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SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 8 April 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Theragra chalcogramma

SPECIES NAME(s)

Alaska pollock

COMMON NAMES

Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BS/AI) pollock, EBS pollock

Although the stock structure of Alaska pollock in the N Pacific is still not fully understood, E Bering sea pollock is treated as a single stock for management and assessment purposes (Ianelli et al. 2015; NPFMC 2017). According to a study on the genetic population structure of pollock in the North Pacific (Grant et al. (2010) In Ianelli and Barbeaux 2015), "the analyses of phenotypic and demographic population traits in pollock are more important for identifying local populations, because these variables reflect the short term environmental drivers of larval survival and recruitment. Hence, the combined results of genetic studies on pollock do not provide information that would alter the present practice of managing pollock on the scale of continental shelf regions.” The stock structure as presently considered in E Bering sea is also supported to some extent by the genetic isolation by distance (IBD) pattern along the North Pacific. However, clear evidence for genetic population structure is still lacking, and further large scale genetic studies are recommended (Ianelli, J et al. 2017)


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The Eastern Bering Sea pollock fishery is certified by the Marine Stewardship Council. Harvest policy and assessment employ many precautionary practices. TACs have generally set in line with scientific advice and catch compliance is strong. Fishing mortality has long been kept below target levels, and remains low by comparison to peer fisheries. Stock has been rebuilding since 2008, with estimated 2017 spawning biomass well above BMSY.  

Weaknesses

Despite the creation of many MPAs in Alaska EEZ waters, it is suspected that there is still some impact of pollock fishing on some benthic habitats. The conversion to a pelagic-only fishery seems to have mitigated this impact, however. Climate change effects could be of concern, particularly on pollock’s main prey item; euphausiids.  

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Alaska Pollock - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
E Bering Sea US Pacific E Bering Sea United States Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Strengths

The Eastern Bering Sea pollock fishery is certified by the Marine Stewardship Council. Harvest policy and assessment employ many precautionary practices. TACs have generally set in line with scientific advice and catch compliance is strong. Fishing mortality has long been kept below target levels, and remains low by comparison to peer fisheries. Stock has been rebuilding since 2008, with estimated 2017 spawning biomass well above BMSY.  

Weaknesses

Despite the creation of many MPAs in Alaska EEZ waters, it is suspected that there is still some impact of pollock fishing on some benthic habitats. The conversion to a pelagic-only fishery seems to have mitigated this impact, however. Climate change effects could be of concern, particularly on pollock’s main prey item; euphausiids.  

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 11 July 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 8 April 2018

An age-structured assessment model is used to evaluate Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) Pollock. The assessment is regularly reviewed by experts, and results and methods are publicly available. Although the EBS Pollock is considered the most data-rich species of the region, there are still some research needs that would contribute to better understand the stock dynamics and to support improved fisheries management; these include for example: 1) examining the spatial distribution of pollock by season, including the vertical dimension and how this impacts the availability of pollock to survey gear; 2) investigating the relationship between climate and recruitment, and 3) trophic interactions of pollock within the ecosystem; 4) conducting further large scale genetic studies to better understand the stock structure (Ianelli, J et al. 2017)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Scientific advice for this fishery incorporates multiple precautionary measures that are designed to ensure that the resource is maintained well above critical thresholds. Acceptable biological catch (ABC) levels are advised by the assessment authors based on spawning stock biomass (SSB) estimates for the projected year and involving harvest control rules with six tiers, related with the degree of information availability (NPFMC, 2016).

According to the latest information (ABC) for 2018 was set at 2,592,000 tons (based on tier 3; more conservative) resulting in a TAC of 1,364,341 tons (NPFMC 2017)).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Reference point estimates from the 2018 assessment were defined as follows: 

2017 SAFE 
B05,394,000 t
BMSY2,042,000 t
B20%1,078,800 t
FABC0.336
FOFL0.466

Biomass target reference point (Btrp) = Biomass at maximum sustainable yield (BMSY). 
Blim = B20%. Given that walleye pollock is considered a key prey of Steller sea lions, directed fishing on pollock is prohibited when spawning biomass levels are below 20% of estimated virgin biomass B0. Nonetheless, this does not change the specifications of the harvest control rule of ABC and OFL (NPFMC 2017).

Ftrp = FMSY (arithmetic mean) = FOFL.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Based on current reference points, the stock is not overfished or being subject to overfishing. Estimated spawning biomass in 2016 remains well above BMSY, at 2,042,000 tons. Fishing mortality (average Fages 3-8) has been decreasing since 2011, and remains well below the target fishing mortality (Ianelli, J et al. 2017)

TRENDS

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Throughout the modern history of the fishery (since the 1970s), pollock biomass has been dependent on a few strong year-classes. After a historical low in 2008, SSB has been increasing and has been above the target reference point since 2010. This was mainly due to the contribution of the strong 2008 year class, which in 2014 was estimated to represent 56% of the spawning stock biomass (Ianelli et al., 2014). Results from the latest stock assessment suggest  that the 2008 year-class is slightly higher than assessed before and that the 2012 year-class to be above average. Stock is near an all time high SSB (Ianelli, J et al. 2017).

Fishing mortality (F) has been well below target levels since 1980. Average F (ages 3-8) dropped sharply from around 0.32 in 1978 to a historical low (0.08) in 1987, and has since been oscillating between 0.1 and 0.3. In the late 2000s F increased due to stock declines, but since then has been decreasing due to conservative reductions in the TACs relative to maximum permissible ABC and an increase in the stock biomass (). Recently F has increased to near 2011 levels, but this value is uncertain as it is a terminal year of the assessment (Ianelli, J et al. 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Alaska pollock is captured in the groundfish fishery, which is managed by the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council through a Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The FMP is in place since 1982, is reviewed periodically, and includes a number of management measures to protect both targeted and incidentally captured species (e.g., closed seasons/areas, fishing gear restrictions such as non-pelagic trawl prohibition in the directed pollock fishery, TACs, prohibited species bycatch limits) (NPFMC 2015).

In terms of Total Allowable Catch (TAC) specifically, managers have historically kept the TACs at or below scientists’ recommended limit, the ABC. The 2018 TAC (1,364 thousand tons) was set at 53% of the ABC (2,592 thousand tons: (NPFMC 2017)). 

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Not applicable because the stock is not overfished, nor is overfishing occurring.  

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Catches in the eastern Bering Sea pollock fishery have consistently hovered within a few tons below or above the TAC (Ianelli, J et al. 2017), an indication of effective and precise catch controls. Compliance measures include onboard observers throughout the fishery, enforcement patrols, extensive port sampling, and fines for vessels caught operating in closed waters or in violation of fishing regulations. For serious violations of fishing regulations, fishing licenses may be suspended or annulled. 

Comprehensive outreach and education programs are also in place to make sure the fishing industry understands the rationale behind all regulations, in order to increase the likelihood of voluntary compliance with the regulations (NPFMC 2017). These seem to be working as removals are close to what is allotted. 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 8 April 2018

The primary protected species of concern in the Eastern Bering Sea pollock fishery is Alaska’s western population of Steller sea lion (SSL), which is listed as endangered (FWS 2012). Other protected species in the region include northern fur seals (NFS), northern right whales, sea otters, Cook Inlet Beluga whales, several species of seabirds, and some salmon (which are covered below under Other Target and Bycatch Species). 

Considerable research has been conducted to evaluate the effects of the EBS pollock fishery on the populations of western stock of Steller sea lions and northern fur seals. As there was no scientific evidence of negative impacts of the pollock fishery on the dynamics of SSL or NFS. Estimates of interactions of the pollock fishery with these and other marine mammal species are below national Potential Biological Removals (PBR). It has thus been concluded in the latest MSC assessment reports that the fishery is “unlikely to create unacceptable impacts” on these species (Rice et al. 2013; Bowen et al. 2015). 

Pollock are an important prey species for some marine mammal particularly seals. Ianelli (et al. 2016) noted that there’s been a 12% decline in St. Paul Island pup production from 2014-2016 which indicates an estimated 2.5% decline in the overall Eastern Stock fur seal population. They suggest that "Maintaining prey availability may provide better foraging opportunities for the fur seal stock to minimize further declines".  

The 2010 North Pacific Groundfish Fishery Biological Opinion resulted of the determination of the consistency of the National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA actions with the Endangered Species Act. The conclusions motivated fishing restrictions to minimize the impact of the pollock fishery (and others) on the western population of Steller sea lion, claiming that the population and the critical habitat could be compromised by fishing operations. These measures were considered to be unjustified by the Center for Independent Experts (Stewart, 2012) – hired by NMFS to guarantee scientific support and robust decision process – and the State of Alaska. Upon decision of the U.S. District Court judge, management measures still in place but an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be published in two years (from late 2012). A new EIS was published in May 2014, and included a number of alternative protection measures (e.g., fishery closures and catch limits in specific areas), and the respective expected environmental, social, and economic effects (NMFS, 2014). After analyzing each of the alternatives and the associated environmental consequences, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) concluded alternative 5 provided the most “reasonable and practical” means to avoid and mitigate any potential adverse effects of fishing (namely pollock, Atka mackerel and Pacific cod) on the key food resources of SSL populations (NMFS, 2014b). The most recent MSC (Bowen, D et al. 2017) surveillance audit confirms suggesting that “comparison of species-specific estimates with the Potential Biological Removals for marine mammal species indicates that interaction with the Pollock fishery is highly unlikely to cause serious harm”.

In terms of other groups such as seabirds, the trawl fisheries for pollock (and other species) account only for a small fraction of the total seabird bycatch in the Alaska region. The most affected seabirds by the pelagic trawl fisheries are Northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis (IUCN red list: "Least Concern"; BirdLife International 2015); the pelagic trawl fisheries accounted for 4-10% of the total estimated fulmar bycatch from 2007-2010 (Bowen et al. 2015). Several measures are in place to record and minimize seabird bycatch (NOAA undated).As cited by (Bowen, D et al. 2017) some interactions with both the endangered short-tailed albatross and the threatened Alaska breeding population of Steller’s eider are known to occur. However, a Section 7 consultation found  the impact of these interactions did not jeopardize the stocks.

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Bycatch of non-target species is considered to be small relative to the magnitude of the Bering sea pollock fishery. Bycatch of retained species in the directed pollock fishery represent less than 1% of the total Pollock catch is dominated by Pacific cod, rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole, whereas jellyfish, squid, skates and other miscellaneous fish dominate the bycatch of non-retained species (Ianelli et al. 2015). Prohibited species (e.g. halibut, herring, salmon) must generally be returned to the sea. In the most recent assessment report, it has been noted that discards of many species have decreased, and that there has a continued effort to minimize bycatch (Ianelli et al. 2016). 

Salmon bycatch in the EBS pollock fishery has been of some concern. Chinook salmon bycatch became a concern when these interactions increased in the early 2000s, with a peak in 2007. Several measures to reduce salmon bycatch went into effect since then, and since 2008 Chinook salmon bycatch in the Pollock fishery have been well below the long term average; in 2015 for example Chinook salmon bycatch in 2015 was 54% of the 2003-2015 average (Ianelli et al. 2015). Concerns over the impact of the pollock fishery on the Chinook salmon stocks have led to the creation of two conditions as part of the MSC re-assessment of the fishery (Rice et al., 2010). The two conditions were recently closed, as information available was considered sufficient to evaluate and conclude that both direct and indirect effects of the fishery on Chinook salmon populations are “highly unlikely to create unacceptable impacts” (Rice et al. 2013).   Although some concerns persist over Chinook and chum salmon bycatch, the most recent salmon genetics data is not yet available. Besides NPFMC’s regular review of Chinook salmon bycatch in the pollock fishery, Amendment 110 was submitted and approved (March 2016) to the BSAI groundfish FMP. The amendment, includes a comprehensive salmon bycatch avoidance program that, is expected to improve the management of Chinook and chum salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery (NOAA 2015c). Despite this bycatch mortality of non-Chinook salmon increased ~44% in 2016 and nearly doubles the 2013-2017 in 2017 (Ianelli et al. 2016 and (Ianelli, J et al. 2017)).

In response to a recent increase in the bycatch rates of halibut in the groundfish fisheries, the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council (NPFMC) released a Proposed Amendment 111 for the BSAI groundfish FMP in June 2015. The proposed amendment, which focused only in the halibut bycatch problem, included a number of alternatives to minimize halibut PSC mortality in the commercial groundfish fisheries. The proposed regulations to implement Amendment 111 to the FMP were released in November 2015 (NOAA 2015a) and approved in January 2016. During this same year, observed halibut mortality in the EBS pollock fishery declined by ~30% (Ianelli et al. 2016), and in 2017 is at it's lowest point of the time series (Ianelli, J et al. 2017).

HABITAT

Last updated on 8 April 2018

The Bering sea is home to a very productive and diverse ecosystem, including sensitive bottom habitats comprised of deep-water corals and sponges. There has been extensive research and monitoring to evaluate the potential impact of this and other fisheries on the bottom habitats structure and function in the Bering Sea. Most recently (2014), NOAA conducted a survey to map densities of deep-water corals, sponges, and sea whips, and document fishing gear impacts to invertebrates (Rooper et al. 2015). The study confirmed that most coral habitat occurs inside the Pribilof Canyon and along the Bering Sea slope to the west of Pribilof Canyon. With the exception of these two areas, coral densities were low even where corals occurred. Direct evidence of fishing occurred in 12.8% of the sampling sites. Proportion of observed damage was 9% for sea whips, 2.9% for corals, and 0.3% for sea sponges. Based on these results, the council concluded later that no further management action was necessary for the moment (NOAA 2015b). 

In the directed Pollock fishery in particular, regulations require use of pelagic trawls (NPFMC 2017), in order to reduce the potential for damage to sensitive seafloor habitats such as deep-water corals. According to Ianelli at al. (2015), “Habitat degradation has been minimized in this fishery by converting the industry to pelagic-gear only.”  Other available information suggests that this fishery is unlikely to pose an irreversible harm to sensitive habitats (sponges, corals, sea whips, etc.) in the Bering sea (Rice et al. 2010; Bowen et al. 2015). 

However, there are still some concerns over the potential long-term impacts of pelagic trawling in these sensitive habitats, particularly in the canyons. In 2005, the National Fisheries Marine Service (NMFS) estimated that ‘mid-water trawls’ permitted to catch pollock come in contact with the bottom 44% of the time (NMFS, 2005). Research continues to map the distribution of sensitive habitats in the Bering sea, and evaluate potential fishing impacts and needed protection measures (NOAA 2014c).  Overall however habitat impacts of pelagic trawl gear are thought to be low, especially in this fishery (Bowen, D et al. 2016)(Bowen, D et al. 2017)

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 8 April 2018

Several time and area restrictions are in place in the Bering sea region, where the Ppollock fishery operates. The Crab and Halibut Protection Zone and the Pribilof Island Habitat Conservation Area are closed to trawling at all times. There is also a year-round closure to trawling in the Nearshore Bristol Bay. The Chum Salmon Savings Area is closed to trawl gear from August 1 through August 31. Regulations implementing the FMP may include temporal and spatial closures around areas important to marine mammals and essential fish habitats (NPFMC 2017). The most recent management initiative included the designation of six known areas of skate-egg concentrations as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC). The designated areas encompass approximately 82 nautical square miles of habitat (i.e., less than 0.1 percent of the total BSAI management area ) (NOAA 2014d).   

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 6 April 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.00 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.466 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 0.00%.

As calculated for 2019 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the ABC.

The Set TAC is 1380 ('000 t). The ABC is 2470 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/ABC for this index is 56.1%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 1340 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 1350 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 99.9%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The SSB is 3870 ('000 t). The SSBmsy is 2040 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBmsy for this index is 190%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.250 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.466 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 53.6%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES
  1. The latest estimates for reference points available are extended back for comparison purposes of the whole time series of SSB.
  2. B20% is set as 20% of the latest estimate of B0 (virgin biomass), from the stock-recruitment fitted curve.
  3. FOFL is set as FMSY and is used to compute Score 5.
  4. Recommended Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) is used as a proxy for the Advised TAC.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Alaska Pollock - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 14 February 2005

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 97.5
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 93.0
Principle 3 – Management System 98.4

Certification Type: Platinum

Sources

Credits
  1. Alaska Journal of Commerce, 2012. Council asks feds for new Steller sea lion alternatives. Dec 13, 2012. [Accessed on 14th March 2013]http://www.alaskajournal.com/Alaska-Journal-of-Commerce/December-Issue-3-2012/Council-asks-feds-for-new-Steller-sea-lion-alternatives/#ixzz2NWKNpXXk
  2. Aydin et al 2009, Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation for the groundfish Resources of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Regions, Introduction, NPFMC, Nov 2009. BSAIintro_Dec_2009.pdf
  3. BirdLife International. 2015. Fulmarus glacialis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22697866A85026192. Downloaded on 30 December 2015.http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697866/0
  4. Bowen, D., J. Rice, and R. J. Trumble. 2015. MSC Final Report and Determination for Alaska Pollock – Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands. MRAG Americas, Inc. 229 pp.https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/second-reassessment-downloads-folder/20151218_FR_POL015.pdf
  5. Bowen, D., Rice, J., Trumble, R. J., 2016. MSC Public Certification Report for Alaska Pollock – Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands. MRAG Americas, Inc., January 2016. 228 pp. https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/second-reassessment-downloads-folder/20160114_PCR_POL015-rev.pdf

  6. Fabry, V.J., J. B. McClintock, J.T. Mathis, and J.M. Grebmeier, Ocean Acidification at High Latitudes: the Bellwether, Oceanography, Vol. 22, No. 4, December 2009, pp 160-171http://www.tos.org/oceanography/issues/current.html
  7. Fritz, L, K. Sweeney, C. Gudmundsen, and T. Gelatt, Survey of Adult and Juvenile Steller Sea Lions, June-July 2008, Memorandum, National Marine Mammal Lab, NMFS, Nov 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/pdf/SSLNon-Pups2008memo.pdf
  8. Ianelli, James N., Honkalehto, Taina, Barbeaux, Steve and Kotwicki, Stan, 2014. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. Chapter 1. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS REGIONS. Anchorage. p. 55-156http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2014/EBSpollock.pdf
  9. Ianelli, James N., Honkalehto, Taina, Barbeaux, Steve, Kotwicki, Stan, Aydin, Kerim and Williamson, Neal, 2011. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS REGIONS. Anchorage. p. 51-168.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2011/EBSpollock.pdf
  10. Ianelli, James N., Honkalehto, Taina, Barbeaux, Steve, Kotwicki, Stan, Aydin, Kerim and Williamson, Neal, 2012. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. Ch. Chapter 1. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS REGIONS. Anchorage. p. 51-156.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2012/EBSpollock.pdf
  11. Ianelli, James N., Honkalehto, Taina, Barbeaux, Steve, Kotwicki, Stan, Aydin, Kerim and Williamson, Neal, 2013 Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. Ch. Chapter 1. In: North Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed.) STOCK ASSESSMENT AND FISHERY EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE GROUNDFISH RESOURCES OF THE BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS REGIONS. Anchorage. p. 53-153http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/EBSpollock.pdf
  12. Ianelli J.N., Barbeaux S., Honkalehto T., Kotwicki S., Aydin K. and Williamson, N. 2010. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea, Dec. 2010. In: North Pacific Groundfish Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for 2011. Alaska Fisheries Science Center: 104phttp://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/docs/2010/EBSpollock.pdf
  13. Ianelli, J.N., S. Barbeaux, T. Honkalehto, S. Kotwicki, K. Aydin, and N. Williamson, Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea, Dec 2007 Council Draft, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, Dec. 2008 http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/docs/2007/EBSpollock.pdf
  14. Ianelli, J.N., S. Barbeaux, T. Honkalehto, S. Kotwicki, K. Aydin, and N. Williamson, Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea, Dec. 2009 Council Draft, North Pacific Fishery Management Council/NMFS, Dec. 2009 http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/stocks/assessments.htm
  15. Ianelli, J.N., S. Barbeaux, T. Honkalehto, S. Kotwicki, K. Aydin, and N. Williamson, Assessment of the Walleye Pollock Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea, Nov 2008 Council Draft, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, Nov. 2008 http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/stocks/assessments.htm
  16. Ianelli, J. N., T. Honkalehto, S. Barbeaux, and S. Kotwicki. 2015. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. Pages 53–152 in North Pacific Fishery Management Council, editor. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands regions. Anchorage.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2015/EBSpollock.pdf
  17. Ianelli, J. N., T. Honkalehto, S. Barbeaux, B. Fissel, and S. Kotwicki. 2016. Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. Pages 55-180 in North Pacific Fishery Management Council, editor. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands regions. Anchorage https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2016/EBSpollock.pdf
  18. Moreno, I.S., Dunsmore, D., Martin, J.H., Pollak, D., Pepin, J.M., Gunter, J.D. 2012. U.S. Department of Justice Environment & Natural Resources Division, Washington DC, Federal Appellees’ Response Brief, 75 pp. https://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/final/litigation/doj_appealbrief082212.pdf
  19. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2010. Endangered Species Act – Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion, 2010 North Pacific Groundfish Fishery Biological Opinion, 428 pp.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/final/biop1210_chapters.pdf
  20. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2014. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). May 2014. Juneau, Alaska.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/sslpm/eis/default.htm
  21. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2013. Federal Register Vol.78, No. 2, Thursday, January 3, 2013. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; In season Adjustment to the 2013 Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Pollock, Atka Mackerel, and Pacific Cod Total Allowable Catch Amounts. Temporary Rule. 78 FR 270. p. 270-274.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/78fr270.pdf
  22. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014a. Federal Register Vol.79, No. 42, Tuesday, March 4, 2014. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2014 and 2015 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. Final Rule. 79 FR 12108. p. 12108-12130http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/79fr12108.pdf
  23. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014b. Federal Register Vol.79, No. 126, Tuesday, July 1, 2014. Proposed Rules. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska. Proposed Rule. 79 FR 375486. p. 37486-37533http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/prules/79fr37486.pdf
  24. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2014d. Federal Register Vol.79, No. 195, Wednesday, October 8, 2014. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Habitat Areas of Particular Concern. Notice of Agency decision. 50 CFR Part 679. p. 60802-60803.https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-10-08/pdf/2014-23996.pdf

  25. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2015a. Federal Register Vol.80, No. 220, Monday, November 16, 2015. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; American Fisheries Act; Amendment 111. Proposed rule. 80 FR 71650. p. 71650-71675.https://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/80fr71650.pdf
  26. NMFS, 2012. 2011 Bering Sea Aleutian Islands Catch Report (includes CDQ; through 31-DEC-11). National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Alaska Region, Sustainable Fisheries. April 2012. 3 pp.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/2011/car110_bsai_with_cdq.pdf
  27. NMFS, 2014b. Record of Decision: Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area Final Environmental Impact Statement. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). November, 2014. 19 pp.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/sslpm/eis/eisrod1114.pdf
  28. NOAA 2015c. Federal Register Vol.81, No. 5, Monday, January 8, 2018. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Amendment 110. Proposed rule. p.897-901.https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-01-08/html/2016-00150.htm

  29. NOAA. 2014c. Canyons, Corals, and Sustainable Fishing in the Bering Sea. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Accessed on 31 December 2015. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/stories/2014/06/6_03_14faq_bering_sea_canyons.html

  30. NOAA. 2015b. October 9, 2015 Update: Council Requests Additional Information from Fisheries Scientists. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Accessed on 31 December 2015.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/News/ebs_canyon_survey.htm

  31. NOAA. undated. Regulations on Seabird Avoidance and ESA Listed Seabirds. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Alaska Regional Office. Accessed on 30 December 2015.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/pr/seabird-bycatch-regs
  32. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) , 2011. DRAFT NPFMC Recommendations for Final OFLs, ABCs, and TACs (mt) for 2012 and 2013 for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish (December 10, 2011).http://www.alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/SPECS/BSAI%20Specs_Final-1211.pdf
  33. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), 2015. Revise Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Halibut Prohibited Species Catch Limits. PUBLIC REVIEW DRAFT: Environmental Assessment/ Regulatory Impact Review/ Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for a Proposed Amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Management Area. June 2015. 446 pp. C2_BSAI_Halibut_PSC_Limits_analysis.pdf

  34. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). 2014. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. North Pacific Fishery Management Council. April 2014. 144 pp.http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/fmp/BSAI/BSAIfmp.pdf
  35. NPFMC. 2017. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. Page 146. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), Anchorage, Alaska.http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/fmp/BSAI/BSAIfmp.pdf
  36. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). 2016. Newsletter December 2016. http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/newsletters/news1216.pdf
  37. NPFMC. undated. Habitat Protections. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), Anchorage, Alaska. Accessed on 31 December 2015. http://www.npfmc.org/habitat-protections/

  38. Rice, Jake, Bowen, Don, Hanna, Susan and Blyth-Skyrme, Rob, 2012. Second Annual Surveillance Report for the Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. July 2012. 41 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20120725_BSAI_SR.pdf
  39. Rice, Jake, Bowen, Don, Hanna, Susan and Blyth-Skyrme, Rob, 2013. Third Annual Surveillance Report for the Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. July 2013. 33 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20130716_SR_BSAI_POL.pdf
  40. Rice, Jake, Bowen, Don, Hanna, Susan and Knapman, Paul, 2011. First Annual Surveillance Report for the Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Pollock Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd. July 2011. 42 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/BSAI_Pollock_Surveillance_Report_1.pdf
  41. Rice, Jake, Bowen, Don, Hanna, Susan, Blyth-Skyrme, Rob, Knapman, Paul and Hough, Andy, 2010. MSC Public Certification Report for the Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Fishery v.5. Moody Marine Ltd. December 2010. Dartmouth, Canada. 196 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/14.12.2010_BSAI_Pollock_2010_Public_Certification_Report_v2.pdf
  42. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Trumble, R. J., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report - Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Pollock Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc., July 2014. 13 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/Reassessment-downloads-1/20140724_SR_POL15.pdf
  43. Rice J, D. Bowen, S. Hanna, P Knapman, Surveillance Report, Bering Sea/Aleutian Island Pollock Fishery, Moody Marine, Marine Stewardship Council, May 2008 http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-pollock/assessment-downloads
  44. Rooper, C. M. Sigler, P. Goddard, P. Malecha, R. Towler, K. Williams, and R. Wilborn. 2015. Validation of models of the distribution of structure-forming invertebrates in the eastern Bering Sea using an underwater stereo camera. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Alaska Fisheries Science Center. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/News/Validation_of_models.pdf

  45. Stewart, B. S. 2012. Center for Independent Experts (CIE) External Independent Peer Review on the 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Federal Groundfish Fisheries and State Parallel Fisheries on listed species in Alaska, including Steller sea lions, Center for Independent Experts, 41 pp.http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/final/cie/reports/stewart0912.pdf
  46. Stram, D.L. et al, Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management, Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, Dec. 2008 http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/bycatch/default.htm
  47. US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 2012. Endangered Species Program: Steller sea-lion (Eumetopias jubatus). US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) website. last updated: January 10, 2013.http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=A0FS
References

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