Profile updated on 25 March 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Oreochromis niloticus , Oreochromis spp

SPECIES NAME(s)

Nile tilapia, Tilapias nei

JURISDICTION

West Java

PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Cage - Fixed, Cage - Floating, Pond, Paddy-cum-fish culture

WATER SOURCE

Fresh Water

JUVENILE SOURCE

hatchery - closed cycle


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Government legislation and initiatives support zonal based approaches to aquaculture management. For example, the regional planning development agency produces 20-year spatial plans, while the regional marine and fisheries office produces five-year strategic plans. 
  • The industry has introduced contingency plans to deal with aquatic disease emergencies, primarily TiLV through the introduction of the Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik (CKIB) guidelines and legislation.
  • The guidance, control, and enforcement of veterinary drug use are improving through the introduction of the CKIB guidelines, national food quality standards, the MMAF SIBATIK website, and the Aquacard program.
  • The industry is supported by scientific research provided by institutions such as the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and the MMAF Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research Affairs and Human Resources (BRSDM).
  • The amount of publicly available information is increasing. There are several initiatives to improve the availability and quality of aquaculture-related data. 
Weaknesses
  • There is no evidence of an active zonal approach to aquaculture planning and management in West Java and no evidence of the application of carrying capacity studies; despite acknowledgement of zonal approaches in national and regional spatial and marine  plans.
  • Small-scale producers are exempt from licensing and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations.
  • There is insufficient publicly available information to assess the effectiveness of the management approach and the enforcement of regulations for aquaculture in general (e.g., information on farm water quality, disease outbreaks, control and enforcement, EIAs, and the CBIB standards).
  • There is limited information on the aquaculture feed manufacturing industry and no information on source fisheries.
  • The future of the CBIB  is unclear as the MMAF no longer financially supports these standards. 
Recommendation for improvement
  • The DGA and regional marine and fisheries offices should support the licensing or registration and the environmental assessment of small-scale farms.

  • National and provincial authorities should continue to improve the availability of aquaculture-related data, particularly farm and waterbody water quality, EIA, and disease outbreaks and control measures. These could be included under the MMAF SIDATIK, MoEF EIA, and BAPPENAS One Data portals. 

  • The MMAF should clarify the responsibility for the CBIB and CPIB standards, publish the application procedure, and support the reintroduction of a CBIB information portal. 

  • Zonal best practices should be included into revisions of the CBIB standards, which should be mandatory for all producers.

  • The DGA and regional marine and fisheries offices should incorporate zonal and coordinated management approaches based on waterbody carrying-capacity studies into subsequent revisions of their five-year strategic plans.


FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

regulatory framework

< 6

best practices

< 6

water quality

< 6

disease

< 6

feed

< 6


AIPS

No related AIPs

AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT UNITS

In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.

Country
Provinces
AMA
Tilapia - Indonesia Central Java
North Sulawesi
North Sumatra
South Sumatra
West Java
West Sumatra

ANALYSIS

Information Sources

Key information sources for this profile, particularly for environmental data, include the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) SIDATIK website, the One Data Indonesia Portal, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Lake Indonesia Information System (SIDI), and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), environmental impact assessment website (AMDAL.net). However, most of these sites are still under construction.

MMAF’s SIDATIK website and the Directorate General of Aquaculture (DGA) provided a range of aquaculture-related information and statistics. The One Data Indonesia Portal supplied limited additional information.

The MMAF and the DGA websites, a regional review of environmental impact monitoring, and a legal and policy analysis on aquaculture governance in Indonesia, provided information on aquaculture related legislation, policies, and industry standards. Most of this information was at the national level, as there is limited publicly available information at the provincial-level.

There is very limited information on waterbody quality and no information on farm-level water quality.

There is very little information on disease outbreaks. MMAF legislation, including the Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik (CKIB) guidelines, and a regional review of disease contingency planning, provided information on disease prevention. A report by the ASEAN Secretariat, MMAF legislation, CKIB guidelines, the European Commissions’ Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and the U.S Food and Drug Administration websites provided information on veterinary drug use and control.

A Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch report on tilapia production in floating net pens provided information on the environmental impacts associated with the industry.

Management Status

Zonal Assessment

Although there is extensive legislation referencing area and zonal approaches to aquaculture planning and management, the tilapia farming industry still appears focused on farm-based approaches, primarily through the voluntary Code of Good Practice standards (Cara Budidaya Ikan yang Baik (CBIB)) and international certifications (Chaery 2013)(MMAF 2007)

At the national level, the Fisheries Act 31/2004 (amended, 2009), MMAF Law No. 30/MEN/2010, and Decree No. 127/DJ-PB/2011 supports aquaculture zoning by local government bodies (Government of Indonesia, 2009; Miao et al, 2013). The State Minister for Environmental Affairs’ Decree No.110/2003 provides two models to determine the carrying capacity of waterbodies (FAO 2018)(Ministry of Environment 2003)(Skonhoft 2005).

Area-based approaches to aquaculture development include the formation of integrated production areas (Minapolitans) (MMAF 2010)(MMAF 2011)(MMAF 2013)(Rimmer et al. 2013). However, this program was replaced by integrated marine and fisheries centers (SKPT), which focus on the development of small island and border areas (Hatfield 2018)(Kemkominfo 2018)(MMAF 2016). It is not clear if these approaches adopt a zonal approach to aquaculture planning or encourage coordinated management between farms.

The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 outlines plans to improve the use of aquaculture resources, including the introduction of zonal management, fish health, and environmental programs (DGA 2016).

At the provincial level, an aquaculture development program is included in West Java’s DKP Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Renstra). This includes the development of environmentally responsible aquaculture areas (DKP 2014). The BAPPEDA Spatial Plan 2009-2029 for West Java advocates for the development of cultivation areas (including fisheries and aquaculture). Article 97 states that these should limit the space used by aquaculture. Article 71 states that limits to freshwater aquaculture should be determined by a waterbody’s carrying capacity (BAPPEDA - Jawa Barat 2010).

Licensing: Under the 2004 Fisheries Law, farms require a license, known as a Surat Izin Usaha Perikanan (SIUP)(MMAF 2007). Small-scale pond and cage farms are exempt (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). The Indonesian Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and its local offices (BKPMD) are now responsible for licensing. In 2018 they introduced an online single subscription system. A SIUP requires a locational and environmental permit (Hatfield 2018). An environmental permit depends on the results of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), known as an AMDAL (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). Farms under 50 ha or cage farms under 2.5 ha or 500 cages do not require an AMDAL and are subject to a UKL/UPL (environmental management and monitoring measures) (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009)

Scientific Advice

The Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research Affairs and Human Resources or BRSDM under the MMAF is responsible for conducting research into marine and fisheries issues. Its Fisheries Research Center is responsible for aquaculture (Mochtar 2018)(Skonhoft 2005). Other national research institutions include the Indonesia Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia - LIPI) which conducts research into the environment, food security, agriculture, and animal husbandry (LIPI 2018).

The DGA also provides research and technology support services via 12 Technical Implementation Units (UPT) nationwide (Nurdjana 2006)(Skonhoft 2005). Provincial marine and fisheries offices (DKP) also provide support through local technical implementation units (UPTD) (Nurdjana 2006).

Despite the presence of national and provincial research institutions, Mochtar (2018) states that there is currently a gap between research and development and policymaking.

Water Quality: The LIPI Research Center for Limnology focuses on water quality, and has conducted carrying-capacity studies for floating net tilapia culture in Jatiluhur reservoir, West Java (Eko 2016)(LIPI 2018), as well as waterbody management studies for several lakes nationwide (LIPI 2018). It has also introduced a Lake Indonesia Information System (Sistem Informasi Danau Indonesia - SIDI) which is under construction (LIPI 2015). LIPI also states that there is a limited application of water quality studies in management approaches (LIPI 2018).

Health Management: Not available

Disease Control: Not available

Managers' Decisions

The DGA (under MMAF) is the government institution responsible for aquaculture policy development. At the provincial- and district-level, the provincial marine and fisheries services (DKP) are responsible (Nurdjana 2006). Under the national government’s Autonomy Law, No. 22/1999 (amended Law No 23/2014), provincial bodies have greater freedom and are no longer under the direct supervision of MMAF (Nurdjana 2006). The DGA’s Regulation No. 65/PER-DJPB/2015 contains general CBIB assessment criteria. These are applicable to all aquaculture species and systems (DJPB 2015)

Water Quality: Government’s Regulation No. 82 of 2001 governs water quality. Under this, water bodies are classified into Class I to IV. Class II & III are suitable for aquaculture (ADB 2016)(Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Hatfield 2018)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006). Guidelines for assessing water quality have also been created, classifying water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D) (MoE 2003).

The DGA is responsible for water quality monitoring and reporting; the mapping of aquaculture areas and the nutrient status of reservoirs; and controlling waste discharge from shrimp and fishponds (NACA 2017). However, there is no publicly available information on these activities. The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPPEDAL) is responsible for various environmental issues, including the coordination of the EIA process and the monitoring of waste discharge. At the regional level, environmental offices are called Dinas Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi (DLHP).

Health Management: The MMAF and the DGA are responsible for aquatic animal health (NACA 2017)(OIE and NACA 2013). The amendment to the 2004 Fisheries Law, states that the MMAF can declare disease outbreak areas and establish preventative disease measures. Imported animals and their products require a health certificate, issued by the country of origin (Skonhoft 2005). Article 56 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture calls for disease surveillance and alert systems and management plans, including emergency responses. Article 58 calls for disease risk and hazard assessments for the introduction of new species or strains (Government of Indonesia 2017). A National Fish Vaccination Program started in 2009 (NACA 2017).

Until recently, Indonesia had not established a national contingency plan to deal with aquatic animal disease emergencies (Mohan et al. 2008)(OIE and NACA 2013). However, this situation is changing, primarily due to the threat of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) and the introduction of the MMAF’s and Fish Quarantine and Inspection Agency’s (FQIA) guidelines to quarantine fish for aquaculture (Cara Karantina Ikan Yang Baik) (Kurniasih 2018)(MMAF 2014). CKIB includes risk assessments and an emergency response plan for multiple diseases (MMAF 2014).

Disease Control: The authorities responsible for the use of chemicals and veterinary drugs are the DGA and its Directorate of Fish Health & Environment (ASEAN Secretariat 2013)(Maskur 2018). Multiple legislation and standards govern the use of chemicals in aquaculture. These include the Fisheries Law; MMAF’ KEP.02/MEN/2007 on food quality and safety, MMAF KEP.20/MEN/2003; and the DGA Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 (E.C 2012)(MMAF 2003)(MMAF 2007)(Skonhoft 2005). Articles 37-43 of Regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture prohibits drugs that could harm the environment. Drug vendors should be licensed and drug quality should be tested (Government of Indonesia 2017). Permitted chemicals and drugs are included on the MMAF SIBATIK website (MMAF 2018).

The FQIA (under the MMAF) have produced CKIB. This aims to improve biosecurity and traceability to meet the requirements of export countries (MMAF 2014). The FQIA is also responsible for providing certificates for import and export products (FQIA 2011)

Management Thresholds

Water Quality: Guidelines for assessing water quality have been set that classify water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D). These include a range of biochemical indicators but are not specific to aquaculture (MoE 2003). The CBIB assessment criteria state that water quality should be suitable for farmed species and should be monitored regularly (DJPB 2015)

Health Management: The CBIB standards outline several biosecurity criteria including the use of certified disease-free seed, disinfection of equipment and the recording of disease events (DJPB 2015). The MMAF’s KEPMEN No. 26/KP/2013 identifies multiple diseases that are subject to quarantine and emergency responses measures. Tilapia is classified as a potential carrier of several of these diseases (MMAF 2013). Under the MMAF CKIB, the farmer should inform the Fish Quarantine, Quality Control and Safety of Fishery Products Technical implementation unit (UPT KIPM) of any disease outbreaks of OIE or MMAF listed diseases. Quarantine, movement restrictions, and disease control measures are also required (MMAF 2014). The presence of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) must be reported (Kurniasih 2018).

Disease Control: The CBIB standards allow the use of permitted and registered chemicals as per product instructions. The farmed product should be tested to ensure that it is below acceptable thresholds and the use of treatments should be recorded (DJPB 2015). Banned antibiotics include tetracycline, nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, dimetridazole/metronidazole, niturpirinol and florfenicol; the disinfectant malachite green; and the chemothrapeutants trichlorfon and trifluralin (ASEAN Secretariat 2013). The DGA’s Decree KEP.106/DJ-PB/2011 permits maximum residue levels of 100 µg/kg for tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulphonamides, quinolones, emamectin, and ivermectin (E.C 2012).

The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN) has set national food quality standards known as the Indonesian National Standards (SNI). SNI standards for fishery products are the responsibility of the MMAF FQIA. There are over 260 fishery-product related SNIs, including 89 for aquaculture products (FQIA 2011). SNI 01-6495.1-2000 is relevant to the production of Nile tilapia in floating nets (FQIA 2011), but the contents of this standard are not publicly available. 

Industry and Management Performance

Compliance

There is not enough information available to assess farmers’ compliance. Any assessment is constrained by a lack of information on the number of licensed farms and environmental permits and EIAs (AMDAL) conducted as part of the license requirement. However, an EIA website is under construction (MoEF 2017). Small-scale producers are exempt from licensing (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). In general terms, the management of the industry relies on a farm-level regulatory approach via the voluntary CBIB and SNI standards. The number of farms adhering to these standards in West Java is unknown. The CBIB website is no longer available as the MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards.

Current Performance

Water Quality: There is very limited information on the status of waterbody quality at the national or provincial level. LIPI’s SIDI website plans to bring together water quality information for multiple waterbodies across Indonesia and is currently under construction (LIPI 2015). Water quality data for sites along the Ciliwung, Cisadane, Citanduy and Citarum rivers are available from the West Java Provincial Environmental Office (DLHP 2015). These rivers are all classified as heavily polluted (Badan Pusat Statistik 2018)(BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018).

Carrying-capacity studies have been conducted for aquaculture in various waterbodies by LIPI (including in West Java), but there has been limited integration of water quality research into overall management approaches (LIPI 2018)

Health Management: The most frequently reported tilapia diseases nationwide are Streptococcosis and Francisellosis (Lusiastuti et al. 2012)(Zajdband et al. 2015). TiLV has not been reported in Indonesia to date (NACA 2017)(NACA et al. 2017), but there are concerns that it could be introduced via imported seed, fish and broodstock (DGA 2017)(Dong et al. 2017)(Kurniasih 2018).

Disease Control: The European Commissions’ (EC) Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) portal and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Import Alerts do not list any alerts or notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary medicines or maximum residue levels above acceptable thresholds in tilapia from Indonesia (European Commission 2018)(FDA 2018).

Trends in Performance

Water Quality: Key pressures on Indonesia's inland waterbodies include degraded water quality, anthropogenic activities, changes in land and water use, and climate change (LIPI 2018). Information for the Ciliwung, Citarum, Cisdane rivers for 2007-2016 suggests that water quality is deteriorating (BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018).

Health Management: Although TiLV has not been reported in Indonesia, it is suspected that infected tilapia may have been imported (Dong et al. 2017)(NACA 2017). Indonesia is currently classified as at high-risk of TiLV outbreaks (Dong et al. 2017).

Disease Control: In 2014, the DGA introduced the Aquacard program to support the sustainability and uptake of the CBIB and good fish hatchery (CPIB) standards and the traceability of product (MMAF 2014). Aquacard is given to farmers or groups of farmers known as Pokdakans who have achieved CBIB status. However, it is not known if this system has been fully implemented. Technical guidelines are available (in Bahasa) from the MMAF (MMAF 2014)

Improvement Plans

Previously, the MMAF addressed major food safety, biosecurity and environmental issues concerning tilapia farming in Indonesia through the introduction of the voluntary CBIB standard (Chaery 2013). The DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 aims to have 20,000 farms of all species certified to CBIB standards by 2019 (DGA 2016). The MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards, but a draft regulation concerning the creation of a third-party CBIB auditing system under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) has been published (MMAF 2017).

Water Quality: The government of West Java has introduced the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI) to identify the issues affecting water quality and to help decision-makers prioritize water quality management and programs (Juwana et al. 2016)(Juwana et al. 2011)(Juwana et al. 2010)(Tallar and Suen 2015). There is no publicly available database or website on this initiative at this time.

Health Management: The MMAF has prepared a national strategy and document for the control of fish health and the environment (DJPB 2018)(MMAF 2018). The document has been submitted to the FAO and is one of the outputs of the FAO TCP / INS / 3402 project (2011-2014) - Improving the capacity of fish health and environmental management in Indonesia (Maskur 2013)(MMAF 2018). A copy of this strategy is not publicly available.

In 2017, vaccines for Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus agalactiae, and ESC were developed (NACA 2017). The MMAF, DGA, and FQIA have introduced KEP No. 393/KEP-BHIPM/2017, Circular no 3975/DJPB/VII/2017, & Decree No 303/KEP-BKIPM/2017 on the prevention, monitoring, and control of TiLV (Kurniasih 2018)(MMAF 2017). The import of fish, broodstock, or seed from TiLV affected countries is prohibited. Imports from unaffected countries require health certificates (DGA 2017)(Kurniasih 2018). The DGA has also established a TiLV taskforce under which any indication of TiLV must be reported. A TiLV surveillance program is also in development (Kurniasih 2018).

Disease Control: The MMAF have produced SIBATIK, a website dedicated to providing information on the use of fish drugs, sampling procedures, and associated legislation. It also contains a list of permitted and registered drugs and chemicals (MMAF 2018)

Scores

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.

At the national level, the DGA has produced a Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 (DGA 2016). The Department of Fisheries and Marine Affairs of West Java province (DKP) has produced a Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Renstra) (DKP 2014). A license known as a SIUP is required to take part in fisheries enterprises (including aquaculture) (Hatfield 2018)(MMAF 2007). To receive a SUIP a location and environmental permit are required (Hatfield 2018).

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) also known as AMDAL is required to receive an environmental permit (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009). Despite these requirements, there is no publicly available data on the number of licenses or associated EIAs at this time but a website for EIAs is under construction (MoEF 2017)

Small-scale farms, including small pond and cage systems, are exempt from licensing (MMAF 2007)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009).  An AMDAL is only applied to new farms if they are >50 hectares; a freshwater cage farm covering >2.5 ha or with >500 cages; or are a marine cage farm covering >2.5 ha or have >1,000 cages. Farms under these sizes are subject to a UKL/UPL (environmental management and monitoring measures) (Hatfield 2018)(Phillips et al., P. G. White and Yamamoto, others 2009)

Aquaculture zoning is referenced in multiple pieces of legislation. Zoning is referenced in the DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture 2015-2019 (DGA 2016). The DKP Strategic Plan 2013-2018 for West Java states that the DKP plans to establish environmentally responsible aquaculture areas and control disease and pest outbreaks. West Java’s Spatial Plan 2009-2029 supports the formation of fisheries/aquaculture areas, which should set limits to the number of fish farms (BAPPEDA - Jawa Barat 2010)(DKP 2014)

The Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and its regional branches (BKPMD) are now responsible for licensing. Previously, it was the MMAF (Hatfield 2018)(MMAF 2007). They are also responsible for the environmental permit with recommendations provided by the Ministry of Environment. 

BAPPEDAL (and its regional offices) is responsible for the coordination of the EIA process (Hatfield 2018). National legislation is only mandatory if the district or city government chooses to enforce it (Ma 2015)(Nurdjana 2006). There is no evidence of provincial license or EIA regulatory processes or enforcement actions. 

Organized Producers Following Code of Good Practice

The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.

A national CoGP, known as CBIB has been established (DJPB 2015). The number of CBIB certified tilapia farms were previously available at the provincial level through the CBIB website. However, this site is now unavailable as responsibility for the CBIB transfers to LSPro (MMAF 2017). The MMAF and its provincial departments financially support organized groups of fish farmers known as Pokdakans in order to provide training and encourage improved production practices (MMAF 2014). Some pokdakans producing tilapia in West Java are identifiable through blog posts or their websites (benihikan.id 2018)(Kelompok Rukun Makmur 2018).

Other identifiable national producer organizations include Masyarakat Perikanan Nusantara (MPN); Masyarakat Akuakultur Indonesia (MAI) and Gabungan Pengusaha Perikanan Indonesia (Gappindo) (MAI 2016)(Nurdjana 2006). MAI has a website and lists members in its directory (MAI 2016)

In 2014, MAI had over 900 members representing a range of stakeholders, including government institutions, research organizations, and farmers (MAI 2016). The CBIB assessment standards are applicable to all aquaculture species and contain Best Management Practices at the farm-level (DJPB 2015). A CKIB document is publicly available but focusses on farm-level biosecurity measures and emergency disease response plans (MMAF 2014)

The CBIB standards are voluntary (Chaery 2013)(MMAF 2007). There is no reference to CBIB via the MAI website (MAI 2016). It is not known whether CBIB standards are mandatory for pokdakans, but the DGA Strategic Plan for Aquaculture states that 20,000 farmers will be CBIB certified by 2019 (DGA 2016). 

The MMAF no longer financially supports the implementation of the CBIB standards. However, recent draft legislation suggests that the MMAF is considering introducing third-party auditing under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) (MMAF 2017). Therefore, the future of the CBIB standards is unclear. 

Water Quality Management

The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.

There is no information on farm-level water quality. Water quality data for multiple sites along the Ciliwung, Cisadane, Citanduy & Citarum rivers are available from the West Java Provincial Environmental Office (DLHP 2015). The pollution status of the Ciliwung, Cisadane and Citarum rivers is also available 2007-2016 (BAPPENAS and MoEF 2018).

There is limited information on water quality for lakes and reservoirs. LIPI is constructing the Sistem Informasi Danau Indonesia (SIDI) portal, which will bring together water quality information for waterbodies in Indonesia, including multiple priority lakes. However, none of these are located in West Java (LIPI 2015). There is evidence of carrying capacity studies for floating net culture in Jatiluhur reservoir, West Java (Eko 2016)(LIPI 2010).

The Indonesian Government’s Regulation No. 82 of 2001 classifies waterbodies into four categories, with Class II & III being suitable for aquaculture (ADB 2016)(Government of Indonesia 2001)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006). Guidelines for assessing water quality have been established classifying water quality from excellent (Class A) to bad or heavily polluted (Class D) (MoE 2003).

The State Minister for Environmental Affairs’ Decree No.110/2003 contains two models to assess the carrying capacity of waterbodies (FAO 2018)(Ministry of Environment 2003)(Skonhoft 2005). It is not known whether this Decree is active or if it is applied to aquaculture planning. There is no evidence of farm-specific effluent standards.

Under the Indonesian Government’s Regulation No. 82 of 2001, the national government is responsible for cross-provincial/border water quality management. Meanwhile, the provincial, regency or city government is responsible for inter-regency/city water quality management (Government of Indonesia 2001).

The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPPEDAL), a non-ministerial body attached to the Presidency of the Republic, is responsible for various environmental issues including the coordination of the EIA process and the monitoring and management of waste discharge. In West Java, it is known as the West Java Environmental Service (Dinas Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawan Barat) or DLHP (DLHP 2018). Water quality enforcement measures are not available. 

Disease Impact and Risk Reduction

Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.

The OIE WAHIS database provides information on the number of notifiable disease outbreaks at the national level. There is no information on the occurrence of diseases known to be of concern to tilapia farming, including Streptococcosis and Francisellosis (Lusiastuti et al. 2012)(Zajdband et al. 2015).

Qualitative national information on the presence of OIE notifiable diseases and other aquatic diseases is available through the QAAD reports produced by NACA in association with the OIE and FAO (NACA et al. 2017). Diseases monitored in this report include TiLV. TiLV is currently unreported in Indonesia (NACA 2017)(NACA et al. 2017).  Indonesia does not report regularly to the QAAD report, with gaps in reporting between 2015 and 2017 (NACA et al. 2017)

Article 58 of the national government’s regulation No. 28/2017 on aquaculture calls for disease risk and hazard assessments prior to the introduction of new species or strains (Government of Indonesia 2017)

Imported animals and their products require a health certificate (Skonhoft 2005). The CKIB document includes emergency response instructions for the outbreak of OIE notifiable diseases and those identified under MMAF KEPMEN-No. 26 - KP / 2013 (MMAF 2014). Article 56 of Regulation No. 28/2017 calls for aquatic disease surveillance and alert systems, as well as disease management plans including an emergency response plan (Government of Indonesia 2017).

The threat of TiLV has led to the introduction of legislation to improve disease prevention and control at national borders and the farm-level (DGA 2017)(Kurniasih 2018)(MMAF 2007)(MMAF 2017). These include a range of anti-TiLV measures (DGA 2017)(Kurniasih 2018). A TiLV surveillance program is currently in development (Kurniasih 2018).

The MMAF is the responsible authority for aquatic animal health nationwide and the identifiable authority for enforcing disease management regulations (OIE and NACA 2013). The MMAF provide records of import and export violations from 2003 to 2013 and corrective actions from 2011 via the One Data Portal. These records are not classified by species (MMAF 2016)(MMAF 2016).

The MMAF SIDATIK website contains a range a fish quarantine and quality control guidelines at the national level, including species prohibited from entry, the total number of fish quarantine violations by type, and quarantine actions by type. Although the species concerned are not identified (MMAF 2017)

Marine Feed Ingredient Management

The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.

Major feed companies are identifiable but no information on source fisheries is available from any of the suppliers. Indonesia has one GAA BAP certified feed mill that supplies tilapia feed (PT. Indojaya Agrinusa) (GAA 2017).

Other identified national producers who produce tilapia feed include PT. Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima), Japfa and P.T. Allied Feeds Indonesia (CP Prima 2016)(Japfa 2015)(PT Japfa 2015)(PT. Allied Feeds Indonesia 2018). CP Prima have feed mills located in West Java (CP Prima 2017)(CP Prima 2018).

The Indonesian Feedmills Association outlines various feed improvement activities (GMPT, 2018). Tilapia feed produced by PT Japfa contains no fishmeal. CP produces annual sustainability reports, which outline its commitment to the improvement of source fisheries (CP 2016)(CP Prima 2017)(CP Prima 2018). CP Foods is also part of the SFP's Asian Reduction Fisheries Supply Chain Roundtable (SR), which aims to address improvements in the Asian fisheries that supply the production of fishmeal and oil for use in aquaculture feeds (SFP 2017).

Other than CP’s efforts, there is no evidence of commitments to improve the sourcing of marine feed ingredients. 

Statistics:

To see data for Production, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
No data available for Disease Reporting
No data available for Disease Reporting
Data Notes

Production data: The DGA provided provincial tilapia production data for 2009-2013 (DJPB 2014). This information does not differentiate between the types of production system. There is no information on provincial tilapia production available from the MMAF SIDATIK website (MMAF 2017)

Number of Licensed/Registered farms: The One Data Portal (Kantar Staf Presiden and BAPPENAS 2018) provides information on the number of aquaculture producers at the provincial-level from 2002-2012, but the data is not broken out by species produced (MMAF, 2016). There were over 1,100,000 producers in West Java in 2012 (MMAF 2016)

Number of notifiable disease events reported to OIE: The number of disease outbreaks is only available at the national level. There are no notifiable diseases applicable to Tilapia (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017).

Aquaculture Improvement Projects (AIPs)

No related AIPs

Certifications & Codes of Good Practice

Certified Farms

No data available
No data available

Certified Production

No data available
No data available

Data Notes

No related analysis

BACKGROUND

Ecosystem

West Java is part of the Southern Sumatra - Western Java freshwater ecosystem. The Javan side of the region consists of montane rainforests, and rainforests (Hales 2015). Water bodies include the Cisadane, Citarum, Ciliwung, and Citanduy rivers and catchment areas, Lake Cipondoh, and the Saguling, Cirata, and Jatiluhur reservoirs (Eko 2016)(Juwana et al. 2016)(Partowijoto and Hidayat 2006).

The Citarum river which flows into the Saguling reservoir is regarded as one of the world’s most heavily polluted (Juwana et al. 2010)(Kiprop 2017). West Java also includes regional water conservation areas (kawasan konservasi perairan daerah) (BAPPENAS and Ministry of Forestry 2018).

Biology of farmed stock

Tilapia production is independent of wild seed use. Typically, large operators for export markets have broodstock and hatchery facilities (Zajdband et al. 2015).  West Java accounts for around 50% of national tilapia seed production (DKP 2014).

Fish farming history

Tilapia farming began in Indonesia in the late 1960s and is now amongst the country’s most commonly farmed species (Sri Paryanti 2006). Aquaculture production of multiple species (including tilapia) increased dramatically in Indonesia from the late 1980s onwards from around 53,000 t in 1990 to 1,187,000 t in 2016 (FishStat 2006).      

The islands of Java and Sumatra dominate tilapia production with significant amounts produced in North Sulawesi and South Kalimantan (DJPB 2014)(Phillips et al. 2015)(Widiarti 2015)(Zajdband et al. 2015). Production takes place in ponds, paddy fields, cages, and floating net cages. Several varieties are produced under local names with the majority of production destined for domestic markets (Zajdband et al. 2015). A small proportion of total production is exported, primarily to the US (Widiarti 2015). Tilapia produced for export is mainly farmed in net pens in lakes or reservoirs, which accounts for around 25% of national production (Zajdband et al. 2015)

West Java is currently the top producing region with around 200,000 t in 2013 (DJPB 2014).  Around 80,000 t is produced in freshwater ponds, 53,000 t in brackish water ponds, 8,500 t in paddy fields, and 64,000 t in floating net cages (Widiarti 2015). The industry has previously suffered from fish kills in water bodies such as the Cirata reservoir due to the unchecked expansion of fish cages (Bengtson 2014).

Management Timetable

At the national level, the DGA has produced a strategic plan for aquaculture 2015-2019. At the provincial level, the regional Marine and Fisheries Office has produced a Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 (DGA 2016)(DKP 2014). Both documents will be updated for the next five-year period.

The MMAF no longer financially supports the CBIB standards. However, a draft regulation for the creation of a third-party CBIB auditing system has been proposed under the MMAF's BBP2HP Center for Fisheries Testing (LSPro) (MMAF 2017).

Stakeholders

Government

  • The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries:
    • Directorate General of Capture Fisheries
    • Directorate General of Control and Surveillance
    • Directorate General of Aquaculture - supported by 12 Technical Implementation Units (UPTs)
    • Directorate General of Marine and Fisheries Product Competiveness
    • Agency of Fish Quarantine and Fish Quality Assurance
    • Marine and Fisheries Research Affairs and Human Resources (BRSDM)
    •  Fisheries Research Center.
  • The Ministry of Environment and Forestry
  • The Ministry of Agriculture
    • General Directorate of Livestock and Animal Health
    • Agency of Agricultural Research and Development
    • Agency of Food Security
    • Agency of Food Quarantine
  • The Ministry of Trade (including the Directorate of Consumer Empowerment)
  • The Environmental Impact Management Agency
  • Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS)

Non-Governmental Organizations

  • WWF Indonesia
  • Seafood Savers

Professional organizations (National & Regional)

  • AP5I – Indonesian Fishery Product Processing & Marketing Association
  • Indonesia Fishery Industries Association
  • MPN – Indonesian Fisheries Society
  • MAI – Indonesian Aquaculture Society
  • Gabungan Pengusaha Perikanan Indonesia (Gappindo) – Fisheries Entrepreneur Association
  • SMART-Fish Indonesia
  • Gabungan Perusahaan Makanan Ternak (GPMT) - Indonesian Feedmills Association

National Research

  • Indonesian Institute for Sciences,
    • Research Center for Limnology

Government Provincial

  • Department of Fisheries and Marine West Java Province (Dinas Perikananan dan Kelautan Provinsi Jawa Barat - DKP)
    • UPTD Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources in West Java:
      • Seed Development Center Freshwater Fish (BPBIAT) - Purwakarta, Wanayasa.
      • Development Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (BPBPAT) - Subang
      • Cijengkol.
      • Center for Development of Freshwater Aquaculture Production (BPPBAT) -
      • Singaparna Tasikmalaya.
      • Seed Development Center Brackish Water Fish and Seafood (BPBIAPL) -
      • Pangandaran.
      • Brackish Water Aquaculture Development Center and the Sea (BPBAPL) – Karawang.
      • Fishing Technology Development Center & Marine (BPTPK) in Cirebon.
      • Center for Testing and Quality Development of Fisheries (BPPMHP) – Cirebon.
  • Technical Implementation Units (UPT) in West Java:
    • Freshwater Aquaculture Research Center – Bogor.
    • Center for Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (BBPBAT) – Sukabumi.
    • Loka Breeding Research and Technology Freshwater Aquaculture – Sukamandi.
  • West Java Provincial Environmental Office (Dinas Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawa Barat - DLHP) 
  • Regional Planning Development Agency (BAPPEDA)

Higher Education Institutions in West Java:

  • Bogor Agricultural Intstitut.
  • Bandung Institute of Technology.
  • University of Padjadjaran.
  • University of Indonesia 

Sources

References

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    Tilapia - Indonesia, West Java

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