). The biomass target is the spawning biomass that achieves maximum sustainable yield (SSBMSY), and the associated MSST is 0.75*SSBMSY. Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) is estimated as the combined male and female mature biomass (SEDAR 2017). The 2017 stock assessment reports these values as FMSY = 0.12, SSBMSY = 3183.4 t , and MSST = 2387.6 t.

CURRENT STATUS
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 27 March 2018

The 2017 stock assessment indicated that the stock remained overfished with overfishing still occurring. Current fishing mortality, calculated as the geometric mean of the most recent three years, was estimated at F2013-2015 = 0.187, which exceeds the overfishing limit (FMSY = 0.12) by 54%. Spawning biomass in the terminal year of the assessment was estimated at 911 t, which represents 38.1% and 28.6% of the MSST and SSB target, respectively. Commercial landings of red grouper in the SAFMC management area in 2015 were reported as 58.4 ton (SEDAR 2017). In 2016, commmercial harvesters reported only 23.7 ton of red grouper through the quota monitoring program (NMFS 2017).

Trends

Last updated on 27 Mar 2018

Spawning biomass of red grouper in the US South Atlantic exceeded 2,500 ton in the mid 1970s, but declined rapidly to a time series low of just 509 ton by 1988. Subsequently, spawning biomass rebounded gradually to over 1,400 ton by 2003, and then more quickly to a time series high of nearly 3,000 ton by 2007. Following this peak, spawning biomass fell sharply by more than 50% in just three years. From 2010 to 2015, biomass has continued to decline, but at a slower rate. Spawning biomass in 2015 was estimated at 911 ton (SEDAR 2017).

Fishing mortality rates were modest during the early years of the stock assessment, remaining below F = 0.35 from 1976 to 1982. By 1984, harvest rates had increased to a time series high of F = 0.80. Since that time, mortality has followed a generally declining trend over time, although with substantial interannual variability. Years of below average harvest mortality in 1991 and 2005 (F = 0.22 and 0.17, respectively) were followed shortly after by high mortality years in 1993 and 2009 (F = 0.59 in both years). Fishing mortality in the terminal year of the assessment was estimated at F = 0.181, with a three year geometric mean value of F2013-2015 = 0.187 (SEDAR 2017)

Commercial landings were reported at over 400 ton in the first year of the stock assessment (1976), but remained generally stable between 300 mt and 400 ton per year through the 1980s. Landings dropped sharply in the early 1990s, falling below 200 ton for the years 1992 to 1994, before returning to previous levels during 1995-2004. A sharp dip in landings to 215 ton in 2005 was followed by a spike to nearly 600 ton in 2007-2008. Landings have fallen considerably since this peak, dropping by more than 50% by 2010 and continuing to drop by approximately 25-33% per year since then. 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 28 January 2018

Red grouper in the US South Atlantic is managed through the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Snapper-Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP). Management decisions for red grouper generally follow available scientific advice, but could be more conservative. A 2010 stock assessment determined that red grouper were overfished and experiencing overfishing (SEDAR 2010). The SAFMC responded by passing Amendment 24, which redefined biological reference points for the species, established a 10-year rebuilding plan, and separated red grouper from the shallow water grouper complex in order to have its own specific ACL (SAFMC 2011). ACLs for 2012-2014 were set equal to the yield that would occur when fishing at 75% of the FMSY. These catch limits are therefore equal to the harvest at optimum yield (OY = ABC = ACL). The 2014 ACL has been maintained each year through 2017. There are no catch targets defined for red grouper (SAFMC 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 28 Jan 2018

A ten year recovery plan was initiated through Amendment 24 (SAFMC 2011) to extend through 2020. Annual catch limits were set equal to the yield expected when fishing at 75% of FMSY for 2012 to 2014, with the 2014 ACL recurring in subsequent years unless modified. This rebuilding plan was estimated to have a 70% chance of rebuilding success by 2020 (SAFMC 2011)

COMPLIANCE
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 28 January 2018

No species specific information is available prior to 2012 while red grouper were included in the SAFMC shallow water grouper complex that had a composite catch limit (NMFS 2017). Harvester compliance with established catch limits has been excellent since approval of Amendment 24 which removed red grouper from the species complex. In 2012, harvesters landed approximately 55% of the annual limit, but reported harvest has not exceeded 40% of a given ACL in any year since then (NMFS 2017)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 28 January 2018

Little information is available regarding interactions with protected species, such as sea turtles and marine mammals, in this fishery, but interactions with these species are considered to be low. A pilot observer program for the South Atlantic handline fishery collected information on sea turtle interactions, but the data were not reported in the final report (GSAFF 2008). Harvesters reported 56 interactions with sea turtles in 2007 and 215 in 2012 (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016). No turtles were reported from this fishery in any other year between 2006 and 2013 (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016), but it is unclear if this indicates there were no interactions, or harvesters did not report their interactions. No information is available for marine mammal interactions for this fishery specifically (no interactions reported in the Coastal Fishery Logbook program) (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016)(NMFS 2017), but the 2017 List of Fisheries (NMFS 2017) indicates that snapper-grouper fisheries (hook and line and bottom longline) in the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean collectively interact with greater than 5,000 bottlenose dolphin, but still receives a Tier III rating from NMFS, indicating little potential harm to the population. Further, Amendment 15B implemented requirements for hadling and release of smalltooth sawfish and sea turtles from the snapper-grouper hook and line fishery (SAFMC 2008). Regardless, improved monitoring of interactions between the US South Atlantic snapper-grouper fishery and protected species (protected, endangered, threatened) would be beneficial.

Other Species
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 28 January 2018

The SAFMC snapper-grouper FMP is a multispecies FMP covering a total of 55 species, including twenty grouper species, ten snappers, seven porgies, five grunts, five jacks, three tilefishes, wreckfish, hogfish, Atlantic spadefish, and two species of triggerfish (SAFMC 2017). The gears used in the fishery (handline and longline) are non-selective, resulting in a wide range of species in the catch.  A pilot observer program in for the vertical line fishery was in place from 2007-2009 (GSAFF 2008)(GSAFF 2010). In addition, species composition of harvest in both fisheries is collected through portside sampling (L. Beerkircher, NMFS pers. comm), and bycatch data are collected in both fisheries from a subset of commercial harvesters through the Coastal Fishery Logbook program (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016). Findings from these data sources are reported below.

Data from all years of the pilot program showed that species included in the snapper-grouper FMP accounted for approximately 93.6% of the total catch (kept plus discards) in numbers (GSAFF 2008)(GSAFF 2010). The remaining catch was composed of 61 non-target species, with the most common non-target species (Atlantic sharpnose shark) accounting for only 2.2% of the total catch. The proportion of total catch that was discarded varied by season and area (GSAFF 2008), but overall accounted for approximately 23% of the total catch numerically. Species managed under the snapper-grouper FMP made up over 97% of the retained catch and approximately 80% of the discarded catch (GSAFF 2008)(GSAFF 2010). Landings data from the SEFSC Trip Interview Program (TIP) (L. Beerkircher, NMFS, pers. comm.) and discard data from the SEFSC Coastal Fishery Logbook program (NMFS 2013)(NMFS 2016) corroborate that snapper-grouper species constitute the vast majority of the harvest and discards in the hand line fishery.

To address potential concerns with bycatch levels, the SAFMC adopted Amendment 15B which developed a plan to monitor and assess bycatch in the snapper-grouper fisheries (SAFMC 2008). The plan utilizes the Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program (ACCSP) Release, Discard, and Protected Species module, which includes several quantitative and qualitative data collection methods to monitor bycatch (ACCSP 2012). However, this program has not received sufficient funding for comprehensive implementation. In the meantime, the SAFMC will use a variety of methods to collect bycatch information, such as logbooks, observers, and video monitoring (SAFMC 2008). For example, the SEFSC Coastal Fisheries Logbook program collects discard information from select fishermen within the US South Atlantic snapper-grouper fishery (NMFS SEFSC 2017).

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 February 2018

Due to the biology and habitat preferences of the target species, the handline and longline fisheries operate over, or in close proximity to, sensitive habitat such as coral reefs or outcrops and other live bottom habitats. Specific studies evaluating the impacts of these gears on sensitivie habitat in the Gulf of Mexico and US South Atlantic could not be found, but the impacts are generally considered less severe than mobile gears. 

The ecosystem has been recently modelled, relating components to the environment (Sagarese et al. 2017)​.

NW Atlantic

Last updated on 28 January 2018

Handline gear are generally considered to have minimal to no impact on habitat or the substrate. A system of managed areas, including habitat areas of particular concern, marine protected areas, and special management zones, have been implemented by SAFMC over the years that aim to protect sensitive hard bottom habitat from fishing impacts.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 28 Jan 2018

The SAFMC snapper-grouper FMP and subsequent amendments have established management measures that protect coral and hard bottom habitats necessary to many snapper-grouper species. The original FMP prevented the use of explosives and poisons throughout the management area and established a process to designate artificial reefs and other modified habitats as SMZs (SAFMC 1983), while Regulatory Amendment 1 prohibited all gears except handheld hook and line and spear fishing within SMZs (SAFMC 2017). Original documentation could not be acquired, but the SAFMC Snapper Grouper FMP website (SAFMC 2017) indicates that SMZs were later designated in Florida in 1988 (Regulatory Amendment 2) and 1989 (Regulatory Amendment 3), South Carolina in 1992 (Regulatory Amendment 5) and 1998 (Regulatory Amendment 7), and Georgia in 2000 (Regulatory Amendment 8). Further, Amendment 6 (SAFMC 1993) created the 92 square mile Oculina Experimental Closed Area in 1994 which prohibits targeting or harvesting snapper-grouper using any gear within the area, and also prohibits anchoring within the closed area. These regulations not only provide a refuge free from exploitation for snapper-grouper species, but protect critical habitat as well.

A number of HAPC have also been established in U.S. South Atlantic Region that are relevant to snapper-grouper fishery, particularly for longline fishing. The SAFMC established the 92-sq-mi Oculina HAPC in 1984 through the Coral, Coral Reef and Live/Hardbottom Habitat Plan in conjunction with the GMFMC (SAFMC 2005). The boundaries of the Oculina HAPC were later expanded to incorporate an area closed to trawling for rock shrimp, plus two “satellite” Oculina areas (SAFMC 2005), bringing the total area of the HAPC to approximately 300-sq-mi. Eight additional HAPC were later established through Amendment 14 to the snapper-grouper FMP to protect deep water snapper-grouper populations and the habitats they depend upon (SAFMC 2007). The SAFMC then approved the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment (SAFMC 2009) that established Coral HAPC covering more than 23,000 sq mi to protect what may be the largest contiguous distribution of pristine deep water corals in the world. Regulations within all of the HAPC established by the SAFMC prohibit the use of all bottom tending gear, including bottom trawls, bottom longlines, dredges, fish pots and fish traps, to protect the sensitive coral and other hard bottom habitats within the HAPC. Additionally, Amendment 4 to the snapper-grouper FMP (SAFMC 1991) prohibited the use of longline gear shoreward of 50 fathoms to protect live bottom areas.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 27 March 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 4.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.181 . The F management limit is 0.120 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 151%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 0.156 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 0.198 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 78.6%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Commercial catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Commercial catch is 0.0237 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 0.156 ('000 t) .

The underlying Commercial catch/Set TAC for this index is 15.2%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 2.3.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSST.

The SSB is 0.911 ('000 t). The MSST is 2.39 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSST for this index is 38.1%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 6.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.181 . The F management limit is 0.120 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 151%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
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To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  •  Red grouper is the main species of a multispecies fishery. A single stock is considered in the Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic, not ruling out the possibility of several reproductively distinct stocks (Richardson and Gold 1997)(Zatcoff et al. 2004). Two stock assessments are conducted, by US and Mexican entities, whose stocks are minimally connected (SEDAR and Southeast Data Assessment and Review (SEDAR) 2015).
NW Atlantic

Last updated on 27 March 2018

  • Catch target and limit and annual landings values are reported for the commercial fishery only, in units of thousand metric tons (ton or t).
  • Biomass target and limit and annual spawning stock biomass values are reported in units thousand metric tons.
  • Biological reference point values, and SSB and F time series values are taken from SEDAR 53, Section 2, Tables 18 (reference points) and 8 (time series) (SEDAR 2017). 
  • Biomass target reference point is defined as SSBMSY.
  • Estimated landings time-series correspond to recreational landings in '000 mt from SEDAR 53
  • Advised TAC time-series refers to the ABC for recreational ABC in '000 mt from SAFMC Amendment 24 Table S-2

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. López-Rocha, J.A., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., 2013.Spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) on the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico. Scientia Marina 77(2): 313-322, doi: 10.3989/scimar.03565.13Bhttp://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1453/1568
  2. SAGARPA, 2014. Acuerdo por el que se da a conocer el Plan de Manejo Pesquero de Mero (Epinephelus morio) y especies asociadas en la Península de Yucatán. Diario oficial 25 Noviembre 2014.http://www.inapesca.gob.mx/portal/documentos/Planes-de-Manejo-Pesquero/Golfo/2014_11_25_MAT_sagarpa-PLAN-DE-MERO.pdf
  3. SAGARPA, 2015. Establece SAGARPA zonas de refugio para la protección de 22 especies en Quintana Roo. Press release 13 de Abril de 2015.http://www.inapesca.gob.mx/portal/sala-de-prensa/boletines/467-establece-sagarpa-zonas-de-refugio-para-la-proteccion-de-22-especies-en-quintana-roo
  4. Scott, I., 2014. Pre-Assessment Report for The Campeche Grouper Fishery Final. Intertek Fisheries Certification Ltd, June 2014. 62pp http://cedepesca.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/grouper-msc.pdf
  5. Rosas, R. B., Pérez, M. P., Aguilar, R. W. M., Cervera, K. C., González, J. C. M., Pech, E. F. C., Méndez, J. C. E., González, S. M. Evaluación de mero y especies afines del Golfo de México 2010 - Informe final, Evaluación de mero y especies afines del Golfo de México 2010. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Centro Regional de Investigación Pesquera de Yucalpeten, 25ppred_grouper_2010.pdf
  6. GMFMC. 2008a. Reef Fish Amendment 29: Effort Management in the Commercial Grouper and Tilefish Fisheries. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 484 pp with appendices. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Reef%20Fish%20Amdt%2029-Dec%2008.pdf
  7. GMFMC, 2008b. Final Reef Fish Amendment 30b: Gag – End Overfishing And Set Management Thresholds and Targets; Red Grouper – Set Optimum Yield Tac and Management Measures, Time/Area Closures; and Federal Regulatory Compliance. October 2008. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 462 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Amendment%2030B%2010_10_08.pdf
  8. GMFMC. 2009. Final Amendment 31 to the Fishery Management Plan for Reef Fish Resources in the Gulf of Mexico. June 2009. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 267 pp. http://gulfcouncil.org/Beta/GMFMCWeb/downloads/Final%20Draft%20RF%20Amend%2031%206-11-09.pdf
  9. GMFMC. 2010. Regulatory amendment to the reef fish fishery management plan to set 2011 total allowable catch for red grouper and establish marking requirements for buoy gear. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 125 p. http://gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/2010%20Red%20Grouper%20Regulatory%20Amendment%209-17-10%20final%20with%20signed%20FONSI.pdf
  10. GMFMC. 2011a. Final Regulatory Amendment to set 2011-2015 Total Allowable Catch and Adjust Bag Limit for Red Grouper. August 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 54 pp. http://gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20Regulatory%20Amendment%20-%20Red%20Grouper%20TAC%20&%20Bag%20Limit%202011-8-30.pdf
  11. GMFMC, 2011b. Final Reef Fish Amendment 32: Gag Grouper– Rebuilding Plan, Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures; Red Grouper– Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures Grouper Accountability Measures. October 2011. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 406 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/docs/amendments/Final%20RF32_EIS_October_21_2011%5B2%5D.pdf
  12. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2011. U.S. National Bycatch Report [W. A. Karp, L. L. Desfosse, S. G. Brooke, Editors ]. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-117E, 508 p. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/BREP2011/2011_National_Bycatch_Report.pdf
  13. NMFS, 2012. FISHWATCH- US Seafood facts: red grouper. NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). [accessed on 31 May 2012]. http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/grouper/species_pages/red_grouper.htm
  14. NMFS. 2012. Gulf of Mexico Reef fish proposed quotas. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/ifq/Proposed_Quotas_20121126161930.pdf
  15. Poffenberger, J. 2004. A report on the discard data from the Southeast Fisheries Science Center’s Coastal Fisheries Logbook Program. National Marine Fisheries Service, SEFSC, Miami, FL. http://ocean.floridamarine.org/efh_coral/pdfs/FMPs/discardreport01_03.pdf
  16. Richardson, L.R. & J.. Gold, 1997. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in and population structure of red grouper, Epinephelus morio, from the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 95: 174-179.http://fishbull.noaa.gov/951/richardson.pdf
  17. SEDAR 12. 2006. Stock Assessment Report. Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper. SEDAR 12. Stock Assessment Report 1. SEDAR. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. Charleston, SC. 2006 http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S12SAR1%20Gulf%20Red%20Grouper%20Completev2.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  18. SEDAR 19, 2010. South Atlantic Red Grouper Stock Assessment Report. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/Red_grouper_SAR_FINAL.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  19. SEDAR, 2009. Stock Assessment of Red Grouper in the Gulf of Mexico. SEDAR Update Assessment, 143 p. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/Red_Grouper_2009_Assessment_Update_Report.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
  20. SERO, 2011a. 2010 Commercial Quotas/Catch Allowances in gutted pounds. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). 3 January 2012. 11 March 2011. http://ifq.sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/ifqgt/documents/pdf/CommercialQuotasCatchAllowanceTable_2010.pdf
  21. SERO, 2011b. Gulf of Mexico 2010 Preliminary Recreational Landings (lbs) by Two-month Wave. last updated at 6 September 2011. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO).http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/pdfs/ACL_2010_rec_landings.pdf
  22. SERO, 2012a. 2011 Commercial Quotas/Catch Allowances in gutted pounds. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). 3 January 2012. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/pdfs/CommercialQuotasCatchAllowanceTable_2011.pdf
  23. SERO, 2012b. Gulf of Mexico 2011 Recreational Landings (lbs) by Two-month Wave. last updated May 15, 2012. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office (SERO). http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/2011GulfRecLandingsandACLs.html
  24. Sinclair, M. and G. Valdimarsson (eds). 2003. Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qwvNev8JiQwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA321&dq=bottom+longline+anchor+impacts+on+ecosystem+gulf+of+mexico&ots=oH0DjftOI0&sig=A06OoabNzCv525DrGgzn1hdP8DA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  25. Zatcoff, M.S., A.O. Ball & G.R. Sedberry, 2004. Population genetic analysis of red grouper, Epinephelus morio, and scamp, Mycteroperca phenax, from the southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 144: 769–777. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/download/S19_RD05_ZatcoffEtAl_MarBio04.pdf?id=DOCUMENT
References

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    Red grouper - Gulf of Mexico and NW Atlantic, NW Atlantic, US NW Atlantic, United States, Hooks and lines

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