Key information sources for this profile, particularly for environmental data, include the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) SIDATIK website, the One Data Indonesia Portal, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Lake Indonesia Information System (SIDI), and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), environmental impact assessment website (AMDAL.net). However, most of these sites are still under construction.
MMAF’s SIDATIK website and the Directorate General of Aquaculture (DGA) provided a range of aquaculture-related information and statistics. The One Data Indonesia Portal supplied limited additional information.
The MMAF and the DGA websites, a regional review of environmental impact monitoring, and a legal and policy analysis on aquaculture governance in Indonesia, provided information on aquaculture related legislation, policies, and industry standards. Most of this information was at the national level, as there is limited publicly available information at the provincial-level.
There is very limited information on waterbody quality and no information on farm-level water quality.
There is very little information on disease outbreaks. MMAF legislation, including the Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik (CKIB) guidelines, and a regional review of disease contingency planning, provided information on disease prevention. A report by the ASEAN Secretariat, MMAF legislation, CKIB guidelines, the European Commissions’ Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and the U.S Food and Drug Administration websites provided information on veterinary drug use and control.
A Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch report on tilapia production in floating net pens provided information on the environmental impacts associated with the industry.
Although there is extensive legislation referencing area and zonal approaches to aquaculture planning and management, the tilapia farming industry still appears focused on farm-based approaches, primarily through the voluntary Code of Good Practice standards-Cara Budidaya Ikan yang Baik (CBIB) and international certifications (Chaery 2013)(MMAF 2007).
At the national level, the Fisheries Act 31/2004 (amended, 2009), MMAF Law No. 30/MEN/2010, and Decree No. 127/DJ-PB/2011 supports aquaculture zoning by local government bodies (Government of Indonesia, 2009; Miao et al, 2013). The State Minister for Environmental Affairs’ Decree No.110/2003 provides two models to determine the carrying capacity of waterbodies (FAO 2018)(Ministry of Environment 2003)(Skonhoft 2005).
Area-based approaches to aquaculture development include the formation of integrated production areas (Minapolitans) (MMAF 2010)(MMAF 2011)(MMAF 2013)(Rimmer et al. 2013). However, this program was replaced by integrated marine and fisheries centers (SKPT), which focus on the development of small island and border areas(Hatfield 2018)(Kemkominfo 2018)(MMAF 2018). It is not clear if these approaches adopt a zonal approach to aquaculture planning or encourage coordinated management between farms.
The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 outlines plans to improve the use of aquaculture resources, including the introduction of zonal management, fish health, and environmental programs (DGA 2016).
At the provincial level, there are no references to zonal management approaches to aquaculture in the North Sumatra DKP Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 (Renstra) (DKP 2014). BAAPEDA’s Spatial Plan for North Sumatra 2017-2037 advocates for the development of cultivation areas (including fisheries and marine allotment areas) according to the environmental carrying capacity, as well as zoning regulations and detailed zonal spatial plans. Article 39 advocates for the spatial planning of aquaculture areas. Article 61 states that aquaculture water use should consider other resource users. Article 76 states that aquaculture is prohibited in polluted areas (BAPPEDA Sumatera Utara 2017).
Licensing: Under the 2004 Fisheries Law, farms require a license known as a Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan (SIUP)(MMAF 2007). Small-scale pond and cage farms are exempt (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). The Indonesian Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and its local offices (BKPMD) are now responsible for licensing. In 2018 they introduced an online single subscription system. A SIUP requires a locational and environmental permit (Hatfield 2018). An environmental permit depends on the results of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), known as an AMDAL (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). Farms under 50 ha or cage farms under 2.5 ha or 500 cages do not require an AMDAL and are subject to a UKL/UPL (environmental management and monitoring measures) (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).
The Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research Affairs and Human Resources or BRSDM under the MMAF is responsible for conducting research into marine and fisheries issues. Its Fisheries Research Center is responsible for aquaculture (Mochtar 2018)(Skonhoft 2005). Other national research institutions include the Indonesia Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia - LIPI) which conducts research into the environment, food security, agriculture, and animal husbandry (LIPI 2018).
The DGA also provides research and technology support services via 12 Technical Implementation Units (UPT) nationwide (Nurdjana 2006)(Skonhoft 2005). Provincial marine and fisheries offices (DKP) also provide support through local technical implementation units (UPTD) (Nurdjana 2006).
Despite the presence of national and provincial research institutions, Mochtar (2018) states that there is currently a gap between research and development and policymaking.
Water Quality: The LIPI Research Center for Limnology focuses on water quality has conducted carrying capacity and waterbody management studies for Lake Toba (LIPI 2010)(LIPI 2018). They have also introduced a Lake Indonesia Information System (Sistem Informasi Danau Indonesia - SIDI) which is under construction (LIPI 2015). LIPI also states that there is limited application of water quality studies in management approaches (LIPI 2018).
Health Management: Not available
Disease Control: Not available
The DGA (under MMAF) is the government institution responsible for aquaculture policy development. At the provincial- and district-level, the provincial marine and fisheries services (DKP) are responsible (Nurdjana 2006). Under the national government’s Autonomy Law, No. 22/1999 (amended Law No 23/2014), provincial bodies have greater freedom and are no longer under the direct supervision of MMAF (Nurdjana 2006). The DGA’s Regulation No. 65/PER-DJPB/2015 contains general CBIB assessment criteria. These are applicable to all aquaculture species and systems (DJPB 2015).
Water Quality: Government’s Regulation No. 82 of 2001 governs water quality. Under this, water bodies are classified into Class I to IV. Class II & III are suitable for aquaculture (ADB 2016)(Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Hatfield 2018)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006). Guidelines for assessing water quality have also been created, classifying water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D) (MoE 2003).
The DGA is responsible for water quality monitoring and reporting; the mapping of aquaculture areas and the nutrient status of reservoirs; and controlling waste discharge from shrimp and fishponds (NACA 2017). However, there is no publicly available information on these activities. The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPPEDAL) is responsible for various environmental issues, including the coordination of the EIA process and the monitoring of waste discharge. At the regional level, environmental offices are called Dinas Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi (DLHP).
Health Management: The MMAF and the DGA are responsible for aquatic animal health (NACA 2017)(OIE and NACA 2013). The amendment to the 2004 Fisheries Law, states that the MMAF can declare disease outbreak areas and establish preventative disease measures. Imported animals and their products require a health certificate, issued by the country of origin (Skonhoft 2005). Article 56 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture calls for disease surveillance and alert systems and management plans, including emergency responses. Article 58 calls for disease risk and hazard assessments for the introduction of new species or strains (Government of Indonesia 2017). A National Fish Vaccination Program started in 2009 (NACA 2017).
Until recently, Indonesia had not established a national contingency plan to deal with aquatic animal disease emergencies (Mohan et al. 2008)(OIE and NACA 2013). However, this situation is changing, primarily due to the threat of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) and the introduction of the MMAF’s and Fish Quarantine and Inspection Agency’s (FQIA) guidelines to quarantine fish for aquaculture (Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik) (Kurniasih 2018)(MMAF 2014). CKIB includes risk assessments and an emergency response plan for multiple diseases (MMAF 2014).
Disease Control: The authorities responsible for the use of chemicals and veterinary drugs are the DGA and its Directorate of Fish Health & Environment (ASEAN Secretariat 2013)(Maskur 2018). Multiple legislation and standards govern the use of chemicals in aquaculture. These include the Fisheries Law; MMAF’ KEP.02/MEN/2007 on food quality and safety, MMAF KEP.20/MEN/2003; and the DGA Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 (E.C 2012)(MMAF 2003)(MMAF 2007)(Skonhoft 2005). Articles 37-43 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture prohibits drugs that could harm the environment. Drug vendors should be licensed and drug quality should be tested (Government of Indonesia 2017). Permitted chemicals and drugs are included on the MMAF SIBATIK website (MMAF 2018).
The FQIA (under the MMAF) have produced CKIB. This aims to improve biosecurity and traceability to meet the requirements of export countries (MMAF 2014). The FQIA is also responsible for providing certificates for import and export products (FQIA 2011).
Water Quality: Guidelines for assessing water quality have been set that classify water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D). These include a range of biochemical indicators but are not specific to aquaculture (MoE 2003). The CBIB assessment criteria state that water quality should be suitable for farmed species and should be monitored regularly (DJPB 2015).
Health Management: The CBIB standards outline several biosecurity criteria including the use of certified disease-free seed, disinfection of equipment and the recording of disease events (DJPB 2015). The MMAF’s KEPMEN No. 26/KP/2013 identifies multiple diseases that are subject to quarantine and emergency responses measures. Tilapia is classified as a potential carrier of several of these diseases (MMAF 2013). Under the MMAF CKIB, the farmer should inform the Fish Quarantine, Quality Control and Safety of Fishery Products Technical implementation unit (UPT KIPM) of any disease outbreaks of OIE or MMAF listed diseases. Quarantine, movement restrictions, and disease control measures are also required (MMAF 2014). The presence of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) must be reported (Kurniasih 2018).
Disease Control: The CBIB standards allow the use of permitted and registered chemicals as per product instructions. The farmed product should be tested to ensure that is below acceptable thresholds and the use of treatments should be recorded (DJPB 2015). Banned antibiotics include tetracycline, nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, dimetridazole/metronidazole, niturpirinol and florfenicol; the disinfectant malachite green; and the chemothrapeutants trichlorfon and trifluralin (ASEAN Secretariat 2013). The DGA’s Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 permits maximum residue levels of 100 µg/kg for tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulphonamides, quinolones, emamectin, and ivermectin (E.C 2012).
The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN) has set national food quality standards known as the Indonesian National Standards (SNI). SNI standards for fishery products are the responsibility of the MMAF FQIA. There are over 260 fishery-product related SNIs, including 89 for aquaculture products (FQIA 2011). SNI 01-6495.1-2000 is relevant to the production of Nile tilapia in floating nets (FQIA 2011), but the contents of this standard are not publicly available.
Industry and Management Performance
There is not enough information available to assess farmers’ compliance. Any assessment is constrained by a lack of information on the number of licensed farms and environmental permits and EIAs (AMDAL) conducted as part of the license requirement. However, an EIA website is under construction (MoEF 2017). Small-scale producers are exempt from licensing (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). In general terms, the management of the industry relies on a farm-level regulatory approach via the voluntary CBIB and SNI standards. The number of farms adhering to these standards in North Sumatra is unknown. The CBIB website is no longer available as the MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards.
Water Quality: There is very limited information on the status of waterbody quality at the national or provincial level. LIPI’s SIDI website plans to bring together information on water quality for multiple waterbodies in Indonesia and is currently under construction (LIPI 2015). The Batahan, Deli, and Percut rivers are classified as heavily polluted (Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018). Carrying-capacity studies have been conducted for aquaculture in Lake Toba, but there has been limited integration of water quality research in overall management approaches (LIPI 2018).
Health Management: The most frequently reported tilapia diseases nationwide are Streptococcosis and Francisellosis (Lusiastuti et al. 2012)(Zajdband et al. 2015). TiLV has not been reported in Indonesia (NACA et al. 2017), but there are concerns that it could be introduced via imported seed, fish and broodstock (DGA 2017)(Dong et al. 2017)(Kurniasih 2018).
Disease Control: The European Commissions’ (EC) Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) portal and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Import Alerts do not list any alerts or notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary medicines or maximum residue levels above acceptable thresholds in tilapia from Indonesia (European Commission 2018)(FDA 2018).
Trends in Performance
Water Quality: Key pressures on Indonesia's inland waterbodies include water quality degradation, anthropogenic activities, changes in land and water use, and climate change (LIPI 2018). Information for the Batahan, Deli, and Percut rivers for 2007-2016 suggests water quality is deteriorating (BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018).
Health Management: Although TiLV has not been reported in Indonesia, it is suspected that infected tilapia may have been imported (Dong et al. 2017)(NACA 2017). Indonesia is currently classified as at high-risk of TiLV outbreaks (Dong et al. 2017).
Disease Control: In 2014, the DGA introduced the Aquacard program to support the sustainability and uptake of the CBIB and good fish hatchery (CPIB) standards and the traceability of product. Aquacard is given to farmers or groups of farmers known as Pokdakans who have achieved CBIB status. However, it is not known if this system has been fully implemented. Technical guidelines are available (in Bahasa) from the MMAF(MMAF 2014).
Previously, the MMAF addressed major food safety, biosecurity and environmental issues concerning tilapia farming in Indonesia through the introduction of the voluntary CBIB standard (Chaery 2013). The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 aims to have 20,000 farms of all species certified to CBIB standards by 2019 (DGA 2016). The MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards, but a draft regulation concerning the creation of a third-party CBIB auditing system under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) has been published (MMAF 2017).
Water Quality: Large Indonesian operators such as Regal Springs, who have operations in North Sumatra, have introduced their own on-site water quality monitoring and laboratories (Regal Springs 2018)(Regal Springs 2018).
Health Management: The MMAF has prepared a national strategy and document for the control of fish health and the environment (DJPB 2018)(MMAF 2018). The document has been submitted to the FAO and is one of the outputs of the FAO TCP / INS / 3402 project (2011-2014) - Improving the capacity of fish health and environmental management in Indonesia (Maskur 2013)(Maskur 2018)(MMAF 2018). A copy of this strategy is not publicly available.
In 2017, vaccines for Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus agalactiae, and ESC were developed (NACA 2017). The MMAF, DGA, and FQIA have introduced KEP No. 393/KEP-BHIPM/2017, Circular no 3975/DJPB/VII/2017, & Decree No 303/KEP-BKIPM/2017 on the prevention, monitoring, and control of TiLV (Kurniasih 2018)(MMAF 2017). The import of fish, broodstock, or seed from TiLV affected countries is prohibited. Imports from unaffected countries require health certificates (DGA 2017)(Kurniasih 2018). The DGA has also established a TiLV taskforce under which any indication of TiLV must be reported. A TiLV surveillance program is also in development (Kurniasih 2018).
Disease Control: The MMAF have produced SIBATIK, a website dedicated to providing information on the use of fish drugs, sampling procedures, and associated legislation. It also contains a list of permitted and registered drugs and chemicals (MMAF 2018).