Last updated on 3 February 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus obesus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Bigeye tuna

The Vietnamese handline and longline fishery improvement project, run by WWF Coral Triangle, WWF Vietnma and VinaTuna, was initiated in 2012.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). The WCPFC has an agreement with the Secretariat of the Pacific to undertake regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species. Therefore, the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored. Catch limits have recently been put into place (2013) for six countries (United States, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan) longline fisheries operating on the high seas. The most recent assessment (2017) indicates that bigeye tuna are not longer underfished or undergoing overfishing.

Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries, including Indonesia and the Philippines, has been identified as an issue by the Scientific Committee. Mandated observer coverage rates by the WCPFC in the longline fishery are low (5%) compared to other fisheries (i.e. purse seine) and many fleets still do not reach this threshold. The WCPFC does not allow for the international exchange of observers, which is considered best practices needed to maximize data quality. Smaller countries may lack resources to achieve adequate observer coverage. Bycatch of ecologically important species such as sharks, sea turtles and sea birds continues to be a problem in many fisheries targeting bigeye tuna.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9.9

Future Health:

8.5


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with WCPFC Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western and Central Pacific Viet Nam Viet Nam Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Trolling lines
WCPFC Australia Hooks and lines
Longlines
Trolling lines
China Longlines
Cook Islands Longlines
Fiji Longlines
French Polynesia Longlines
Indonesia Longlines
Purse seines
Japan Longlines
Korea, Republic of Longlines
Marshall Islands Drifting longlines
Longlines
Micronesia, Federated States of Drifting longlines
Longlines
Solomon Islands Longlines
Spain Purse seines
Taiwan, Province of China Longlines
United States Drifting longlines
Vanuatu Longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 September 2014

Strengths

Bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). The WCPFC has an agreement with the Secretariat of the Pacific to undertake regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species. Therefore, the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored. Catch limits have recently been put into place (2013) for six countries (United States, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan) longline fisheries operating on the high seas. The most recent assessment (2017) indicates that bigeye tuna are not longer underfished or undergoing overfishing.

Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries, including Indonesia and the Philippines, has been identified as an issue by the Scientific Committee. Mandated observer coverage rates by the WCPFC in the longline fishery are low (5%) compared to other fisheries (i.e. purse seine) and many fleets still do not reach this threshold. The WCPFC does not allow for the international exchange of observers, which is considered best practices needed to maximize data quality. Smaller countries may lack resources to achieve adequate observer coverage. Bycatch of ecologically important species such as sharks, sea turtles and sea birds continues to be a problem in many fisheries targeting bigeye tuna.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 15 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with WCPFC Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) of the Secretariat of the Pacific (SFP), conducted the most recent assessment for bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) in 2017 (McKechnie et al. 2017).

Stock assessments of bigeye tuna in the WCPO have been conducted regularly since 1999. The most recent assessment was conducted in 2017 and included catch, effort, length-frequency and weight-frequency data from 1952-2015. This updated model included the following changes from the 2014 assessment: 

- Standardied catch per unit effort (CPUE) indices calculated from the recently collated operational longline CPUE dataset

- Investigating alternative spatial structure

- Investigate use of a new growth model

- Implementation of new features developed in the Multi-Fan CL model

In 2018 the SPC, using updated age and growth information, re-evaluated the status of bigeye tuna. The analysis used the same methods as used during the 2017 assessment (Vincetn et al. 2018).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The most recent scientific advice, based on the 2016 assessment, is that the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)  should continue to consider measure to reduce fishing mortality of juvenile bigeye tuna. Fishing mortality levels should not be increased from current levels in an effort to allow the population to be at the least maintained or potentially increase {WCPFC 2017}.

Reference Points

 

There is currently a limit but no target reference point adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission for bigeye tuna (Vincetn et al. 2018).

ParameterValue
SBcurrent/SBMSY1.285 (0.494-1.879)
Fcurrent/FMSY0.887 (0.592-1.632)
SBlatest/SBMSY1.466 (0.503-2.187)
MSY15,543 mt
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The stock is currently not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (McKechnie et al., 2017)(Vincetn et al. 2018).

Trends

Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

The spawning potential of bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) began to decline after a stable period during the 1950’s. The most rapid declines occurred through the mid-1970’s and since then, the decline has been more gradual. Fishing mortality rates for adults increased throughout the time period and for juveniles increased through the late 1990’s, being stable since {McKenchie et al. 2017}. Short term projections conducted in  indicate the current spawning biomass is likely to remain above the limit reference point (Scott et al. 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2018

There are management measures in place for bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline and troll and pole fisheries. The measures that are in place include catch limits for bigeye tuna caught in longline fisheries and in fisheries other than longline, the total fishing effort must be below the average level from 2001-2004 or for 2004 (WCPFC 2017).The most recent management measures for this species were adopted in 2017 (WCPFC 2017). These measures apply to the longline, purse seine and other surface fisheries.  The WCPFC has implemented several management measures specific to the purse seine fisheries. For purse seine fisheries, there is a three month prohibition (July, August and September) on setting on fish aggregating devices (FAD’s) for all purse seine vessels in EEZ’s and the high seas in the area between 200 N and 200 S. In addition, member nations (except Kiribati and Philippines) must iprohibit FAD fishing (deployement and service as well) during an additional two sequential months, either April-May or November-December (WCPFC 2017). Coastal CCM's must also adhere to purse seine effort limits in their EEZs (WCPFC 2017). Other CCMs (non Small Islands Developing States and Indonesia) must limit the number of purse seine vessels larger than 24 m operaring between 200 N and 200 S to the level required under CCM 2013-01 (WCPFC 2017). Member nations must have a FAD management plan in place to help reduce the capture of small bigeye and yellowfin tuans, and implementing FAD closures and discarding bigeye, skipjack or yellowfin tuna is prohibited {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2013b}{WCPFC 2016b}. In addition, member countries of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement have agreed to use a regional fishing vessel register, abide by a high seas pocket area closures, are prohibited from fishing on FAD’s, utilize a Vessel Day Scheme and retain all catch {PNA 2013}{PNA 2012} [PNA 2010}{WCPFC 2016b}{WCPFC 2016c}.

In addition, biomass based limit reference points have been adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) for bigeye tuna and are used to determine the status of tuna populations. Target reference points are not yet in place and there are no harvest control rules (WCPFC 2017). However, the WCPFC has a working group that is currently working on identifying potential target reference points and a harvest control rule {WCPFC 2016d}.

Recovery Plans

Bigeye tuna are included in a Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) for tropical tunas in the WCPO (WCPFC 2017).  

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has a compliance monitoring scheme in place that assess’s members compliance with obligations, identifies areas of conservation and management that may need refinement, responds to non-compliance and monitors and resolves non-compliance issues. The Commission evaluates compliance by members annually with respect to: catch and effort limits and reporting for target species, spatial and temporal closures, observer and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) coverage and provision of scientific data {WCPFC 2012b}.

Vessel Monitoring Systems are required on all vessels fishing for highly migratory species in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean south of 20N and east of 175E. The area north of 20N and west of 175W will have an activation date for VMS’s set at a later time {WCPFC 2012b}. There are measures in place allowing for the boarding and inspection of vessels in the Convention Area {WCPFC 2006} and the WCPFC maintains a list of illegal, unreported and unregulated vessels {WCPFC 2010}. However, assessing the effectiveness of these enforcement measures is difficult because there is a general lack in the transparency of information with regards to surveillance activities, infractions and enforcement actions and outcomes {Gilman et al. 2013}.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna longline fisheries incidentally capture green, hawksbill and leatherback sea turtles, which are currently listed on CITES Appendix I, meaning they are threatened with extinction and international trade is banned. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed green turtles as Endangered and hawksbill and leatherback turtles as Critically Endangered. Leatherback turtles have also been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act since 1970 and Olive Ridley turtles as Threatened since 1978. The IUCN classified loggerhead turtles as Endangered in 1996, although it has been suggested that this needs to be updated {Marine Turtle Specialist Group 2006). In the North Pacific Ocean, loggerheads have been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act list since 1978 {NMFS 2012}. Purse seine (associated) fisheries also capture green, hawksbill, and olive Ridely sea turtles.

Marine mammals interactions are not common in longline fisheries operating in the WCPO {Molony 2005} but false killer whales, rough-toothed and short-beaked dolphins are reported as bycatch in purse seine fisheries {OFP 2012}.

Sea birds are most commonly encountered in the southern part of the WCPO. Common species include Black-browed albatross, grey petrel, flesh-footed shearwater, light manteled albatross, Salvin’s albatross, wandering albatross and white-chinned petrel {Birdlife International}.

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species. For example, WCPFC members are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. Vessels fishing north of 23N in the WCPO are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line. Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012d}. Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles. Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks {WCPFC 2008}. In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012d}{WCPFC 2008}.

Other Species

Last updated on 24 March 2014

The Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline fisheries catch a number of other species of fish, including billfish, other tuna species, and sharks. The troll fishery catches small amounts of other tuna species and fish.

Common bycatch species in the longline fisheries include blue, shortfin mako, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks, opah, and blue, striped and black marlin. In the purse seine fishery, silky and whale (unassociated) sharks are also incidentally captured. Oceanic whitetip, silky and shortfin mako sharks and striped marlin are either overfished or their status is unknown {Rice and Harley 2012a,b}{Clark 2011}{Lee et al. 2012}.

Members of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012e}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks. Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010}. In addition, a phased reduction in catches of striped marlin in the North Pacific began in 2010, and was scheduled to run through 2012, resulting in an 80% reduction of 2000-2003 levels. Individual countries were to identify ways to accomplish this {WCPFC 2010b}. Member countries were also to limit the number of fishing vessels targeting swordfish to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 {WCPFC 2009}.

Purse seine vessels in the WCPO are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure. If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident. However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012f}.

HABITAT

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The impact of pelagic longlines, purse seine's and troll/pole fishing gears, which are used to capture bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, on bottom habitats is minimal.

Marine Reserves

The Western and Central Pacific FIsheries Commission (WCPFC) has a time/area closure on purse seine sets on fish aggregating devices (FADs) and other floating objects by purse seine vessels for three months annually in the area bounded by 20ºN and 20ºS (WCPFC, 2008a, 2009a). In 2008, the Parties to the Nauru Agreement, a regional agreement establishing terms and conditions for foreign access to the Exclusive Economic Zones of eight Pacific Island Countries, closed to purse seine fishing two areas of high seas international waters that are enclosed by the Parties’ domestic waters (PNA, 2008). These areas were modified slightly in 2016 {WCPFC 2016c}. There are no closed ares to longline fishing.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 17 September 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Management strategy is not precautionary because no formal target reference points have been adopted and there is no formal harvest control rule to ensure that fishing mortality rates will be reduced as limit reference points are reached.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Bigeye tuna populations appear to have increased in recent years. Although the exact reason for this increase (i.e. management or oceanographic conditions) is unknown.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no evidence of systematic non-compliance with management measures. TAC's have recently been put into place but it is too soon to determine if catches have exceeded the limits consistently.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.9.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 1.47 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 147%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 8.5.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.870 (age-averaged). The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 87.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1. The time series of F and SSB are provided relative to MSY (F/FMSY, B/BMSY); the thresholds have been set accordingly. 2. The SBMSY/SBo value is from the base case model. 3. The latest stock assessment was conducted in 2011 and included data through 2010. 4. Data for 2011 and 2011 taken from WCPFC (2013b). 5. the TAC (phased in reduction: 2011 30% of average 2001-2004 or 2004); new TAC put into place in 2012 is only for the longline fishery and for specific countries. 6. Catches are total catches (i.e. all fisheries). 7. The base case model indicated the biomass is above BMSY but if recent recruitment actually represents true productivity for bigeye in the WCPO – then the biomass is below BMSY. 8 There is typically a large amount of uncertainty surrounding tuna stock assessments.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Australia. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CMM-01. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-01%20AUSTRALIA%20PART%201.pdf

China. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-03.  http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-03%20CHINA%20PART%201_0.pdf

Davies, N., Hoyle, S., Harley, S., Langley, A., Kleiber, P. and Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, Scientific Committee, Seventh Regular Session, WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-02, 9-17 August 2011, 133 pp. Available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/node/2785

FACA. 2016. Tuna fisheries status report of Chinese TAipei in the Western and Central Pacific region. Fisheries Agency, Council of Agriculture and Overseas Fisheries Development Council. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-23%20CHINESE%20TAIPEI%20PART%201%20Rev%201%20%284%20July%202016%29.pdf

French Polynesia (FP). 2017. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. WCPFC-SC-13-AR//CCM-08. Availalbe at: https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-08%20FRENCH%20POLYNESIA%20PART%201_0.pdf

FSM. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I: Information on fisheries, research and statitics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-06. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-06%20FEDERATED%20STATES%20OF%20MICRONESIA%20Part%201%20Rev%201.pdf

Harley, S., Hoyle, S., Langley, A., Hampton, J., Kleiber, P. 2009. Bigeye Tuna Stock Assessment, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Scientific Committee Fifth Regular Session, Port Vila, Vanuatu 10-21 August 2009, WCPFC-SC5-2009/SA-WP-4; page 82-3

Harley, S. J., Williams, P., Nicol, S. and Hampton, J., 2011. The western and central Pacific tuna fishery: 2010 overview and status of stocks. Tuna Fisheries Assessment Report 11. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 38 pages.

Harley, S.J., Davies, N. 2011. Evaluation of stock status of Bigeye, Skipjack and Yellowfin tunas against potential limit reference points, WCPFC Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August 2011, 16 pages.

Harley, S., Davies, N., Hampton, J. and McKechnie, S. 2014 Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. WCPFC-SC10-2014/SA-WP01. Available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC10-SA-WP-01%20%5BBET%20Assessment%5D_rev1_25July.pdf

Indonesia. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-Sc12-AR/CCM-09. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-09%20INDONESIA%20PART%201.pdf

International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF). 2013. ISSF stock assessment workshop: control rules and reference points for tuna RFMOs. ISSF Technical Report 2013-03. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, DC. 34 p.

Japan. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I:Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-10. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-10%20JAPAN%20PART%201%20Rev%201.pdf

Marshall Islands. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-13. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-13%20MARSHALL%20ISLANDS%20PART%201.pdf

McKechnie, S., Pilling, G. and Hampton, J. 2017. Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. WCPFC-SC13-2017/SA-WP-05. https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC13-SA-WP-05%20%5Bbet-assessment%5D%20REV1.pdf

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2012. Endangered Species Act – Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion. National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Region, Protected Resources Division. 162 pg.

NORMA and FFA. 2015. Management Plan on Tuna Fisheries for the Federated States of Micronesia. National Oceanic Resource Management Authority and the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency. Available at: https://spccfpstore1.blob.core.windows.net/digitallibrary-docs/files/9b/9b2a55823fe6a023adb4d0ef344e1dbf.pdf?sv=2015-12-11&sr=b&sig=fjpvcEVvDSyBLUhqezlkyfPyDe6yvsoB5nuC3Qz18co%3D&se=2017-08-29T21%3A40%3A43Z&sp=r&rscc=public%2C%20max-age%3D864000%2C%20max-stale%3D86400&rsct=application%2Fpdf&rscd=inline%3B%20filename%3D%22Anon_2015_FSM_Tuna_Management_Plan.pdf%22

OIAD. 2016.Annual report to the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Part I: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. Oceanic. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM--13. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-13%20MARSHALL%20ISLANDS%20PART%201.pdf

Republic of Korea. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-12%20KOREA%20PART%201%20Rev%201%20%2829%20August%202016%29.pdf

RVFD. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-28. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-28%20VANUATU%20PART%201%20Rev%203%20%2823%20September%202016%29.pdf

Scott, R.D., Pilling, G.M. and McKechnie, S.2017. Stochastic status quo projections for bigeye tuna. WCPFC-SC13-2017/SA-IP-22.https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC13-SA-IP-22%20BET%20projections%20report.pdf

Vietnam. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-Ar/CNM-36. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CNM-36%20VIETNAM%20PART%201.pdf

WCPFC. 2008. Conservation and management measure for bigeye and yellowfin tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2008-01. Fifth Regular Session, Busan, Republic of Korea, 8-12 December 2008.

WCPFC. 2012. Conservation and management measure for protection of whale sharks from purse seine fishing operations. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-04. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines, 2-6 December 2012.

WCPFC. 2012b. Commission Vessel Monitoring System. Conservation and Management Measure 2011-02. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/CMM-2011-02-Conservation-and-Management-Measure-Commission-VMS.pdf

WCPFC. 2013. Conservation and management measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2013-01. Tenth regular session, December 2-6, 2013, Cairns Australia.

WCPFC. 2013b. Estimates of annual catches in the WCPO statistical area. WCPFC-SC9-2013/ST IP-1
http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/ST-IP-01-Annual-Catch-Estimates.pdf

WCPFC. 2014. Scientific Committee Tenth Regular Session Summary Report. Westerna and Central Pacific FIsheries Commission.

WCPFC. 2016. WCPFC 13 Outcomes Document. Circular No. 2016/73. Decebmer 21, 2016. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC%20Circular%202016-73%20WCPFC13%20Outcomes%20document.%2021%20December%202016.pdf

WCPFC. 2016b. Conservation and Management Measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Western adn Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-01. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20O_CMM%202016-01%20CMM%20for%20Bigeye%20Yellowfin%20and%20Skipjack%20Tuna_p_1.pdf

WCPFC. 2016c. Conservation and Management Measure for the Eastern High Seas Pocket Special Management Area. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-02. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20K_CMM%202016-02%20CMM%20for%20EHSP-SMA_p.pdf

WCPFC. 2016d. Reference document for the development of harvest strategies under CMM 2014-06. WCPFC13-2016-11A. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC13-2016-11A%20%5BReference%20document%20for%20Harvest%20Strategy%5D.pdf

References

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    Bigeye tuna - Western and Central Pacific, Viet Nam, Viet Nam, Longlines

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