SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Thunnus obesus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Bigeye tuna

Western and Central Pacific Ocean bigeye tuna is caught by four U.S. longline fisheries: (i) West Coast – State of California, (ii) Hawaii deep-set (tuna-targeting), (iii) Hawaii shallow-set (swordfish-targeting), and (iii) American Samoa. Each of these fisheries operates in the US EEZ and on the high seas.

This profile is for (ii) the Hawaii pelagic longline deep-set fishery, which targets primarily bigeye tuna, at grounds in the western and central Pacific. Note that this fishery also operates in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, where it catches the EPO bigeye tuna stock – which is not covered in this profile.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). The WCPFC has an agreement with the Secretariat of the Pacific to undertake regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species. Therefore, the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored. Catch limits have recently been put into place (2013) for six countries (United States, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan) longline fisheries operating on the high seas. The most recent assessment (2017) indicates that bigeye tuna are not longer underfished or undergoing overfishing.

  • Fishing permits, logbooks and observer programs are in place to monitor compliance and bycatch issues. The observer program coverage rate is much higher than the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission mandated 5%. Interactions with sea turtles, sea birds and marine mammals have been minimized (~80% reduction) through bycatch mitigation measures. Catch limits for bigeye tuna in longline fisheries have recently been put into place.
  • Several bycatch mitigation and monitoring measures for sea turtles and seabirds in place in the Hawaii deep-set longline fishery targeting tunas, including several gear requirements and ~20% on-board observer coverage. This suite of regulations and measures to address ETP bycatch is virtually unparalleled in commercial fisheries globally. In addition, the US is a member of both the WCPFC and IATTC, and is thus obligated to comply with several conservation measures in place in those RFMOs that address ETP bycatch.
  • Quality and availability of information to assess ETP bycatch in the Hawaii longline fishery is among the best of any commercial fishery in the world, and comparable to data used to assess target stocks in many cases. This should be the standard for ETP bycatch monitoring and reporting, not the exception.
Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries, including Indonesia and the Philippines, has been identified as an issue by the Scientific Committee. Mandated observer coverage rates by the WCPFC in the longline fishery are low (5%) compared to other fisheries (i.e. purse seine) and many fleets still do not reach this threshold. The WCPFC does not allow for the international exchange of observers, which is considered best practices needed to maximize data quality. Smaller countries may lack resources to achieve adequate observer coverage. Bycatch of ecologically important species such as sharks, sea turtles and sea birds continues to be a problem in many fisheries targeting bigeye tuna.

  • The biomass is below sustainable levels and fishing mortality rates are above sustainable levels. Fishing mortality rates need to be reduced by 36% to be sustainable. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has recently implemented catch limits for bigeye tuna caught in longline fisheries operating within the Convention Area for the years 2014-2017. Catch limits for 2014 have been set at 70% of the average catches from 2001-2004 or from 2004 (identified in a previous WCPFC management measure (2008)). Six countries, including the US have been given individual catch limits under this management measures. Prior to this, the WCPFC required a phased in reduction (10-30%) of bigeye tuna longline catches to occur between 2009-2011 (based on same average catches identified above). There are no target reference points or harvest control rule at the international (WCPFC) level. the United States has identified “status determination criteria” to determine the status of bigeye tuna and whether they are subject to US mandated rebuilding plans. The US has not implemented any additional measures b/c they have deemed their impact to be minimal. However, the current stock assessment does not attribute fishing mortality rates to individual regions.
  • Bycatch of ecologically important species such as silky sharks, longfin mako sharks, and blue sharks, as well as several species of sea turtles occurs in this Hawaii longline fishery, and could be negatively impacting population status. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9.9

Future Health:

8.5


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with WCPFC Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

FIPS

  • Hawaii tuna and large pelagics - longline:

    Stage 5

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western and Central Pacific Viet Nam Viet Nam Drifting longlines
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Trolling lines
WCPFC Australia Hooks and lines
Longlines
Trolling lines
China Longlines
Cook Islands Longlines
Fiji Longlines
French Polynesia Longlines
Indonesia Handlines hand operated
Longlines
Purse seines
Japan Longlines
Korea, Republic of Longlines
Marshall Islands Drifting longlines
Longlines
Micronesia, Federated States of Drifting longlines
Longlines
Solomon Islands Longlines
Spain Purse seines
Taiwan, Province of China Longlines
United States Associated purse seining
Drifting longlines
Vanuatu Longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 September 2014

Strengths

Bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean are managed at the international level by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). The WCPFC has an agreement with the Secretariat of the Pacific to undertake regular assessments of target tuna and tuna-like species. Therefore, the status of the stocks is known and regularly monitored. Catch limits have recently been put into place (2013) for six countries (United States, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan) longline fisheries operating on the high seas. The most recent assessment (2017) indicates that bigeye tuna are not longer underfished or undergoing overfishing.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 July 2019

  • Fishing permits, logbooks and observer programs are in place to monitor compliance and bycatch issues. The observer program coverage rate is much higher than the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission mandated 5%. Interactions with sea turtles, sea birds and marine mammals have been minimized (~80% reduction) through bycatch mitigation measures. Catch limits for bigeye tuna in longline fisheries have recently been put into place.
  • Several bycatch mitigation and monitoring measures for sea turtles and seabirds in place in the Hawaii deep-set longline fishery targeting tunas, including several gear requirements and ~20% on-board observer coverage. This suite of regulations and measures to address ETP bycatch is virtually unparalleled in commercial fisheries globally. In addition, the US is a member of both the WCPFC and IATTC, and is thus obligated to comply with several conservation measures in place in those RFMOs that address ETP bycatch.
  • Quality and availability of information to assess ETP bycatch in the Hawaii longline fishery is among the best of any commercial fishery in the world, and comparable to data used to assess target stocks in many cases. This should be the standard for ETP bycatch monitoring and reporting, not the exception.
Weaknesses

There is no formally adopted harvest control rule or target reference points. Information on compliance and monitoring by member countries has historically not been available. In recent years, there has been an increased lack of transparency with regard to the WCPFC decision making process. Timely submissions and data accuracy from some member countries, including Indonesia and the Philippines, has been identified as an issue by the Scientific Committee. Mandated observer coverage rates by the WCPFC in the longline fishery are low (5%) compared to other fisheries (i.e. purse seine) and many fleets still do not reach this threshold. The WCPFC does not allow for the international exchange of observers, which is considered best practices needed to maximize data quality. Smaller countries may lack resources to achieve adequate observer coverage. Bycatch of ecologically important species such as sharks, sea turtles and sea birds continues to be a problem in many fisheries targeting bigeye tuna.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 July 2019

  • The biomass is below sustainable levels and fishing mortality rates are above sustainable levels. Fishing mortality rates need to be reduced by 36% to be sustainable. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has recently implemented catch limits for bigeye tuna caught in longline fisheries operating within the Convention Area for the years 2014-2017. Catch limits for 2014 have been set at 70% of the average catches from 2001-2004 or from 2004 (identified in a previous WCPFC management measure (2008)). Six countries, including the US have been given individual catch limits under this management measures. Prior to this, the WCPFC required a phased in reduction (10-30%) of bigeye tuna longline catches to occur between 2009-2011 (based on same average catches identified above). There are no target reference points or harvest control rule at the international (WCPFC) level. the United States has identified “status determination criteria” to determine the status of bigeye tuna and whether they are subject to US mandated rebuilding plans. The US has not implemented any additional measures b/c they have deemed their impact to be minimal. However, the current stock assessment does not attribute fishing mortality rates to individual regions.
  • Bycatch of ecologically important species such as silky sharks, longfin mako sharks, and blue sharks, as well as several species of sea turtles occurs in this Hawaii longline fishery, and could be negatively impacting population status. 
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 15 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with WCPFC Members, Cooperating Non-Members, and Participating Territories to: 
    • Develop and implement comprehensive, precautionary harvest strategies with specific timelines for all tuna stocks, including the adoption and implementation of limit and target reference points, harvest control rules, monitoring strategies, operational objectives, performance indicators, and management strategy evaluation.
    • Strengthen compliance processes and make information on non-compliance public and continue to provide evidence of compliance with all WCPFC Conservation and Management Measures in a timely manner.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement for at-sea transshipment activities, as well as other measures that ensure transshipment activity is transparent and well-managed, and that all required data are collected and transmitted to the appropriate bodies in a timely manner.
    • Increase compliance with the mandatory minimum 5% longline observer coverage rates by identifying and correcting non-compliance.
    • Implement a 100% observer coverage requirement – human and/or electronic – within five years for longline fisheries.  Adopt a 100% observer coverage requirement for purse seine vessels where it is not already required and require the use of the best-available observer safety equipment, communications and procedures.
    • Adopt effective measures for the use of non-entangling FAD designs as a precautionary measure to minimize the entanglement of sharks and other non-target species, and support research on biodegradable materials and transition to their use to mitigate marine debris. 
    • More effectively implement, and ensure compliance with, existing RFMO bycatch requirements and take additional mitigation action, such as improving monitoring at sea, collecting and sharing operational-level, species-specific data, and adopting stronger compliance measures, including consequences for non-compliance for all gear types.
  • Ensure all products are traceable back to legal sources. Verify source information and full chain traceability through traceability desk audits or third party traceability certification. For fisheries without robust traceability systems in place, invest in meaningful improvements to bring the fisheries and supply chain in compliance with best practices.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) of the Secretariat of the Pacific (SFP), conducted the most recent assessment for bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) in 2017 (McKechnie et al. 2017).

Stock assessments of bigeye tuna in the WCPO have been conducted regularly since 1999. The most recent assessment was conducted in 2017 and included catch, effort, length-frequency and weight-frequency data from 1952-2015. This updated model included the following changes from the 2014 assessment: 

- Standardied catch per unit effort (CPUE) indices calculated from the recently collated operational longline CPUE dataset

- Investigating alternative spatial structure

- Investigate use of a new growth model

- Implementation of new features developed in the Multi-Fan CL model

In 2018 the SPC, using updated age and growth information, re-evaluated the status of bigeye tuna. The analysis used the same methods as used during the 2017 assessment (Vincent et al. 2018).

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 25 July 2012

The Western and Central Pacific Tuna Commission (WCPFC) conduct regular stock assessment to ascertain the status of western and central pacific stock of bigeye tuna. A good account of U.S. longline fisheries in the WCPFC convention area is provided in WCPFC (2011). Latest stock assessment reports from Secretariat of Pacific Community (SPC) and WCPFC suggest that current fishing effort needs to be reduced by 32% to ensure recovery of the bigeye stock (Harley et al., 2011; Davies et al., 2011). Harley et al., (2011) report states that the domestic surface net fisheries in Indonesia and Philippines take huge numbers of juvenile bigeye tuna (20-60 cm range) leading to recruitment overfishing of the stock. Further, the report states that the current and recent fishing mortality levels have exceeded Fmsy levels alluding to overfishing of the stock ((Fcurrent > Fmsy).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The most recent scientific advice, based on the 2016 assessment, is that the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)  should continue to consider measure to reduce fishing mortality of juvenile bigeye tuna. Fishing mortality levels should not be increased from current levels in an effort to allow the population to be at the least maintained or potentially increase {WCPFC 2017}.

Reference Points

 

There is currently a limit but no target reference point adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission for bigeye tuna (Vincetn et al. 2018).

ParameterValue
SBcurrent/SBMSY1.285 (0.494-1.879)
Fcurrent/FMSY0.887 (0.592-1.632)
SBlatest/SBMSY1.466 (0.503-2.187)
MSY15,543 mt
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 13 September 2018

The stock is currently not overfished and overfishing is not occurring (McKechnie et al., 2017)(Vincent et al. 2018).

Trends

Last updated on 16 Jan 2018

The spawning potential of bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) began to decline after a stable period during the 1950’s. The most rapid declines occurred through the mid-1970’s and since then, the decline has been more gradual. Fishing mortality rates for adults increased throughout the time period and for juveniles increased through the late 1990’s, being stable since {McKenchie et al. 2017}. Short term projections conducted in  indicate the current spawning biomass is likely to remain above the limit reference point (Scott et al. 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 13 September 2018

There are management measures in place for bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline and troll and pole fisheries. The measures that are in place include catch limits for bigeye tuna caught in longline fisheries and in fisheries other than longline, the total fishing effort must be below the average level from 2001-2004 or for 2004 (WCPFC 2017).The most recent management measures for this species were adopted in 2017 (WCPFC 2017). These measures apply to the longline, purse seine and other surface fisheries.  The WCPFC has implemented several management measures specific to the purse seine fisheries. For purse seine fisheries, there is a three month prohibition (July, August and September) on setting on fish aggregating devices (FAD’s) for all purse seine vessels in EEZ’s and the high seas in the area between 200 N and 200 S. In addition, member nations (except Kiribati and Philippines) must iprohibit FAD fishing (deployement and service as well) during an additional two sequential months, either April-May or November-December (WCPFC 2017). Coastal CCM's must also adhere to purse seine effort limits in their EEZs (WCPFC 2017). Other CCMs (non Small Islands Developing States and Indonesia) must limit the number of purse seine vessels larger than 24 m operaring between 200 N and 200 S to the level required under CCM 2013-01 (WCPFC 2017). Member nations must have a FAD management plan in place to help reduce the capture of small bigeye and yellowfin tuans, and implementing FAD closures and discarding bigeye, skipjack or yellowfin tuna is prohibited {WCPFC 2012a}{WCPFC 2013b}{WCPFC 2016b}. In addition, member countries of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement have agreed to use a regional fishing vessel register, abide by a high seas pocket area closures, are prohibited from fishing on FAD’s, utilize a Vessel Day Scheme and retain all catch {PNA 2013}{PNA 2012} [PNA 2010}{WCPFC 2016b}{WCPFC 2016c}.

In addition, biomass based limit reference points have been adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) for bigeye tuna and are used to determine the status of tuna populations. Target reference points are not yet in place and there are no harvest control rules (WCPFC 2017). However, the WCPFC has a working group that is currently working on identifying potential target reference points and a harvest control rule {WCPFC 2016d}.

Recovery Plans

Bigeye tuna are included in a Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) for tropical tunas in the WCPO (WCPFC 2017).  

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 25 June 2013

Bigeye tuna in Hawaiian waters are managed under the Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council’s (WPRFMC) Pelagics Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP). This plan includes overfishing thresholds for bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tunas but there are no target or rebuilding control rules or reference points. The FEP does include a limit to the number of longline permits. The WPRFMC will work with the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) to create rebuilding plans if a species is deemed depleted {WPRFMC 2009}. The US has been allotted a bigeye catch limit (longline only) of 3,763 mt through the WCPFC {WCPFC 2013c}. The Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WPRFMC) has not implemented their own set of management plans for bigeye tuna because they determined the impact to the stocks was minimal.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 25 Jun 2013

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission has implemented catch limits for bigeye tuna caught in longline fisheries fishing in the western and central Pacific Ocean. No other recovery plans have been instituted in Hawaiian waters.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has a compliance monitoring scheme in place that assess’s members compliance with obligations, identifies areas of conservation and management that may need refinement, responds to non-compliance and monitors and resolves non-compliance issues. The Commission evaluates compliance by members annually with respect to: catch and effort limits and reporting for target species, spatial and temporal closures, observer and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) coverage and provision of scientific data {WCPFC 2012b}.

Vessel Monitoring Systems are required on all vessels fishing for highly migratory species in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean south of 20N and east of 175E. The area north of 20N and west of 175W will have an activation date for VMS’s set at a later time {WCPFC 2012b}. There are measures in place allowing for the boarding and inspection of vessels in the Convention Area {WCPFC 2006} and the WCPFC maintains a list of illegal, unreported and unregulated vessels {WCPFC 2010}. However, assessing the effectiveness of these enforcement measures is difficult because there is a general lack in the transparency of information with regards to surveillance activities, infractions and enforcement actions and outcomes {Gilman et al. 2013}.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 5 June 2014

The Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, which manages tunas in and around Hawaii, has implemented management measures adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) {WPRFMC}. However, management measures enacted by the WCPFC have shown mixed results in their ability to meet stock management objectives of principal market species such as bigeye tuna {Gilman et al. 2013}.

The Hawaiian deep-set longline fishery uses observers (~20% of fishery), vessel monitoring systems and logbooks {WPRFMC 2009}{PIROP 2012a} to enforce management measures.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna longline fisheries incidentally capture green, hawksbill and leatherback sea turtles, which are currently listed on CITES Appendix I, meaning they are threatened with extinction and international trade is banned. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed green turtles as Endangered and hawksbill and leatherback turtles as Critically Endangered. Leatherback turtles have also been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act since 1970 and Olive Ridley turtles as Threatened since 1978. The IUCN classified loggerhead turtles as Endangered in 1996, although it has been suggested that this needs to be updated {Marine Turtle Specialist Group 2006). In the North Pacific Ocean, loggerheads have been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act list since 1978 {NMFS 2012}. Purse seine (associated) fisheries also capture green, hawksbill, and olive Ridely sea turtles.

Marine mammals interactions are not common in longline fisheries operating in the WCPO {Molony 2005} but false killer whales, rough-toothed and short-beaked dolphins are reported as bycatch in purse seine fisheries {OFP 2012}.

Sea birds are most commonly encountered in the southern part of the WCPO. Common species include Black-browed albatross, grey petrel, flesh-footed shearwater, light manteled albatross, Salvin’s albatross, wandering albatross and white-chinned petrel {Birdlife International}.

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has adopted several management measures to protect vulnerable bycatch species. For example, WCPFC members are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. Vessels fishing north of 23N in the WCPO are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line. Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012d}. Members of the WCPFC are also to implement the FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles. Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks {WCPFC 2008}. In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012d}{WCPFC 2008}.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 July 2019

The Hawaii-based longline fishery comprises two sectors under a total of 164 permits: in a given year, 122 to 139 longline vessels target tuna (Thunnus spp.) using deep-set gear and 11 to 35 vessels target swordfish using shallow-set gear (NOAA-NMFS 2018). Several species of sea turtles, seabirds and marine mammals are reported as bycatch in the Hawaiian deep-set longline fishery that targets bigeye tuna. However, there are management measures in place to reduce the incidental capture of seabirds and sea turtles.

For example, this fishery overlaps with several ETP species, including critical habitats for black-footed and Laysan albatrosses (>95% of the total global populations of both species nest in the Hawaiian Islands; (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016) and green and hawksbill sea turtles (both populations are endemic to Hawaii; (Wallace et al. 2010), and bycatch with many of these species has been documented (NOAA-NMFS 2018). Under the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for Pacific Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region established under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, observers are required to be placed aboard Hawaii-based pelagic longline vessels targeting swordfish (shallow-set, 100% coverage) and tunas (deep-set, 20% coverage).

The fishery overlaps with Regional Management Units for Hawaiian hawksbills and green turtles, West and East Pacific leatherbacks, and North Pacific loggerheads, green, olive ridley sea turtles, among others (Wallace et al. 2010). Leatherback sea turtles are currently listed on CITESAppendix I, meaning they are threatened with extinction and international trade is banned. In addition, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed green and loggerhead turtles as Endangered and and leatherback turtles as Critically Endangered. Leatherback and loggerhead turtles have also been listed as Endangered on the Endangered Species Act since 1970 and 1978 respectively.

In addition to sea turtles, since 2013 the Hawaii longline fishery (both deep- and shallow-set) has also interacted with at least 5 identified species of seabirds (~450 black-footed albatrosses and ~200 Laysan albatrosses) and 14 species of marine mammals (> 100 false killer whales, > 20 bottlenose dolphins) (NOAA-NMFS 2018)

Hawaiian breeding locations for some species of bird, including the black-footed albatross, are protected under the US National Wildlife Refuge system of State of Hawaii Seabird Sanctuaries and there is a 50 nautical mile Protected Species Zone surrounding the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which are breeding sites for black-footed albatross {BirdLife International 2012a}. In addition, the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has been in place since 1992 {NMFS 2012}. 

There are several measures in place to reduce seabird interactions with Hawaii longline vessels. Those vessels fishing north of 23 degrees north setting from the side must attach weights, set from the port or starboard side, use line shooters, deploy gear so hooks do not reserve, use a bird curtain and follow seabird handling guidelines. If vessels set from the stern north of 23 degrees north, they must use weights, thawed and blue dyed bait, use line shooters and employ strategic offal discharge along with following seabird handling guidelines. When fishing south of 23 degrees north and side or stern setting, vessels must follow handling guidelines {WPRFMC 2009b}. In addition, shark finning is prohibited {WPRFMC 2009b} and there are sea turtle handling guidelines {WPRFMC 2009b}. Vessels are required to use circle hooks and mackerel bait to reduce sea turtle interactions, there is a bycatch limit in the shallow-set fishery of 34 loggerhead and 16 leatherback sea turtles and sea turtle handling requirements {NMFS 2012} {WPRFMC 2009b}{PIRO 2014}. These mitigation measures have been shown to be effective at reducing interactions by 83% {Gilman et al. 2007}.

Temporal-spatial closures, setting restrictions, and strategic offal discards to mitigate seabird interactions are applied to both deep- and shallow-set components of the Hawaii longline fishery (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016). NOAA estimated nearly 2,500 seabird takes in the Hawaii longline fishery (both shallow-set and deep-set components) in 2000, but the implementation of the aforementioned measures has significantly decreased seabird bycatch; in 2016, only 65 seabird takes occurred in the shallow-set fishery and 691 takes were estimated in the deep-set fishery (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016). Observed seabird takes in the deep-set fishery have ranged from 9 in 2004 to 144 in 2016, averaging approximately 60 takes per year (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016).

In addition, when fishing in international waters, longliners must comply with measures adopted by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). In the WCPFC, several existing conservation measures are intended to address bycatch monitoring, reporting, and to reduce negative effects of bycatch on ETP species including sharks ((WCPFC 2011)(WCPFC 2013)(WCPFC 2014)), seabirds (WCPFC 2015), and sea turtles (WCPFC 2008); as a WCPFC member, the USA participates in these measures.For example, WCPFCmembers are asked to implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. Vessels fishing north of 23N in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) are required to use at least two mitigation measures including at least one of the following: side setting, night setting, tori line or weighted branch line. Members must submit annual reports detailing the mitigation measures used and are encouraged to undertake additional mitigation research {WCPFC 2012b}. Members of the WCPFCare also to implement the FAOGuidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations. Proper handling and release guidelines should be used when hard-shell turtles are incidentally captured and longline vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to allow for the safe handling and release of turtles. Longline fisheries are also urged to research mitigation techniques such as the use of circle hooks {WCPFC 2008}. In addition, fisheries observers record and report interactions with seabirds and turtles {WCPFC 2012b}{WCPFC 2008}.

Commercial shark finning is prohibited but the longline fleet incidentally captures IUCN endangered (scalloped hammerhead), vulnerable (mako, oceanic whitetip, thresher (Alopias spp.)) and near threated (blue shark, silky shark) elasmobranch species (NOAA-NMFS 2018). There are retention bans on silky sharks (WCPFC 2013); and oceanic white-tip sharks (WCPFC 2011) in WCPFC fleets, but the deep-set fishery caught an estimated 237 (53 dead) and 228 (54 dead) individuals of these two species, respectively, in 2017 alone. Recent stock assessments determined that status of shark species range from data poor (i.e., status could not be determined; shortfin mako (International Scientific Committee 2018) to not overfished (blue sharks (International Scientific Committee 2014)) to overfished (oceanic whitetip sharks and silky sharks (Rice and Harley 2012);(Rice and Harley 2013)). Further information on fishing mortality rates, specifically improved estimates of health condition and post-release mortality, is required to refine and improve shark assessments and assessments of impacts to other ETP species ((Clarke et al. 2014)(Rice and Semba 2014)); (Musyl et al. 2015)).

The large and diverse suite of bycatch mitigation regulations, in combination with robust observer coverage and regular (quarterly and annual) reporting, make the deep-set Hawaii longline fishery unique with respect to ETP bycatch reduction and monitoring effort among similar commercial fleets. However, it is worth noting that concerns about the extent to which some bycatch mitigation approaches (e.g., circle hooks vs J-hooks) might benefit some species (e.g., sea turtles, marine mammals) but not others (e.g., elasmobranchs) have resulted in calls for fishery-specific, multi-taxa approaches to reducing bycatch (Gilman et al. 2016).

In 2006, the Hawaii pelagic longline fishery became the world’s first fishery to be assessed against the comprehensive provisions if the 1995 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (Bartram et al. 2006); the Code of Conduct forms the basis on which the FAO issues Ecolabeling Guidelines. This fishery was reassessed against the Code of Conduct again in 2008, achieving a compliance score of 94% (Bartram et al. 2008).  

Other Species

Last updated on 24 March 2014

The Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline fisheries catch a number of other species of fish, including billfish, other tuna species, and sharks. The troll fishery catches small amounts of other tuna species and fish.

Common bycatch species in the longline fisheries include blue, shortfin mako, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks, opah, and blue, striped and black marlin. In the purse seine fishery, silky and whale (unassociated) sharks are also incidentally captured. Oceanic whitetip, silky and shortfin mako sharks and striped marlin are either overfished or their status is unknown {Rice and Harley 2012a,b}{Clark 2011}{Lee et al. 2012}.

Members of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012e}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks. Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010}. In addition, a phased reduction in catches of striped marlin in the North Pacific began in 2010, and was scheduled to run through 2012, resulting in an 80% reduction of 2000-2003 levels. Individual countries were to identify ways to accomplish this {WCPFC 2010b}. Member countries were also to limit the number of fishing vessels targeting swordfish to levels from any year between 2000 and 2005 {WCPFC 2009}.

Purse seine vessels in the WCPO are prohibited from setting on a school of tuna with a whale shark, although members that fish north of 30N can implement this measure or a comparable measure. If a whale shark is incidentally encircled, the vessel must take reasonable steps to ensure its safe release and report the incident. However, these measures did not become mandatory until January 1, 2014 {WCPFC 2012f}.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 17 April 2014

The Hawaii longline deep-set longline fishery that targets bigeye tuna also catches other species of tunas, fish, and sharks. Billfish can also be caught but to a much lesser degree. There are some measures in place both domestically and internationally for these other species. Other commonly captured species in the Hawaii deep-set longline fishery include: blue and shortfin mako sharks, dolphinfish and opah.

Members of the Westerm and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), including the US lognline fleet, are prohibited from retaining, transshipping, storing or landing oceanic whitetip sharks and any incidentally caught sharks should be released, the incident recorded and reported {WCPFC 2012c}. Members are also to implement the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks and National Plans of Action should have policies in place to reduce waste and discarding of sharks. Information on catch and effort for key species is to be reported and shark finning is banned (5% ratio) {WCPFC 2010}. There are no management measures for dolphinfish or opah.

HABITAT

Last updated on 29 December 2009

The impact of pelagic longlines, purse seine's and troll/pole fishing gears, which are used to capture bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, on bottom habitats is minimal.

Marine Reserves

The Western and Central Pacific FIsheries Commission (WCPFC) has a time/area closure on purse seine sets on fish aggregating devices (FADs) and other floating objects by purse seine vessels for three months annually in the area bounded by 20ºN and 20ºS (WCPFC, 2008a, 2009a). In 2008, the Parties to the Nauru Agreement, a regional agreement establishing terms and conditions for foreign access to the Exclusive Economic Zones of eight Pacific Island Countries, closed to purse seine fishing two areas of high seas international waters that are enclosed by the Parties’ domestic waters (PNA, 2008). These areas were modified slightly in 2016 {WCPFC 2016c}. There are no closed ares to longline fishing.

WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 July 2019

The Hawaii tuna longline fishery is a pelagic fishery, which operate in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Sustainability Incubator 2018). The extent to which this fishery contributes chemical pollution or derelict fishing gear into oceanic pelagic habitats operates is unknown but warrants review.

ECOSYSTEM
WCPFC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 1 July 2019

Fisheries that target high-level predators such as tunas will have some impact on marine ecosystems. Some research has suggested that exploitation by tuna fisheries can alter both target populations and a diversity of other species in the affected ecosystems ((Hinke et al. 2004); see (Schindler et al. 2002), for review); however, there is little empirical evidence for top-down control in oceanic ecosystems such as the West Central Pacific Ocean (Baum and Myers 2009). However, (Allain et al. 2012) reported that over a third of the diets of small (<50cm) tunas (e.g., skipjack, yellowfin) in the WCPO contained reef-dwelling organisms, suggesting a potential interaction between oceanic and coastal ecosystems, particularly in the West Pacific. 

In general, if a tuna fishery maintains target catch at or below MSY, it is not expected to have top-down ecosystem impacts. Both bigeye (WCPFC 2018) and yellowfin tuna (WCPFC 2018) are current at or below MSY. Although some studies have included the North Central Pacific, Central Pacific, and Eastern Tropical Pacific (Schindler et al. 2002); (Baum and Myers 2009) and have suggested mesopredator and prey releases when predatory tuna species are overexploited, few studies – either empirically derived or model-based – have examined potential ecosystem effects in the Hawaii longline tuna fishery.

The catch record for the deep-set Hawaii longline fishery is uniquely comprehensive among similar fisheries, which has allowed for analysis of potential ecosystem dynamics. In particular, using a time series of catch data in the deep-set component between 1996-2011 for 23 species ranging in size from < 1 kg to > 220 kg, Polovina and Woodworth-Jeffcoat ((Polovina and Woodworth-Jefcoats 2013)) found that size-based predation can structure the subtropical ecosystem such that CPUE trends for larger species were trending downward, possibly resulting in trends for smaller (prey) species to increase. Polovina and Woodworth-Jeffcoat ((Polovina and Woodworth-Jefcoats 2013)​) recommended that targeted sampling for fishes smaller than those caught in the fishery should be performed to augment catch-based indicators and thus track potential ecosystem effects over time. However, Choy et al. ((Choy et al. 2013)) described trophic niche partitioning among tuna and billfish species and other predatory fishes not targeted by the Hawaii longline fishery, which might limit the extent to which fishery-induced ecosystem effects actually influence observed catch rates over time.

In addition to the conservation and management measures for sustaining fish stocks from the regional fishery management organizations WCPFC and IATTC, the Hawaii fishery is managed in context of the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Western Pacific Ocean (NOAA Fisheries 2019) and under US law for protecting species.  

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 17 September 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Management strategy is not precautionary because no formal target reference points have been adopted and there is no formal harvest control rule to ensure that fishing mortality rates will be reduced as limit reference points are reached.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Bigeye tuna populations appear to have increased in recent years. Although the exact reason for this increase (i.e. management or oceanographic conditions) is unknown.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no evidence of systematic non-compliance with management measures. TAC's have recently been put into place but it is too soon to determine if catches have exceeded the limits consistently.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 9.9.

This measures the Ratio SSB/SSBmsy as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The Ratio SSB/SSBmsy is 1.47 . The SSB=SSBmsy is 1.00 .

The underlying Ratio SSB/SSBmsy/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 147%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 8.5.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.870 (age-averaged). The F management target is 1.00 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 87.0%.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

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Bycatch Subscores

  • Observer coverage is ~20% in the deep-set fishery, logbook data collected on 100% of trips
  • Bycatch data are monitored in near-real-time, particularly for sea turtles, and are regularly reported by NOAA. 

  • This fishery overlaps with several shark, seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle populations, some of which are currently low abundance and declining, which means that numerically low bycatch interactions can still have significant population impacts (Lewison et al. 2014)
  • In particular, the fishery contributes to overexploited status of silky sharks in particular, as well as endangered loggerhead and leatherback turtles, and black-footed and Laysan albatrosses. 
  • Given concerns about decompression sickness in sea turtles (García-Párraga et al. 2014), and uncertainty about potentially high post-release survival of ETP species taken as bycatch (Musyl and Gilman 2019), evaluation of health condition and post-release fate of ETP species should be a priority in this fishery.

  • There are bans on retention of silky shark and oceanic white-tip sharks, but still bycatch of these species in this fishery. 
  • A large suite of gear and setting regulations are in place in this fishery, including required use of circle hooks, weak hooks in deep-set fishery, temporal-spatial prohibited areas and closures, bait requirements, and numerous setting options to mitigate specifically bird interactions during gear deployment. These measures have reduced ETP bycatch over time, at significant cost to fishermen (Kalberg and Pan 2016).
  • Fleet and NMFS continually undertakes pilot studies to develop various mitigation methods.
  • Although false killer whales are not an endangered species, a take reduction plan is in place to reduce interactions between this species and the Hawaiian longline fishery, and it is a Category II fishery under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act
  • High and consistent observer coverage and regular reporting allow for rapid and effective regulatory response to bycatch issues.
  • WCPFC members required to follow FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations (WCPFC 2008)
  • The Hawaii longline fishery was recognized as a model fishery for following the FAO fishery Code of Conduct (Bartram et al. 2008)

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Habitat Subscores

The Hawaii tuna longline fishery is a pelagic fishery, which operate in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Sustainability Incubator 2018). The extent to which this fishery contributes chemical pollution or derelict fishing gear into oceanic pelagic habitats operates is unknown but warrants review.

Information on spatio-temporal distribution of fishing effort is available for this fishery (e.g., (NOAA-NMFS 2018); (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016)). Fishing area includes pelagic waters of US EEZ in the West and Central Pacific, centering around Hawaii, but includes other parts of US EEZ such as California and American Samoa.

The Hawaii tuna longline fishery is a pelagic fishery, which operate in deep oceanic waters and do not interact with the seabed. Negligible habitats impacts would therefore be anticipated (Sustainability Incubator 2018).

The Hawaii fishery is managed in context of the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Western Pacific Ocean (NOAA Fisheries 2019). Fishery operates in pelagic waters, no impacts on seafloor. 

×

Ecosystem Subscores

General info available, pelagic ecosystems of the Pacific Ocean fairly well-described in the literature, but no reference state defined. Polovina and Woodworth-Jeffcoats ((Polovina and Woodworth-Jefcoats 2013)) study of CPUEs by fish species size shows potential ecosystem effects, but whether this effect has continued is unclear.

Information on spatio-temporal distribution of fishing effort is available for this fishery (e.g., (NOAA-NMFS 2018); (Pacific Islands Regional Office 2016)

  • Speculated that if targets are managed at or below MSY, ecosystem effects should be negligible.
  • Polovina and Woodworth-Jeffcoats ((Polovina and Woodworth-Jefcoats 2013)) study of CPUEs by fish species size shows potential ecosystem effects, but whether this effect has continued is unclear.

The Hawaii fishery is managed in context of the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Western Pacific Ocean ((NOAA Fisheries 2019)) and under US law for protecting species.

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
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DATA NOTES

1. The time series of F and SSB are provided relative to MSY (F/FMSY, B/BMSY); the thresholds have been set accordingly. 2. The SBMSY/SBo value is from the base case model. 3. The latest stock assessment was conducted in 2011 and included data through 2010. 4. Data for 2011 and 2011 taken from WCPFC (2013b). 5. the TAC (phased in reduction: 2011 30% of average 2001-2004 or 2004); new TAC put into place in 2012 is only for the longline fishery and for specific countries. 6. Catches are total catches (i.e. all fisheries). 7. The base case model indicated the biomass is above BMSY but if recent recruitment actually represents true productivity for bigeye in the WCPO – then the biomass is below BMSY. 8 There is typically a large amount of uncertainty surrounding tuna stock assessments.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Evaluation Start Date: 1 Feb 2015
Type: Basic

Comments:

FIP rating has been removed as FIP has been moved to inactive on FisheryProgress.org due to two consecutive missed reports 

1.
FIP Development
Aug 14
2.
FIP Launch
May 14
May 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Nov 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jul 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Aug 17
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Australia. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CMM-01. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-01%20AUSTRALIA%20PART%201.pdf

China. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-03.  http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-03%20CHINA%20PART%201_0.pdf

Davies, N., Hoyle, S., Harley, S., Langley, A., Kleiber, P. and Hampton, J. 2011. Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, Scientific Committee, Seventh Regular Session, WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-02, 9-17 August 2011, 133 pp. Available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/node/2785

FACA. 2016. Tuna fisheries status report of Chinese TAipei in the Western and Central Pacific region. Fisheries Agency, Council of Agriculture and Overseas Fisheries Development Council. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-23%20CHINESE%20TAIPEI%20PART%201%20Rev%201%20%284%20July%202016%29.pdf

French Polynesia (FP). 2017. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. WCPFC-SC-13-AR//CCM-08. Availalbe at: https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-08%20FRENCH%20POLYNESIA%20PART%201_0.pdf

FSM. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I: Information on fisheries, research and statitics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-06. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-06%20FEDERATED%20STATES%20OF%20MICRONESIA%20Part%201%20Rev%201.pdf

Harley, S., Hoyle, S., Langley, A., Hampton, J., Kleiber, P. 2009. Bigeye Tuna Stock Assessment, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Scientific Committee Fifth Regular Session, Port Vila, Vanuatu 10-21 August 2009, WCPFC-SC5-2009/SA-WP-4; page 82-3

Harley, S. J., Williams, P., Nicol, S. and Hampton, J., 2011. The western and central Pacific tuna fishery: 2010 overview and status of stocks. Tuna Fisheries Assessment Report 11. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 38 pages.

Harley, S.J., Davies, N. 2011. Evaluation of stock status of Bigeye, Skipjack and Yellowfin tunas against potential limit reference points, WCPFC Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session, 9-17 August 2011, 16 pages.

Harley, S., Davies, N., Hampton, J. and McKechnie, S. 2014 Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. WCPFC-SC10-2014/SA-WP01. Available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC10-SA-WP-01%20%5BBET%20Assessment%5D_rev1_25July.pdf

Indonesia. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-Sc12-AR/CCM-09. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-09%20INDONESIA%20PART%201.pdf

International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF). 2013. ISSF stock assessment workshop: control rules and reference points for tuna RFMOs. ISSF Technical Report 2013-03. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, DC. 34 p.

Japan. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I:Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-10. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-10%20JAPAN%20PART%201%20Rev%201.pdf

Marshall Islands. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part I: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-13. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-13%20MARSHALL%20ISLANDS%20PART%201.pdf

McKechnie, S., Pilling, G. and Hampton, J. 2017. Stock assessment of bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean. WCPFC-SC13-2017/SA-WP-05. https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC13-SA-WP-05%20%5Bbet-assessment%5D%20REV1.pdf

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2012. Endangered Species Act – Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion. National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Region, Protected Resources Division. 162 pg.

NORMA and FFA. 2015. Management Plan on Tuna Fisheries for the Federated States of Micronesia. National Oceanic Resource Management Authority and the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency. Available at: https://spccfpstore1.blob.core.windows.net/digitallibrary-docs/files/9b/9b2a55823fe6a023adb4d0ef344e1dbf.pdf?sv=2015-12-11&sr=b&sig=fjpvcEVvDSyBLUhqezlkyfPyDe6yvsoB5nuC3Qz18co%3D&se=2017-08-29T21%3A40%3A43Z&sp=r&rscc=public%2C%20max-age%3D864000%2C%20max-stale%3D86400&rsct=application%2Fpdf&rscd=inline%3B%20filename%3D%22Anon_2015_FSM_Tuna_Management_Plan.pdf%22

OIAD. 2016.Annual report to the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Part I: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. Oceanic. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM--13. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-13%20MARSHALL%20ISLANDS%20PART%201.pdf

Republic of Korea. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on Fisheries, Research and Statistics. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-12%20KOREA%20PART%201%20Rev%201%20%2829%20August%202016%29.pdf

RVFD. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-AR/CCM-28. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CCM-28%20VANUATU%20PART%201%20Rev%203%20%2823%20September%202016%29.pdf

Scott, R.D., Pilling, G.M. and McKechnie, S.2017. Stochastic status quo projections for bigeye tuna. WCPFC-SC13-2017/SA-IP-22.https://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/SC13-SA-IP-22%20BET%20projections%20report.pdf

Vietnam. 2016. Annual report to the Commission Part 1: Information on fisheries, research and statistics. WCPFC-SC12-Ar/CNM-36. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/AR-CNM-36%20VIETNAM%20PART%201.pdf

WCPFC. 2008. Conservation and management measure for bigeye and yellowfin tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2008-01. Fifth Regular Session, Busan, Republic of Korea, 8-12 December 2008.

WCPFC. 2012. Conservation and management measure for protection of whale sharks from purse seine fishing operations. Conservation and Management Measure 2012-04. Commission Ninth Regular Session, Manila, Philippines, 2-6 December 2012.

WCPFC. 2012b. Commission Vessel Monitoring System. Conservation and Management Measure 2011-02. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/CMM-2011-02-Conservation-and-Management-Measure-Commission-VMS.pdf

WCPFC. 2013. Conservation and management measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2013-01. Tenth regular session, December 2-6, 2013, Cairns Australia.

WCPFC. 2013b. Estimates of annual catches in the WCPO statistical area. WCPFC-SC9-2013/ST IP-1
http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/ST-IP-01-Annual-Catch-Estimates.pdf

WCPFC. 2014. Scientific Committee Tenth Regular Session Summary Report. Westerna and Central Pacific FIsheries Commission.

WCPFC. 2016. WCPFC 13 Outcomes Document. Circular No. 2016/73. Decebmer 21, 2016. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC%20Circular%202016-73%20WCPFC13%20Outcomes%20document.%2021%20December%202016.pdf

WCPFC. 2016b. Conservation and Management Measure for bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Western adn Central Pacific Ocean. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-01. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20O_CMM%202016-01%20CMM%20for%20Bigeye%20Yellowfin%20and%20Skipjack%20Tuna_p_1.pdf

WCPFC. 2016c. Conservation and Management Measure for the Eastern High Seas Pocket Special Management Area. Conservation and Management Measure 2016-02. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Att%20K_CMM%202016-02%20CMM%20for%20EHSP-SMA_p.pdf

WCPFC. 2016d. Reference document for the development of harvest strategies under CMM 2014-06. WCPFC13-2016-11A. http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/WCPFC13-2016-11A%20%5BReference%20document%20for%20Harvest%20Strategy%5D.pdf

References

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